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Yaguchi Shigenori - - 2013
We measured the antioxidant contents and antioxidative activities in eight Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (MAL; FF+1A-FF+8A). The high antioxidative activity lines (FF+2A and FF+6A) showed high polyphenol accumulation. These additional chromosomes (2A and 6A) would therefore have anonymous genes related to the upregulation of polyphenol production, the antioxidative activities ...
Anjana Vaman Vs - - 2013
Abstract Oxidative stress is involved in diverse biological phenomenon and is caused by the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defense system. 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is the most critical biomarker in the estimation of ROS induced DNA damage. This investigation focuses on the effect of fibrin glue on lipid ...
Sharakhova Maria V - - 2011
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary global vector for dengue and yellow fever viruses. Sequencing of the Ae. aegypti genome has stimulated research in vector biology and insect genomics. However, the current genome assembly is highly fragmented with only ~31% of the genome being assigned to chromosomes. A lack ...
Molnár István - - 2011
This study evaluates the potential of flow cytometry for chromosome sorting in two wild diploid wheats Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their natural allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata. Flow karyotypes obtained after the analysis of DAPI-stained chromosomes were characterized and content of chromosome peaks was determined. Peaks ...
McKay L - - 2010
Chromosome translocations involving chromosome 3 have previously been associated with the development of renal cell carcinoma. In this report we describe an Ashkenazi Jewish family with a previously unreported balanced constitutional translocation (t(2;3)(q37.3;q13.2)) segregating with the development of clear cell renal carcinomata in three family members spanning two generations. We ...
Royo Hélène H Department of Stem Cell Research and Developmental Genetics, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, - - 2010
The mammalian X and Y chromosomes share little homology and are largely unsynapsed during normal meiosis. This asynapsis triggers inactivation of X- and Y-linked genes, or meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Whether MSCI is essential for male meiosis is unclear. Pachytene arrest and apoptosis is observed in mouse mutants in ...
Allard Patrick - - 2010
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a highly prevalent constituent of plastics that has been associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and an increased risk of miscarriages in humans. In mice, BPA exposure disrupts the process of meiosis; however, analysis of the affected molecular pathways is lagging and has been particularly challenging. Here ...
Shin Yong-Hyun - - 2010
Meiosis is unique to germ cells and essential for reproduction. During the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes pair, recombine, and form chiasmata. The homologues connect via axial elements and numerous transverse filaments to form the synaptonemal complex. The synaptonemal complex is a critical component for chromosome pairing, segregation, and recombination. ...
Falk Jill E JE Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, - - 2010
The faithful alignment of homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase requires the coordination of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair with large-scale chromosome reorganization. Here we identify the phosphatase PP4 (Pph3/Psy2) as a mediator of this process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In pp4 mutants, early stages of crossover repair and homology-independent pairing of ...
Golubovskaya Inna N - - 2011
During meiotic prophase homologous chromosomes find each other and pair. Then they synapse, as the linear protein core (axial element or lateral element) of each homologous chromosome is joined together by a transverse central element, forming the tripartite synaptonemal complex (SC). Ten uncloned Zea mays mutants in our collection were ...
Thomsen P D - - 2011
Mating of a babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) boar and a domestic sow (Sus scrofa) resulted in the birth of 5 live domestic pig-babirusa hybrid piglets. Chromosome analysis of one of the surviving males confirmed that they were domestic pig-babirusa hybrids by revealing the presence of a complete haploid set of 19 ...
Yanowitz Judith - - 2010
The perpetuation of most eukaryotic species requires differentiation of pluripotent progenitors into egg and sperm and subsequent fusion of these gametes to form a new zygote. Meiosis is a distinguishing feature of gamete formation as it leads to the twofold reduction in chromosome number thereby maintaining ploidy across generations. This ...
Zhu Zhihui - - 2010
Cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) are required for various cell cycle events both in mitosis and in meiosis. During the meiotic prophase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, only one CDK, Cdc28, which forms a complex with B-type cyclins, Clb5 or Clb6, promotes not only the onset of premeiotic DNA replication but also the ...
Guo Xianpu - - 2010
Potato somatic hybrids obtained by protoplast fusion between Solanum tuberosum (4x) and Solanum chacoense (2x) were investigated for genome stability and meiotic behavior associated with the pollen viability in order to elucidate the mechanism influencing the fertility of the somatic hybrids. The ploidy level detections conducted in 2004 and 2007 ...
Söllü Cem C Department of Experimental Hematology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, - - 2010
Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) have been successfully used for rational genome engineering in a variety of cell types and organisms. ZFNs consist of a non-specific FokI endonuclease domain and a specific zinc-finger DNA-binding domain. Because the catalytic domain must dimerize to become active, two ZFN subunits are typically assembled at the ...
Gong Zhiyun - - 2011
While many studies have provided significant insight into homolog pairing during meiosis, information on non-homologous pairing is much less abundant. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to investigate non-homologous pairing in haploid rice during meiosis. At pachytene, non-homologous chromosomes paired and formed synaptonemal complexes. FISH ...
St Charles Jordan J Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2010
Meiosis in triploids results in four highly aneuploid gametes because six copies of each homolog must be segregated into four meiotic products. Using DNA microarrays and other physical approaches, we examined meiotic chromosome segregation in triploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In most tetrads with four viable spores, two of the ...
Joyce Eric F - - 2010
Crossovers mediate the accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. The widely conserved pch2 gene of Drosophila melanogaster is required for a pachytene checkpoint that delays prophase progression when genes necessary for DSB repair and crossover formation are defective. However, the underlying process that the pachytene checkpoint is monitoring remains ...
Nishant K T KT Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of - - 2010
During meiosis, the Msh4-Msh5 complex is thought to stabilize single-end invasion intermediates that form during early stages of recombination and subsequently bind to Holliday junctions to facilitate crossover formation. To analyze Msh4-Msh5 function, we mutagenized 57 residues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh4 and Msh5 that are either conserved across all Msh4/5 ...
Roig Ignasi I Molecular Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, - - 2010
Accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis requires that homologous chromosomes pair and become physically connected so that they can orient properly on the meiosis I spindle. These connections are formed by homologous recombination closely integrated with the development of meiosis-specific, higher-order chromosome structures. The yeast Pch2 protein has emerged as an ...
Knight Emilie - - 2010
At the onset of meiosis, chromosomes first decondense and then condense as the process of recognition and intimate pairing occurs between homologous chromosomes. We show here that okadaic acid, a drug known to induce chromosome condensation, can be introduced into wheat interspecific hybrids prior to meiosis to induce chromosome pairing. ...
Yu Hengxiu - - 2010
Spo11 is a homolog of a subunit of archaebacterial topoisomerase, which catalyzes DNA double-strand breaks and initiates homologous chromosome recombination. In the present study, we silenced the SPO11-1 gene in rice (Oryza sativa) using RNAi. Rice plants with loss-of-function of OsSPO11-1 have no apparent growth defects during vegetative development, but ...
Chelysheva L - - 2010
Plant meiosis studies have enjoyed a fantastic boom in recent years with the use of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model not only for molecular genetics and genomics but also for cytogenetics. In this article we describe a new protocol for immunolabelling meiotic proteins that allows the detection of a large ...
Cifuentes Marta - - 2010
Allopolyploid species contain more than two sets of related chromosomes (homoeologs) that must be sorted during meiosis to ensure fertility. As polyploid species usually have multiple origins, one intriguing, yet largely underexplored, question is whether different mechanisms suppressing crossovers between homoeologs may coexist within the same polyphyletic species. We addressed ...
Leflon Martine - - 2010
Meiotic crossovers are necessary to generate balanced gametes and to increase genetic diversity. Even if crossover number is usually constrained, recent results suggest that manipulating karyotype composition could be a new way to increase crossover frequency in plants. In this study, we explored this hypothesis by analyzing the extent of ...
Hayashi Michiko M Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, - - 2010
The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a highly ordered proteinaceous structure that assembles at the interface between aligned homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase. The SC has been demonstrated to function both in stabilization of homolog pairing and in promoting the formation of interhomolog crossovers (COs). How the SC provides these functions ...
Saferali Aabida - - 2010
Meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC) occurs in the germ cells of translocation carriers and may cause meiotic arrest and infertility. We hypothesized that if bypassing meiotic checkpoints MSUC may cause epigenetic defects in sperm. We investigated the meiotic behavior of the Robertsonian translocation Rb (8.12) in mice. The unsynapsed ...
Mota-Velasco Jose C - - 2010
Oreochromis karongae, one of the "chambo" tilapia species from Lake Malawi, has a karyotype of 2n = 38, making it one of the few species investigated to differ from the typical tilapia karyotype (2n = 44). The O. karongae karyotype consists of one large subtelocentric pair of chromosomes, four medium-sized ...
Kumar Rajeev - - 2010
Meiotic recombination is initiated by the programmed induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) catalyzed by the evolutionarily conserved Spo11 protein. Studies in yeast have shown that DSB formation requires several other proteins, the role and conservation of which remain unknown. Here we show that two of these Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins, ...
Naranjo T - - 2010
In many plant species synapsis starts at, or close to, the chromosome ends and this has been considered to be related to the distal location of chiasmata. In this regard we have studied the meiotic behavior of rye chromosome pair 5R in a wheat background using fluorescence in situ hybridization. ...
Ronceret A - - 2010
Early stages of meiotic prophase are characterized by complex and dramatic chromosome dynamics. Chromosome behavior during this period is associated with several critical meiotic processes that take place at the molecular level, such as recombination and homologous chromosome recognition and pairing. Studies to characterize specific patterns of chromosome dynamics and ...
Eichinger Christian S - - 2010
Meiosis generates four haploid daughters from a diploid parental cell. Central steps of meiosis are the pairing and recombination of homologous chromosomes followed by their segregation in two rounds of cell division. Meiotic recombination is monitored by a specialized DNA damage checkpoint pathway and is guided by a unique chromosomal ...
Xie Songlin - - 2010
Two types of newly induced polyploids (neopolyploids) of Lilium hybrids were monitored for the occurrence of chromosomal rearrangements through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technique. One of the populations was obtained through crossing an allotriploid Longiflorum x Oriental hybrid (LLO) with an allotetraploid Longiflorum x Trumpet hybrid (LLTT), both of ...
Inagaki Akiko - - 2010
Chromosome pairing and synapsis during meiotic prophase requires the formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the topoisomerase-like enzyme SPO11. Chromosomes, or chromosomal regions, that lack a pairing partner, such as the largely heterologous X and Y chromosomes, show delayed meiotic DSB repair and are transcriptionally silenced. Herein, ...
Suda Koichi - - 2010
High-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1) has recently been identified as a late mediator of various kinds of acute and chronic inflammation. A method for efficiently removing HMGB1 from systemic circulation could be a promising therapy for HMGB1-mediated inflammatory diseases. It is well known that the cationic portion of HMGB1 ...
Yousafzai Faridoon K - - 2010
During meiosis, chromosome numbers are halved, leading to haploid gametes, a process that is crucial for the maintenance of a stable genome through successive generations. The process for the accurate segregation of the homologues starts in pre-meiosis as each homologue is replicated and the respective products are held together as ...
Lukaszewicz Agnieszka A Department of Chromosome Biology and Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Center for Molecular Biology, University of Vienna, Dr. Bohr Gasse 1, Vienna, - - 2010
Programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generated during meiosis to initiate homologous recombination. Various aspects of DSB formation, signaling, and repair are accomplished or governed by Mre11, a component of the MRN/MRX complex, partially in cooperation with Com1/Sae2/CtIP. We used Tetrahymena to study evolutionarily conserved and changed functions of Mre11 ...
Storlazzi Aurora A Institut de Génétique et Microbiologie, UMR 8621, Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay, - - 2010
Meiotic chromosome pairing involves not only recognition of homology but also juxtaposition of entire chromosomes in a topologically regular way. Analysis of filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora reveals that recombination proteins Mer3, Msh4, and Mlh1 play direct roles in all of these aspects, in advance of their known roles in recombination. ...
Bi Ke - - 2010
The meiotic mechanism of unisexual salamanders in the genus Ambystoma was previously explained by observing lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs). In polyploid unisexual females, a pre-meiotic endomitotic event doubles the chromosome number so that, after meiotic reduction, the mature eggs have the same ploidy as the female. It was assumed that synapses ...
Stronghill P - - 2010
A cytological comparative analysis of male meiocytes was performed for Arabidopsis wild type and the ahp2 (hop2) mutant with emphasis on ahp2's largely uncharacterized prophase I. Leptotene progression appeared normal in ahp2 meiocytes; chromosomes exhibited regular axis formation and assumed a typical polarized nuclear organization. In contrast, 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained ahp2 pachytene ...
Berchowitz Luke E - - 2010
Meiosis is a dynamic process during which chromosomes undergo condensation, pairing, crossing-over and disjunction. Stringent regulation of the distribution and quantity of meiotic crossovers is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. In humans, aberrant crossover placement and the failure to faithfully segregate meiotic chromosomes often results in severe ...
Holloway J Kim JK Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, - - 2010
Bloom's syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, cancer predisposition, and sterility. BS mutated (Blm), the gene mutated in BS patients, is one of five mammalian RecQ helicases. Although BLM has been shown to promote genome stability by assisting in the repair of DNA structures that ...
Youds Jillian L - - 2010
Meiotic crossovers (COs) are tightly regulated to ensure that COs on the same chromosome are distributed far apart (crossover interference, COI) and that at least one CO is formed per homolog pair (CO homeostasis). CO formation is controlled in part during meiotic double-strand break (DSB) creation in Caenorhabditis elegans, but ...
Lutes Aracely A - - 2010
Although bisexual reproduction has proven to be highly successful, parthenogenetic all-female populations occur frequently in certain taxa, including the whiptail lizards of the genus Aspidoscelis. Allozyme analysis revealed a high degree of fixed heterozygosity in these parthenogenetic species, supporting the view that they originated from hybridization events between related sexual ...
Khmelinskii Artem - - 2010
Karyotyping is a set of procedures, in the scope of the cytogenetics, that produces a visual representation of the 46 chromosomes observed during the metaphase step of the cellular division, called mitosis, paired and arranged in decreasing order of size. Automatic pairing of bone marrow cells is a difficult task ...
Schoenmakers Sam - - 2010
During male meiotic prophase in mammals, X and Y are in a largely unsynapsed configuration, which is thought to trigger meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). In avian species, females are ZW, and males ZZ. Although Z and W in chicken oocytes show complete, largely heterologous synapsis, they too undergo MSCI, ...
Wang Mo - - 2010
ZEP1, a transverse filament (TF) protein, is the rice (Oryza sativa) homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana ZYP1. In the Tos17-insertional zep1 mutants, homologous chromosomes align along the entire length of the chromosome, but the synaptonemal complex is not assembled in early prophase I. Crossovers are well formed, and 12 bivalents could ...
Schvarzstein Mara M Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, - - 2010
Organisms that reproduce sexually must reduce their chromosome number by half during meiosis to generate haploid gametes. To achieve this reduction in ploidy, organisms must devise strategies to couple sister chromatids so that they stay together during the first meiotic division (when homologous chromosomes separate) and then segregate away from ...
Tang Lois - - 2010
From a screen for meiotic Caenorhabditis elegans mutants based on high incidence of males, we identified a novel gene, him-19, with multiple functions in prophase of meiosis I. Mutant him-19(jf6) animals show a reduction in pairing of homologous chromosomes and subsequent bivalent formation. Consistently, synaptonemal complex formation is spatially restricted ...
Diaz M O - - 2010
The karyotypes of several individuals of Dysdera crocata C.L. Koch 1838 (Dysderidae), Ariadna boesenbergi Keyserling 1877, and Segestria ruficeps Gu?rin 1832 (Segestridae) are described. Diffuse centromeres were observed in the 3 species. D. crocata and A. boesenbergi exhibit chromosome number polymorphism, with the presence of trivalent chromosomes in the first ...
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