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Results 451 - 500 of 1053
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Pouchkina-Stantcheva Natalia N - - 2004
Various spider species produce dragline silks with different mechanical properties. The primary structure of silk proteins is thought to contribute to the elasticity and strength of the fibres. Previously published work has demonstrated that the dragline silk of Euprosthenops sp. is stiffer then comparable silk of Nephila edulis, Araneus diadematus ...
Garcia-Saez Isabel - - 2004
The human kinetochore is a highly complex macromolecular structure that connects chromosomes to spindle microtubules (MTs) in order to facilitate accurate chromosome segregation. Centromere-associated protein E (CENP-E), a member of the kinesin superfamily, is an essential component of the kinetochore, since it is required to stabilize the attachment of chromosomes ...
Vigneron Suzanne - - 2004
The spindle checkpoint prevents anaphase onset until all the chromosomes have successfully attached to the spindle microtubules. The mechanisms by which unattached kinetochores trigger and transmit a primary signal are poorly understood, although it seems to be dependent at least in part, on the kinetochore localization of the different checkpoint ...
Arnason Arni - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms for football injuries are largely unknown. AIM: To describe the characteristics of injury situations in elite male football using a video-based method called football incident analysis. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: During the 1999 season, videotapes from 52 matches in the Icelandic elite football league were ...
Savoian Matthew S MS Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EH, - - 2004
Drosophila Klp67A belongs to the Kip3 subfamily of Kinesin-type microtubule catastrophe factors. In primary spermatocytes, loss of klp67A leads to defects in karyokinesis and cytokinesis. We show that these cells formed disorganised, bipolar spindles that contained increased numbers of microtubules. The kinetochore fibres were wavy and bent, whereas astral microtubules ...
Lee Marina S - - 2004
The spindle checkpoint governs the timing of anaphase separation of sister chromatids. In budding yeast, Mad1, Mad2, and Mad3 proteins are equally required for arrest in the presence of damage induced by antimicrotubule drugs or catastrophic loss of spindle structure. We find that the MAD genes are not equally required ...
Shaffer Dennis M - - 2004
Using micro-video cameras attached to the heads of 2 dogs, we examined their optical behavior while catching Frisbees. Our findings reveal that dogs use the same viewer-based navigational heuristics previously found with baseball players (i.e., maintaining the target along a linear optical trajectory, LOT, with optical speed constancy). On trials ...
Hua Chiaho - - 2004
Gantry-couch collision is a serious concern for treatment planning of the linear accelerator (linac) based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The ability to detect collision at the time of planning eliminates the need for backup plans and preserves the useful beam angles that would be deemed unsafe and discarded otherwise. Most collision-detection ...
Meraldi Patrick - - 2004
Accurate chromosome segregation relies on the precise regulation of mitotic progression. Regulation involves control over the timing of mitosis and a spindle assembly checkpoint that links anaphase onset to the completion of chromosome-microtubule attachment. In this paper, we combine live-cell imaging of HeLa cells and protein depletion by RNA interference ...
Fukagawa Tatsuo - - 2004
The centromere is a specialized region of each chromosome that is essential for faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis in eukaryotic cells. Centromeres are the site at which kinetochores are formed. The kinetochore is responsible for microtubule binding and chromosome movement. In this review, I will focus on recent ...
Sabick Michelle B - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical and anthropometric factors contributing to elbow valgus torque during pitching. Video data of 14 youth pitchers throwing fastballs were used to calculate shoulder and elbow kinematics and kinetics. Peak elbow valgus torque averaged 18 Nm and occurred just before maximal ...
Yasuda Shingo - - 2004
During mitosis, the mitotic spindle, a bipolar structure composed of microtubules (MTs) and associated motor proteins, segregates sister chromatids to daughter cells. Initially some MTs emanating from one centrosome attach to the kinetochore at the centromere of one of the duplicated chromosomes. This attachment allows rapid poleward movement of the ...
Zimmerman Sabina - - 2004
Regulation of microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) orchestrates the reorganization of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an equatorial MTOC (eMTOC) at the cell division site disassembles after cytokinesis, and multiple interphase MTOCs (iMTOCs) appear on the nucleus. Here, we show that, upon eMTOC disassembly, small satellites ...
Crotti Luciana B - - 2004
The kinetochore (centromeric DNA and associated proteins) mediates the attachment of chromosomes to the mitotic spindle apparatus and is required for faithful chromosome transmission. We established that evolutionarily conserved Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPT4, previously identified in genetic screens for defects in chromosome transmission fidelity (ctf), encodes a new structural component of ...
van Zon R - - 2004
Using recent fluctuation theorems from nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, we extend the theory for voltage fluctuations in electric circuits to power and heat fluctuations. They could be of particular relevance for the functioning of small circuits. This is done for a parallel resistor and capacitor with a constant current source for ...
Higashida Chiharu - - 2004
mDia1, a Rho effector, belongs to the Formin family of proteins, which shares the conserved tandem FH1-FH2 unit structure. Formins including mDia1 accelerate actin nucleation while interacting with actin filament fast-growing ends. Here our single-molecule imaging revealed fast directional movement of mDia1 FH1-FH2 for tens of microns in living cells. ...
Niethammer Philipp - - 2004
The spatial organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton is thought to be directed by steady-state activity gradients of diffusible regulatory molecules. We visualized such intracellular gradients by monitoring the interaction between tubulin and a regulator of microtubule dynamics, stathmin, using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor. These gradients were observed ...
Stannard Wendy - - 2004
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chronic upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms. We report the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia associated with a circular ciliary beat pattern in three siblings. This beat pattern is consistent with a ciliary transposition defect, where a peripheral microtubule doublet ...
Tzolov M - - 2004
A uniform array of a new type of heterojunction formed between carbon nanotubes and silicon is studied. The heterojunction array was controllably grown with parallel and uniform nanotubes vertically aligned to the silicon substrate using a self-organized nanopore array template. The pronounced rectifying characteristics of the heterojunction were measured with ...
Lan Weijie - - 2004
Sister kinetochores must bind microtubules in a bipolar fashion to equally segregate chromosomes during mitosis. The molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Aurora B likely promotes chromosome biorientation by regulating kinetochore-microtubule attachments. MCAK (mitotic centromere-associated kinesin) is a Kin I kinesin that can depolymerize microtubules. These two proteins both ...
Dewar Hilary - - 2004
The movement of sister chromatids to opposite spindle poles during anaphase depends on the prior capture of sister kinetochores by microtubules with opposing orientations (amphitelic attachment or bi-orientation). In addition to proteins necessary for the kinetochore-microtubule attachment, bi-orientation requires the Ipl1 (Aurora B in animal cells) protein kinase and tethering ...
Lampson Michael A - - 2004
For accurate segregation of chromosomes during cell division, microtubule fibres must attach sister kinetochores to opposite poles of the mitotic spindle (bi-orientation). Aurora kinases are linked to oncogenesis and have been implicated in the regulation of chromosome-microtubule attachments. Although loss of Aurora kinase activity causes an accumulation of mal-orientated chromosomes ...
Mochida Keiichi - - 2004
Herein, we profile the first embryonic mitosis in a hybrid of wheat and maize by using a whole-mount genomic in situ hybridization method and immunofluorescence staining with a tubulin-specific antibody. We have successfully captured the dynamics of each set of parental chromosomes in the first zygotic division of the hybrid ...
Fromherz Sylvia - - 2004
We have isolated suppressors of the deletion allele of delta-tubulin, uni3-1, in the biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The deletion of delta-tubulin produces cells that assemble zero, one or two flagella and have basal bodies composed primarily of doublet rather than triplet microtubules. Flagellar number is completely restored in the ...
Davies C T H - - 2004
The recently developed Symanzik-improved staggered-quark discretization allows unquenched lattice-QCD simulations with much smaller (and more realistic) quark masses than previously possible. To test this formalism, we compare experiment with a variety of nonperturbative calculations in QCD drawn from a restricted set of "gold-plated" quantities. We find agreement to within statistical ...
Basto Renata - - 2004
Rough Deal (Rod) and Zw10 are components of a complex required for the metazoan metaphase checkpoint and for recruitment of dynein/dynactin to the kinetochore. The Rod complex, like most classical metaphase checkpoint components, forms part of the outer domain of unattached kinetochores. Here we analyze the dynamics of a GFP-Rod ...
Herron W B - - 2004
The B chromosome polymorphism in Spanish populations of the grasshopper, Eyprepocnemis plorans (Charpentier) is ancient and widespread. Meiocytes containing B chromosomes were analyzed in our laboratory using the 3F3/2 monoclonal antibody, which binds to a kinetochore phosphoepitope whose degree of phosphorylation is sensitive to tension applied to the kinetochore. Further, ...
Fukagawa Tatsuo - - 2004
The centromere is a specialized region of the chromosome that is essential for faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis in eukaryotic cells. It is the site at which the kinetochore, the functional nucleoprotein complex responsible for microtubule binding and chromosome movement, is assembled through complex molecular mechanisms. Herein, I ...
Bernkop-Schnürch Andreas - - 2004
The derivatization of the primary amino groups of chitosan with coupling reagents bearing thiol functions leads to the formation of thiolated chitosans. So far, three types of thiolated chitosans have been generated: chitosan-cysteine conjugates, chitosan-thioglycolic acid conjugates and chitosan-4-thio-butyl-amidine conjugates. Various properties of chitosan are improved by this immobilization of ...
Wong Raymond - - 2004
Single anaphase chromosomes (in crane-fly spermatocytes) moved backwards after double irradiations with an ultraviolet light (UV) microbeam, first of the interzone and then of a kinetochore: the chromosome irradiated at the kinetochore moved backwards rapidly, across the equator and into the other half-spindle. High irradiation doses at the kinetochore were ...
Maddox Paul S - - 2004
Kinetochores are proteinaceous organelles that assemble on centromeric DNA to direct chromosome segregation in all eukaryotes. While many aspects of kinetochore function are conserved, the nature of the chromosomal domain upon which kinetochores assemble varies dramatically between different species. In monocentric eukaryotes, kinetochores assemble on a localized region of each ...
Kuroko S - - 2004
This report describes the cushion suitable for weight bearing mechanism supporting ischia and the behavior of ischia during walking. Hitachi Ltd. developed the power-assisted walking support device and the walk training machine with weight bearing mechanisms using a hip orthosis and a saddle. Because user's weight is centered on symphysis ...
Van Itallie Christina M - - 2004
Tight junctions create regulated barriers in the paracellular space between epithelial cells, including those of the airway and alveolus. Junctions vary widely throughout the body in their electrical resistance and, to some extent, in their ionic charge selectivity. Paracellular differences complement transcellular transport to define overall water, ion, and solute ...
Taylor Stephen S - - 2004
The centromere defines where on a chromosome the kinetochores assemble. Kinetochores, large protein structures, mediate chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis by performing three key functions. Firstly, kinetochores attach chromosomes to the microtubule spindle apparatus. Secondly, kinetochores co-ordinate microtubule dynamics to allow chromosomes to move along the spindle. Lastly, kinetochores ...
Bell C D - - 2004
The purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge and understandings of gene control and cell differentiation, based upon an appreciation of a possible role that nuclear microanatomy and considerations of steric symmetry might play. Metaphase sister chromatids have identical base codes but show a mirror image symmetry of ...
Maiato Helder - - 2004
Proper segregation of chromosomes during cell division is essential for the maintenance of genetic stability. During this process chromosomes must establish stable functional interactions with microtubules through the kinetochore, a specialized protein structure located on the surface of the centromeric heterochromatin. Stable attachment of kinetochores to a number of microtubules ...
Bharadwaj Rajnish - - 2004
Proper kinetochore function is essential for the accurate segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. Kinetochores provide the attachment sites for spindle microtubules and are required for the alignment of chromosomes at the metaphase plate (chromosome congression). Components of the conserved NDC80 complex are required for chromosome congression, and their disruption results ...
Kline-Smith Susan L - - 2004
The complex behavior of chromosomes during mitosis is accomplished by precise binding and highly regulated polymerization dynamics of kinetochore microtubules. Previous studies have implicated Kin Is, unique kinesins that depolymerize microtubules, in regulating chromosome positioning. We have characterized the immunofluorescence localization of centromere-bound MCAK and found that MCAK localized to ...
Wilhelm James E - - 2003
In Drosophila oocytes, precise localization of the posterior determinant, Oskar, is required for posterior patterning. This precision is accomplished by a localization-dependent translational control mechanism that ensures translation of only correctly localized oskar transcripts. Although progress has been made in identifying localization factors and translational repressors of oskar, none of ...
Dou Zhen - - 2003
Entry into mitosis is driven by signaling cascades of mitotic kinases. Our recent studies show that TTK, a kinetochore-associated protein kinase, interacts with CENP-E, a mitotic kinesin located to corona fiber of kinetochore. Using immunoelectron microscopy, here we show that TTK is present at the nuclear pore adjacent complex of ...
Uriz María-J - - 2003
Silica deposition is a fundamental process in sponges. Most sponges in the Classes Demospongiae and Hexactinellida secrete siliceous elements, which can subsequently fuse, interlock with each other, or form three-dimensional structures connected by spongin. The resulting skeletal frameworks allow sponges to grow upwards and facilitate water exchange with minimal metabolic ...
Forer Arthur - - 2003
We studied chromosome movement after kinetochore microtubules were severed. Severing a kinetochore fibre in living crane-fly spermatocytes with an ultraviolet microbeam creates a kinetochore stub, a birefringent remnant of the spindle fibre connected to the kinetochore and extending only to the edge of the irradiated region. After the irradiation, anaphase ...
Kojima Hideyuki - - 2003
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Expression and localization of human hepatocellular transporters and of radixin, cross-linking actin with some membrane transporters, may change in cholestatic liver diseases. METHODS: We investigated the uptake transporters OATP2 (SLC21A6), OATP8 (SLC21A8), and NTCP (SLC10A1), the export pumps MRP2 (ABCC2), MRP3 (ABCC3), MRP6 (ABCC6), and P-glycoproteins (ABCB1, ABCB4, ABCB11), ...
Maiato Helder H Laboratório de Genética Molecular, Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Porto, - - 2003
Maintenance of genetic stability during cell division requires binding of chromosomes to the mitotic spindle, a process that involves attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochores. This enables chromosomes to move to the metaphase plate, to satisfy the spindle checkpoint and finally to segregate during anaphase. Recent studies on the function ...
Lu Chenggang - - 2004
The microtubule-severing protein complex katanin is required for a variety of important microtubule-base morphological changes in both animals and plants. Caenorhabditis elegans katanin is encoded by the mei-1 and mei-2 genes and is required for oocyte meiotic spindle formation and must be inactivated before the first mitotic cleavage. We identified ...
Sherratt Thomas N - - 2004
Prey that are unprofitable to attack (for example, those containing noxious chemicals) frequently exhibit slower and more predictable movement than species that lack these defenses. Possible explanations for the phenomenon include a lack of selection pressure on unprofitable prey to avoid predators and active selection on unprofitable prey to advertise ...
Desai Arshad - - 2003
Segregation of the replicated genome during cell division requires kinetochores, mechanochemical organelles that assemble on mitotic chromosomes to connect them to spindle microtubules. CENP-A, a histone H3 variant, and CENP-C, a conserved structural protein, form the DNA-proximal foundation for kinetochore assembly. Using RNA interference-based genomics in Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified ...
Kim Hae-Won - - 2003
Dense fluorine (F) substituted hydroxyapatite composites with yttria-doped zirconia (Y-TZP) and/or alumina (Al(2)O(3)) were successfully fabricated without applying pressure at 1400 degrees C for 3 h. The suppression of decomposition via the formation of a fluor-hydroxyapatite (FHA) solid solution allowed the sintered body to reach full density. Such fully densified ...
Salina Davide - - 2003
Nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) and release of condensed chromosomes into the cytoplasm are key events in the early stages of mitosis in metazoans. NEBD involves the disassembly of all major structural elements of the nuclear envelope, including nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), and the dispersal of nuclear membrane components. The breakdown ...
Dammermann Alexander - - 2003
Microtubules are intrinsically polar structures. A consequence of this polarity is that the two ends of the microtubule polymer exhibit different properties. The more dynamic plus ends and the mechanisms that regulate their behavior have been the focus of much recent attention. Here, we concentrate on the dynamics and regulation ...
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