Search Results
Results 51 - 100 of 1053
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Halgren C C Wilhelm Johannsen Centre for Functional Genome Research, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. - - 2012
Corpus callosum abnormalities, intellectual disability, speech impairment, and autism in patients with haploinsufficiency of ARID1B. Corpus callosum abnormalities are common brain malformations with a wide clinical spectrum ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal cognitive function. The etiology is expected to be genetic in as much as 30-50% of the ...
Inagaki Akiko - - 2011
RAD18 is an ubiquitin ligase that is involved in replication damage bypass and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair processes in mitotic cells. Here, we investigated the testicular phenotype of Rad18-knockdown mice to determine the function of RAD18 in meiosis, and in particular, in the repair of meiotic DSBs induced by ...
Moshkovich Nellie - - 2011
A major role of the RNAi pathway in Schizosaccharomyces pombe is to nucleate heterochromatin, but it remains unclear whether this mechanism is conserved. To address this question in Drosophila, we performed genome-wide localization of Argonaute2 (AGO2) by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-seq in two different embryonic cell lines and found that AGO2 ...
Ohhata Tatsuya T The Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QR, United - - 2011
The noncoding Tsix RNA is an antisense repressor of Xist and regulates X inactivation in mice. Tsix is essential for preventing the inactivation of the maternally inherited X chromosome in extraembryonic lineages where imprinted X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) occurs. Here we establish an inducible Tsix expression system for investigating Tsix function ...
Lermontova Inna - - 2011
The kinetochore is a complex multiprotein structure located at centromeres and required for the proper segregation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis. An important role in kinetochore assembly and function plays the centromeric histone H3 variant (CENH3). Cell cycle stage of CENH3 deposition to centromeres varies between different organisms. We ...
Spencer Rebecca J - - 2011
In mammals, X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) equalizes X-linked gene expression between XY males and XX females and is controlled by a specialized region known as the X-inactivation center (Xic). The Xic harbors two chromatin interaction domains, one centered around the noncoding Xist gene and the other around the antisense Tsix counterpart. ...
Blinder Joshua J - - 2011
Interstitial deletion of chromosome 8p23.1 has been reported in patients with congenital heart defects, including atrial and ventricular septal defects, pulmonary stenosis, and complex cyanotic heart defects. GATA4, a zinc-finger transcription factor gene, has been localized to this region. GATA4 interacts with additional transcription factors in the embryogenesis of the ...
Nabeshima Kentaro - - 2011
During early meiotic prophase, a nucleus-wide reorganization leads to sorting of chromosomes into homologous pairs and to establishing associations between homologous chromosomes along their entire lengths. Here, we investigate global features of chromosome organization during this process, using a chromosome painting method in whole-mount Caenorhabditis elegans gonads that enables visualization ...
Lipinski Daniel M DM Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Oxford Eye Hospital Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, United - - 2011
PURPOSE. To characterize anatomically and functionally the retinal degeneration observed in a transgenic mouse line (OPN1LW-EGFP) expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a subpopulation of cone photoreceptors, and to map the location of the transgenic insertion. METHODS. An anatomic comparison of cone survival was carried out between wild type ...
Kawashima Satoshi - - 2011
The attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules from opposite spindle poles is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Kinetochore assembly requires centromere-specific nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant CenH3. However, the functional roles of the canonical histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) in chromosome segregation remain elusive. Using a library of ...
Verbakel Werner - - 2011
Nucleolar spindle associated protein (NuSAP) is a microtubule-stabilizing protein that localizes to chromosome arms and chromosome-proximal microtubules during mitosis and to the nucleus, with enrichment in the nucleoli, during interphase. The critical function of NuSAP is underscored by the finding that its depletion in HeLa cells results in various mitotic ...
Herrán Yurema - - 2011
The cohesin complex is a ring-shaped proteinaceous structure that entraps the two sister chromatids after replication until the onset of anaphase when the ring is opened by proteolytic cleavage of its α-kleisin subunit (RAD21 at mitosis and REC8 at meiosis) by separase. RAD21L is a recently identified α-kleisin that is ...
Pek Jun Wei - - 2011
During mitosis, faithful inheritance of genetic material is achieved by chromosome segregation, as mediated by the condensin I and II complexes. Failed chromosome segregation can result in neoplasm formation, infertility, and birth defects. Recently, the germ-line-specific DEAD-box RNA helicase Vasa was demonstrated to promote mitotic chromosome segregation in Drosophila by ...
Nakajima Yuko - - 2011
Dynamic microtubules facilitate chromosome arrangement before anaphase, whereas during anaphase microtubule stability assists chromosome separation. Changes in microtubule dynamics at the metaphase-anaphase transition are regulated by Cdk1. Cdk1-mediated phosphorylation of Sli15/INCENP promotes preanaphase microtubule dynamics by preventing chromosomal passenger complex (CPC; Sli15/INCENP, Bir1/Survivin, Nbl1/Borealin, Ipl1/Aurora) association with spindles. However, whether ...
Cheng Lina - - 2011
Kinetochores must continuously associate with dynamic microtubule plus ends, as they oscillate along the mitotic spindle. The molecular basis for the kinetochore to track microtubule plus ends remains unresolved. In a recent study, we have shown an essential role of the formin mDia3 in stable kinetochore microtubule attachment and metaphase ...
Olano-Marin Juanita - - 2011
To understand the mechanisms behind heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFC), it is necessary to employ large numbers of markers with known function and independently estimate the variation in inbreeding in the population. Here we genotyped 794 blue tits with 79 microsatellites that were distributed across 25 chromosomes and that were classified either ...
Fu Wenxiang - - 2011
Clathrin has been widely recognized as a pivotal player in endocytosis, in which several adaptors and accessory proteins are involved. Recent studies suggested that clathrin is also essential for cell division. Here this review mainly focuses on the clathrin-dependent mechanisms involved in spindle assembly and chromosome alignment. In mitosis, clathrin ...
Olszak Agata M - - 2011
The centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENH3 (also known as CENP-A) is considered to be an epigenetic mark for establishment and propagation of centromere identity. Pulse induction of CENH3 (Drosophila CID) in Schneider S2 cells leads to its incorporation into non-centromeric regions and generates CID islands that resist clearing from chromosome ...
Yan Yi - - 2011
Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) genes are formed, tested, and modified to yield diverse, specific, and high affinity antibody responses to antigen. The processes involved must be regulated, however, to avoid unintended damage to chromosomes. The 3' regulatory region of the Igh locus plays a major role in regulating class-switch recombination ...
De La Fuente Rabindranath - - 2011
Functional differentiation of chromatin structure is essential for the control of gene expression, nuclear architecture, and chromosome stability. Compelling evidence indicates that alterations in chromatin remodeling proteins play an important role in the pathogenesis of human disease. Among these, α-thalassemia mental retardation X-linked protein (ATRX) has recently emerged as a ...
Choy John S - - 2011
Hypoacetylated H4 is present at regional centromeres; however, its role in kinetochore function is poorly understood. We characterized H4 acetylation at point centromeres in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and determined the consequences of altered H4 acetylation on chromosome segregation. We observed low levels of tetra-acetylated and K16 acetylated histone H4 (H4K16Ac) at ...
Lermontova Inna - - 2011
The histone H3 variant (CENH3) of centromeric nucleosomes is essential for kinetochore assembly and thus for chromosome segregation in eukaryotes. The mechanism(s) that determine centromere identity, assembly and maintenance of kinetochores are still poorly understood. Whereas the role of CENH3 during mitosis has been studied in several organisms, little is ...
Kuan Long-Ching - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To investigate genomic changes in a family with deletion of X chromosome q22.3-q25 associated with normal constitutional and reproductive phenotypes. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Academic district hospital genetic laboratory. PATIENT(S): A family incidentally found to have deletion of X chromosome q22.3-q25. INTERVENTION(S): Cytogenetic analysis and array-based comparative genomic hybridization ...
Hoki Yuko - - 2011
X chromosome inactivation (X-inactivation) in female mammals is triggered by differential upregulation of the Xist gene on one of the two X chromosomes and subsequent coating of the X in cis with its non-coding transcripts. Although targeted mutation has clearly shown that Xist is essential for X-inactivation in cis, the ...
Fernández-Miranda Gonzalo - - 2011
Mitosis is controlled by multiple kinases that drive cell cycle progression and prevent chromosome mis-segregation. Aurora kinase B interacts with survivin, borealin and incenp to form the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), which is involved in the regulation of microtubule-kinetochore attachments and cytokinesis. Whereas genetic ablation of survivin, borealin or incenp ...
Shao Tian - - 2011
The successful transmission of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis relies on the establishment and subsequent release of cohesion between replicated chromatids. Cohesion is mediated by a four-subunit structural maintenance of chromosome complex, called cohesins. REC8 is a key component of this meiotic cohesion complex in most model organisms studied to ...
Banka Siddharth - - 2011
The phenotype of 15q13.3 microdeletion is variable and can be non-penetrant. Recently, "second-hit hypothesis" has been proposed as a possible explanation for some variability in recurrent microdeletion syndromes. We present a family with a 1.9 Mb 15q13.3 deletion and a novel 800 kb 16q22.1duplication. We show that the 16q22.1 duplication may be ...
Radhika Narayan - - 2011
Chronic myeloid leukaemia is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterised by a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 and thereby formation of the Philadelphia chromosome. Imatinib mesylate (STI-571) is a potent and selective inhibitor of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase and has emerged as a treatment of choice in chronic myeloid leukaemia ...
Vatolina Tatyana Yu - - 2011
[This corrects the article on p. e25960 in vol. 6.].
Kaláb Petr - - 2011
The maturation of vertebrate oocyte into haploid gamete, the egg, consists of two specialized asymmetric cell divisions with no intervening S-phase. Ran GTPase has an essential role in relaying the active role of chromosomes in their own segregation by the meiotic process. In addition to its conserved role as a ...
Malhotra Atul - - 2011
This report describes a case of a neonate presenting with many of the typical phenotypic characteristics of chromosome 3p deletion including hypertelorism, flat nasal bridge, flat philtrum, thin lips and low-set ears. The hands and feet showed post axial polydactyly, single palmar creases and rocker bottom feet. A karyotype confirmed ...
Jones Keith T - - 2011
Entry into, and passage through, the two meiotic divisions of the oocyte has to be highly coordinated to ensure proper segregation of chromosomes. This coordination ensures that the hallmark stops and starts of the meiotic process occur at the right time to prevent aneuploidy. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex is an activity ...
Goshima Gohta - - 2011
Chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis relies on the spindle and the functions of numerous microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). One of the best-studied spindle MAPs is the highly conserved TPX2, which has been reported to have characteristic intracellular dynamics and molecular activities, such as nuclear localisation in interphase, poleward movement in ...
Petty Emily - - 2011
Dosage compensation is a specialized form of gene regulation that balances sex-chromosome linked gene expression between the sexes. In C. elegans, dosage compensation is achieved by the activity of the dosage compensation complex (DCC). The DCC binds along both X chromosomes in hermaphrodites to down-regulate gene expression by half, limiting ...
Brüning-Richardson Anke - - 2011
Most information about the roles of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) and its binding partner EB1 in mitotic cells has come from siRNA studies. These suggest functions in chromosomal segregation and spindle positioning whose loss might contribute to tumourigenesis in cancers initiated by APC mutation. However, siRNA-based approaches have ...
Tanasijevic Borko - - 2011
Macrohistones (mH2As) are unusual histone variants found exclusively in vertebrate chromatin. In mice, the H2afy gene encodes two splice variants, mH2A1.1 and mH2A1.2 and a second gene, H2afy2, encodes an additional mH2A2 protein. Both mH2A isoforms have been found enriched on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in differentiated mammalian female ...
Liao Hsiao-Mei - - 2011
Chromosome translocation associated with neurodevelopmental disorders provides an opportunity to identify new disease-associated genes and gain new insight into their function. During chromosome analysis, we identified a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 1p and 12q, t(1; 12)(p32.1; q21.3), co-segregating with microcephaly, language delay, and severe psychomotor retardation in a mother and ...
Akiyoshi Bungo - - 2010
Kinetochores are macromolecular machines that couple chromosomes to dynamic microtubule tips during cell division, thereby generating force to segregate the chromosomes. Accurate segregation depends on selective stabilization of correct 'bi-oriented' kinetochore-microtubule attachments, which come under tension as the result of opposing forces exerted by microtubules. Tension is thought to stabilize ...
Lampson Michael A - - 2011
Maintaining genome integrity during cell division requires regulated interactions between chromosomes and spindle microtubules. To ensure that daughter cells inherit the correct chromosomes, the sister kinetochores must attach to opposite spindle poles. Tension across the centromere stabilizes correct attachments, whereas phosphorylation of kinetochore substrates by the conserved Ipl1/Aurora B kinase ...
Itoh Go - - 2011
Proper attachment of microtubules to kinetochores is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Here, we report a novel protein involved in kinetochore-microtubule attachment, chromosome alignment-maintaining phosphoprotein (CAMP) (C13orf8, ZNF828). CAMP is a zinc-finger protein containing three characteristic repeat motifs termed the WK, SPE, and FPE motifs. CAMP localizes to chromosomes and ...
Hua Shasha - - 2011
Mitosis is an orchestration of dynamic interaction between chromosomes and spindle microtubules by which genomic materials are equally distributed into two daughter cells. Previous studies showed that CENP-U is a constitutive centromere component essential for proper chromosome segregation. However, the precise molecular mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we identified CENP-U ...
Venkei Zsolt Z Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EH, United - - 2011
The kinetochore is a dynamic multiprotein complex assembled at the centromere in mitosis. Exactly how the structure of the kinetochore changes during mitosis and how its individual components contribute to chromosome segregation is largely unknown. Here we have focused on the contribution of the Mis12 complex to kinetochore assembly and ...
McIntosh J Richard - - 2010
The motions of mitotic chromosomes are complex and show considerable variety across species. A wealth of evidence supports the idea that microtubule-dependent motor enzymes contribute to this variation and are important both for spindle formation and for the accurate completion of chromosome segregation. Motors that walk towards the spindle pole ...
Asbury Charles L - - 2011
Climbing up a cliff while the rope unravels underneath your fingers does not sound like a well-planned adventure. Yet chromosomes face a similar challenge during each cell division. Their alignment and accurate segregation depends on staying attached to the assembling and disassembling tips of microtubule fibers. This coupling is mediated ...
Jelluma Nannette - - 2010
Mps1 kinase activity is required for proper chromosome segregation during mitosis through its involvements in microtubule-chromosome attachment error correction and the mitotic checkpoint. Mps1 dynamically exchanges on unattached kinetochores but is largely removed from kinetochores in metaphase. Here we show that Mps1 promotes its own turnover at kinetochores and that ...
Schmidt Jens C - - 2010
During mitosis, kinetochores play multiple roles to generate interactions with microtubules, and direct chromosome congression, biorientation, error correction, and anaphase segregation. However, it is unclear what changes at the kinetochore facilitate these distinct activities. Here, we describe a complex of the spindle- and kinetochore-associated protein Astrin, the small kinetochore-associated protein ...
Rumpf Cornelia - - 2010
In order to segregate chromosomes properly, the cell must prevent merotelic kinetochore attachment, an error that occurs when a single kinetochore is attached to microtubules emanating from both spindle poles. Merotelic kinetochore orientation represents a major mechanism of aneuploidy in mitotic mammalian cells and it is the primary mechanism of ...
Sardar Harjinder S - - 2010
Centromere protein CENP-E is a dimeric kinesin (Kinesin-7 family) with critical roles in mitosis, including establishment of microtubule (MT)-chromosome linkage and movement of mono-oriented chromosomes on kinetochore microtubules for proper alignment at metaphase [1-9]. We performed studies to test the hypothesis that CENP-E promotes MT elongation at the MT plus ...
Orr Bernardo - - 2011
Centromeres are specialized chromosomal domains that direct mitotic kinetochore assembly and are defined by the presence of CENP-A (CID in Drosophila) and CENP-C. While the role of CENP-A appears to be highly conserved, functional studies in different organisms suggest that the precise role of CENP-C in kinetochore assembly is still ...
Manning Amity L - - 2010
Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis requires precise coordination of various processes, such as chromosome alignment, maturation of proper kinetochore-microtubule (kMT) attachments, correction of erroneous attachments, and silencing of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). How these fundamental aspects of mitosis are coordinately and temporally regulated is poorly understood. In this study, ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >