Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1053
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Kiyomitsu Tomomi - - 2007
The spindle checkpoint controls mitotic progression. Checkpoint proteins are temporally recruited to kinetochores, but their docking site is unknown. We show that a human kinetochore oncoprotein, AF15q14/blinkin, a member of the Spc105/Spc7/KNL-1 family, directly links spindle checkpoint proteins BubR1 and Bub1 to kinetochores and is required for spindle checkpoint and ...
Courtheoux Thibault - - 2007
In eukaryotic cells, proper formation of the spindle is necessary for successful cell division. For faithful segregation of sister chromatids, each sister kinetochore must attach to microtubules that extend to opposite poles (chromosome bi-orientation). At the metaphase-anaphase transition, cohesion between sister chromatids is removed, and each sister chromatid is pulled ...
Compton Duane A - - 2007
Precise chromosome segregation during cell division results from the attachment of chromosomes to microtubules emanating from both poles of the spindle apparatus. The molecular machinery involved in establishing and maintaining properly oriented microtubule attachments remains murky. Some clarity is now emerging with the identification of Bod1 (Biorientation Defective 1), a ...
Porter Iain M - - 2007
We have combined the proteomic analysis of Xenopus laevis in vitro-assembled chromosomes with RNA interference and live cell imaging in HeLa cells to identify novel factors required for proper chromosome segregation. The first of these is Bod1, a protein conserved throughout metazoans that associates with a large macromolecular complex and ...
Liu Jian - - 2007
During mitosis, the condensed chromosomes undergo a series of spectacular oscillations after they are captured in an end-on manner by kinetochore microtubules (KMT) emanating from the spindle poles. Such oscillations are commonly attributed to tug-of-war-like mechanisms, where the mechanical force imbalance alone drives the chromosome movement. However, a large portion ...
Ross Malcolm - - 2008
Fibrous minerals are common in nature but asbestiform minerals are rare. The unique mineralogical characteristic common to all the asbestos minerals is their morphologic form (or habit of crystallization) as polyfilamentous fiber bundles. The individual fibrils within the bundles have a tendency to be very long with a narrow range ...
Franco Alejandro A Division of Yeast Genetics, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, - - 2007
In fission yeast centromeres cluster at the nuclear envelope in a region underlying the spindle pole body during interphase, an arrangement known as a Rabl configuration. We have identified a strain in which one pair of sister kinetochores is unclustered from the others and binds the nuclear envelope at a ...
Williams Byron - - 2007
We identified an essential kinetochore protein, Mitch, from a genetic screen in D. melanogaster. Mitch localizes to the kinetochore, and its targeting is independent of microtubules (MTs) and several other known kinetochore components. Animals carrying mutations in mitch die as late third-instar larvae; mitotic neuroblasts in larval brains exhibit high ...
Wightman Raymond - - 2007
The cortical microtubule (MT) array and its organization is important in defining the growth axes of plant cells. In roots, the MT array exhibits a net-like configuration in the division zone, and a densely-packed transverse alignment in the elongation zone. This transition is essential for anisotropic cell expansion and consequently ...
Emanuele Michael J - - 2007
For chromosomes to congress and segregate during cell division, kinetochores must form stable attachments with spindle microtubules. We find that the centrosome protein, xCep57, localizes to kinetochores and interacts with the kinetochore proteins Zwint, Mis12, and CLIP-170. Immunodepletion of xCep57 from egg extracts yields weakened and elongated bipolar spindles which ...
Schneider Gabriela - - 2007
CacyBP/SIP, originally identified as a S100A6 (calcyclin) target, was later shown to interact with some other members of the S100 family as well as with Siah-1 and Skp1 proteins. Recently, it has been shown that CacyBP/SIP is up-regulated during differentiation of cardiomyocytes. In this work we show that the level ...
Zhang Jiayin - - 2007
The accurate segregation of chromosomes in mitosis requires the stable attachment of microtubules to kinetochores. The details of this complex and dynamic process are poorly understood. In this study, we report the interaction of a kinetochore-associated mitotic checkpoint kinase, BubR1, with two microtubule plus end-associated proteins, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) ...
Martin Gary E - - 2007
GHSQC-TOCSY experiments allow sorting of proton-proton connectivity information as a function of (13)C chemical shift. GHSQC-TOCSY is a relatively insensitive 2D NMR experiment. Given two coherence transfer experiments, A --> B and A --> C, it is possible to indirectly determine B <--> C. Unsymmetrical indirect covariance processing of a ...
Li Yan - - 2007
For proper chromosome segregation, all kinetochores must achieve bipolar microtubule (MT) attachment and subsequently align at the spindle equator before anaphase onset. The MT minus end-directed motor dynein/dynactin binds kinetochores in prometaphase and has long been implicated in chromosome congression. Unfortunately, inactivation of dynein usually disturbs spindle organization, thus hampering ...
Gregan Juraj - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Accurate chromosome segregation depends on the establishment of correct-amphitelic-kinetochore orientation. Merotelic kinetochore orientation is an error that occurs when a single kinetochore attaches to microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles, a condition that hinders segregation of the kinetochore to a spindle pole in anaphase. To avoid chromosome missegregation resulting ...
Fu Guosheng - - 2007
Chromosome segregation in mitosis is orchestrated by the interaction of the kinetochore with spindle microtubules. Our recent study shows that NEK2A interacts with MAD1 at the kinetochore and possibly functions as a novel integrator of spindle checkpoint signaling. However, it is unclear how NEK2A regulates kinetochore-microtubule attachment in mitosis. Here ...
Kampa R J - - 2007
In order to determine the potential for an internervous safe zone, 20 hips from human cadavers were dissected to map out the precise pattern of innervation of the hip capsule. The results were illustrated in the form of a clock face. The reference point for measurement was the inferior acetabular ...
Franck Andrew D - - 2007
In dividing cells, kinetochores couple chromosomes to the tips of growing and shortening microtubule fibres and tension at the kinetochore-microtubule interface promotes fibre elongation. Tension-dependent microtubule fibre elongation is thought to be essential for coordinating chromosome alignment and separation, but the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown. Using optical tweezers, ...
Zhang Xin - - 2007
Chromosome congression and segregation require the proper attachment of microtubules to the two sister kinetochores. Disruption of either Aurora B kinase or the Kinesin-13 mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK) increases chromosome misalignment and missegregation due to improper kinetochore-microtubule attachments. MCAK localization and activity are regulated by Aurora B, but how Aurora ...
Van Leeuwen E - - 2007
The type III functional response has historically been associated with switching predators; when there is a choice of prey the predator favors the more abundant prey type. Although this functional response has been found in experiments where both prey densities are manipulated, in real world studies the type II functional ...
Lu I-Chen - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Surface anatomic landmarks have traditionally been used to locate the brachial plexus in the interscalene groove. Head rotation can affect the orientation of neck vessels and may possibly affect the brachial plexus. The optimal degree of head rotation has been specified for better internal jugular vein cannulation but not ...
Yukawa Shintaro - - 2007
The relationships among attachment style, self-concealment, and interpersonal distance were studied with 71 Japanese undergraduates (33 men and 38 women, ages 18 to 20 years, M = 18.7, SD= .6). Participants completed a questionnaire about Self-concealment and Attachment Styles (Secure, Anxious, and Avoidant). One week later, Interpersonal Distance, which individuals ...
Maia André F - - 2007
The spindle assembly checkpoint ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation at each cell division cycle. Previous reports have indicated that in higher eukaryotes checkpoint proteins, such as BubR1, are also implicated in chromosome congression, more specifically that BubR1 regulates chromosome-spindle attachments. Also, several studies have shown that BubR1 interacts with ...
Liu Dan - - 2007
Chromosome segregation in mitosis is orchestrated by dynamic interaction between spindle microtubules and the kinetochore, a multiprotein complex assembled onto centromeric DNA of the chromosome. Here, we show that Homo sapiens (Hs) NUF2 is required for stable kinetochore localization of centromere-associated protein E (CENP-E) in HeLa cells. HsNUF2 specifies the ...
Cimini Daniela - - 2007
Merotelic kinetochore orientation is a kinetochore-microtubule mis-attachment in which a single kinetochore binds microtubules to both spindle poles, rather than just one. Merotelic attachments occur frequently in early mitosis and can induce anaphase lagging chromosomes and aneuploidy if not corrected before anaphase onset. Merotelic kinetochore orientation does not interfere with ...
Yang Zhenye - - 2007
During mitosis, the motor molecule cytoplasmic dynein plays key direct and indirect roles in organizing microtubules (MTs) into a functional spindle. At this time, dynein is also recruited to kinetochores, but its role or roles at these organelles remain vague, partly because inhibiting dynein globally disrupts spindle assembly [1-4]. However, ...
Pouwels Jeroen - - 2007
Physical connection between the sister chromatids is mediated by the cohesin protein complex. During prophase, cohesin is removed from the chromosome arms while the centromeres remain united. Shugoshin1 (Sgo1) is required for maintenance of centromeric cohesion from prophase to the metaphase-anaphase transition. Furthermore, Sgo1 has been proposed to regulate kinetochore ...
Jaqaman K - - 2007
MOTIVATION: Kinetochores are multiprotein complexes which mediate chromosome attachment to microtubules (MTs) of the mitotic spindle. They regulate MT dynamics during chromosome segregation. Our goal is to identify groups of kinetochore proteins with similar effects on MT dynamics, revealing pathways through which kinetochore proteins transform chemical and mechanical input signals ...
Wells Derek H - - 2007
Sinorhizobium meliloti enters into a symbiotic relationship with legume host plants, providing fixed nitrogen in exchange for carbon and amino acids. In S. meliloti, exoR and the exoS-chvI two-component system regulate the biosynthesis of succinoglycan, an exopolysaccharide important for host invasion. It was previously reported that a loss-of-function mutation in ...
Liaw Yu-Cheng - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Stress-induced martensite formation with stress hysteresis that changes the elasticity and stiffness of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire influences the sliding mechanics of archwire-guided tooth movement. This in-vitro study investigated the frictional behavior of an improved superelastic Ni-Ti wire with low-stress hysteresis. METHODS: Improved superelastic Ni-Ti alloy wires (L & H ...
Zhang Dong - - 2007
Chromosomes move toward mitotic spindle poles by a Pacman-flux mechanism linked to microtubule depolymerization: chromosomes actively depolymerize attached microtubule plus ends (Pacman) while being reeled in to spindle poles by the continual poleward flow of tubulin subunits driven by minus-end depolymerization (flux). We report that Pacman-flux in Drosophila melanogaster incorporates ...
Dong Yimin - - 2007
Intricate interactions between kinetochores and microtubules are essential for the proper distribution of chromosomes during mitosis. A crucial long-standing question is how vertebrate kinetochores generate chromosome motion while maintaining attachments to the dynamic plus ends of the multiple kinetochore MTs (kMTs) in a kinetochore fibre. Here, we demonstrate that individual ...
Baron Desiree M - - 2007
Axonemal dyneins are multisubunit molecular motors that provide the driving force for flagellar motility. Dynein light chain 1 (LC1) has been well studied in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and is unique among all dynein components as the only protein known to bind directly to the catalytic motor domain of the dynein heavy ...
Noyes Jan M - - 2007
Computer use and, more specifically, the administration of tests and materials online continue to proliferate. A number of subjective, self-report workload measures exist, but the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is probably the most well known and used. The aim of this paper is to consider the ...
Schafer-Hales Katherine - - 2007
Farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTI) exhibit anticancer activity as a single agent in preclinical studies and show promise in combination with other therapeutics in clinical trials. Previous studies show that FTIs arrest cancer cells in mitosis; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. Here, we observed that treatment of ...
Chiu Chen - - 2007
The role of the external ear in sonar target localization for prey capture was studied by deflecting the tragus of six big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. The prey capture performance of the bat dropped significantly in the tragus-deflection condition, compared with baseline, control, and recovery conditions. Target localization error occurred ...
Zhang Dong - - 2007
The present study was designed to investigate the localization and function of cytoplasmic dynein (dynein) during mouse oocyte meiosis and its relationship with two major spindle checkpoint proteins, mitotic arrest-deficient (Mad) 1 and Mad2. Oocytes at various stages during the first meiosis were fixed and immunostained for dynein, Mad1, Mad2, ...
Baumann, Christoph
To investigate the requirements of mitotic, kinetochore-associated proteins for human chromosome segregation we analyzed the human Ndc80 complex, a core structural component of the outer kinetochore. The Ndc80 complex contains Hec1 and Nuf2 that interact via their N-termini and a smaller subcomplex of Spc24 and Spc25 is linked to Hec1. ...
Lameiras Sandra - - 2008
Two mini-columns partially filled with granular activated carbon (GAC) and/or a natural zeolite, covered by a bacterial biofilm of Arthrobacter viscosus, were used in a continuous flow system to remove Cr (VI) from solutions with initial concentration of 70mg/l and a working pH ranging between 4.5 and 5.5. Three different ...
Matsumura Shigeru - - 2007
Plk1, an evolutionarily conserved M phase kinase, associates with not only spindle poles but also kinetochores during prometaphase. However, the role of Plk1 at kinetochores has been poorly understood. Here we show that BubR1 mediates the action of Plk1 at kinetochores for proper chromosome alignment. Our results show that BubR1 ...
Mayr Monika I - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The accurate alignment of chromosomes at the spindle equator is fundamental for the equal distribution of the genome in mitosis and thus for the genetic integrity of eukaryotes. Although it is well established that chromosome movements are coupled to microtubule dynamics, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. RESULTS: ...
Voas Matthew G - - 2007
Saltatory conduction in myelinated axons requires organization of the nodes of Ranvier, where voltage-gated sodium channels are prominently localized [1]. Previous results indicate that alphaII-spectrin, a component of the cortical cytoskeleton [2], is enriched at the paranodes [3, 4], which flank the node of Ranvier, but alphaII-spectrin's function has not ...
Kobayashi Yasuyo - - 2007
Spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is an evolutionarily conserved surveillance system for chromosome missegregation. We isolated fission yeast Hos2, a component of the Dam1/DASH complex, as a multicopy suppressor of temperature-sensitive (ts) growth of nnf1-495 mutant that exhibits the minichromosome instability (mis) phenotype, producing lethal aneuploids without prominent mitotic delay. It ...
Schittenhelm Ralf B - - 2007
Chromosome segregation during meiosis and mitosis depends on the assembly of functional kinetochores within centromeric regions. Centromeric DNA and kinetochore proteins show surprisingly little sequence conservation despite their fundamental biological role. However, our identification in Drosophila melanogaster of the most diverged orthologs identified so far, which encode components of a ...
Janicke Marie A - - 2007
This study investigated the basis of meiosis II nondisjunction. Cold arrest induced a fraction of meiosis II crane fly spermatocytes to form (n + 1) and (n - 1) daughters during recovery. Live-cell liquid crystal polarized light microscope imaging showed nondisjunction was caused by chromosome malorientation. Whereas amphitely (sister kinetochore ...
Ashikaga Hiroshi - - 2007
We investigated whether transmural mechanics could yield insight into the transmural electrical sequence. Although the concept of transmural dispersion of repolarization has helped explain a variety of arrhythmias, its presence in vivo is still disputable. We studied the time course of transmural myofiber mechanics in the anterior left ventricle of ...
Tomonaga T - - 2007
Chromosomal instability (CIN) has been recognized as a hallmark of human cancer and is caused by continuous chromosome missegregation during mitosis. Proper chromosome segregation requires a physical connection between spindle microtubules and centromeric DNA and this attachment occurs at proteinaceous structures called kinetochore. Thus, defect in kinetochore function is a ...
Filippov A E - - 2007
A modified Tomlinson equation with fractal potential is studied. The effective potential is numerically generated and its mesoscopic structure is gradually adjusted to different scales by a number of Fourier modes. It is shown that with the change of scale the intensity of velocity-dependent damping in an effective Langevin equation ...
Sidorenko Alexander - - 2007
Responsive behavior, which is intrinsic to natural systems, is becoming a key requirement for advanced artificial materials and devices, presenting a substantial scientific and engineering challenge. We designed dynamic actuation systems by integrating high-aspect-ratio silicon nanocolumns, either free-standing or substrate-attached, with a hydrogel layer. The nanocolumns were put in motion ...
Baumann Christoph - - 2007
We identify PICH (Plk1-interacting checkpoint "helicase"), a member of the SNF2 ATPase family, as an interaction partner and substrate of Plk1. Following phosphorylation of PICH on the Cdk1 site T1063, Plk1 is recruited to PICH and controls its localization. Starting in prometaphase, PICH accumulates at kinetochores and inner centromeres. Moreover, ...
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