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Ammar M - - 2012
Background:  Psoriasis is a relapsing chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting all populations groups with a peak prevalence of 3% in northern European and Scandinavian Caucasians. Epidemiologic studies have implicated a genetic component to psoriasis. In the last 12 years multiple genome-wide linkage analyses have identified putative susceptibility loci on several ...
Zakian Virginia A - - 2012
The ends of eukaryotic chromosomes are called telomeres. This article provides a short history of telomere and telomerase research starting with the pioneering work of Muller and McClintock through the molecular era of telomere biology. These studies culminated in the 2009 Nobel Prize in Medicine. Critical findings that moved the ...
Roote John - - 2012
Targeted chromosome engineering has facilitated the development of new deletions that now cover virtually the entire genome of Drosophila, providing greater precision and resolution.
Kaplan Robert C - - 2011
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are involved in cell replication, proliferation, differentiation, protein synthesis, carbohydrate homeostasis and bone metabolism. Circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations predict anthropometric traits and risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In a genome-wide association study of 10 280 middle-aged and older ...
Barresi Vincenza - - 2010
We analyzed, by the latest high-resolution SNP arrays, 19 Normal Karyotype (NK)-AML patients at diagnosis (Dx) and remission (R) phases, to determine the number of tumor-associated copy number abnormalities (CNAs) and copy neutral-loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) regions per patient and to identify possible recurring genomic abnormalities. The number of tumor-associated ...
Luedde Tom - - 2010
Recurrent chromosomal aberrations are often observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but little is known about the functional non-coding sequences, particularly microRNAs (miRNAs), at the chromosomal breakpoints in HCC. Here we show that 22 miRNAs are often amplified or deleted in HCC. MicroRNA-151 (miR-151), a frequently amplified miRNA on 8q24.3, is ...
Gu Jian J Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1340, 1155 Pressler Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA. - - 2010
To better understand the molecular mechanisms behind esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) tumorigenesis, we used high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays to profile chromosomal aberrations at each of the four sequential progression stages, Barrett's metaplasia (BM), low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), and EAC, in 101 patients. We observed a significant trend toward ...
Smida Jan - - 2010
Osteosarcoma, the most common primary malignant tumor of the bone, is characterized by complex karyotypes with numerous structural and numerical alterations. Despite attempts to establish molecular prognostic markers at the time of diagnosis, the most accepted predictive factor remains the histologic evaluation of necrosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The present approach ...
Chang In Bok - - 2010
Allelic losses or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at many chromosomal loci have been found in the cells of meningiomas. The objective of this study was to evaluate LOH at several loci of different chromosomes (1p32, 17p13, 7q21, 7q31, and 22q13) in different grades of meningiomas. Forty surgical specimens were obtained ...
Chung Woo Chul - - 2010
The aim of this study was to determine the structural chromosomal aberrations, such as loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI), at multiple tumor suppressor gene loci in gastric epithelial neoplasia categorized by the revised Vienna classification. All tissue samples were excised by endoscopic mucosal resection. Sixty category 3 ...
Lake Sarah L - - 2010
PURPOSE: To detect deletions and loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 3 in a rare subset of fatal, disomy 3 uveal melanoma (UM), undetectable by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). METHODS: Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) with the P027 UM assay was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) whole tumor sections from ...
Rosario Carla O - - 2010
Aneuploidy is a characteristic feature of established cancers and can promote tumor development. Aneuploidy may arise directly, through unequal distribution of chromosomes into daughter cells, or indirectly, through a tetraploid intermediate. The polo family kinase Plk4/Sak is required for late mitotic progression and is haploinsufficient for tumor suppression in mice. ...
Alves Margarida - - 2010
We have identified an allelic deletion common region in the q26 region of chromosome 10 in endometrial carcinomas, which has been reported previously as a potential target of genetic alterations related to this neoplasia. An allelotyping analysis of 19 pairs of tumoral and non-tumoral samples was accomplished using seven microsatellite ...
Zhang Huakun - - 2010
To identify tumour suppressor genes (TSGs) associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on chromosome 4q using a high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, we first scanned for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 40 SNPs on chromosome 4q and discovered 2 hot regions: 4q24-26 and 4q34.3-35. We then further scanned for LOH ...
O'Keefe Christine - - 2010
Single nucleotide polymorphism arrays (SNP-A) have recently been widely applied as a powerful karyotyping tool in numerous translational cancer studies. SNP-A complements traditional metaphase cytogenetics with the unique ability to delineate a previously hidden chromosomal defect, copy neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH). Emerging data demonstrate that selected hematologic malignancies exhibit ...
Molinari Chiara - - 2010
Oligodendrogliomas are rare primary brain tumors with variable patient outcomes which are not always adequately accounted for by clinical or pathological variables. The present study evaluated the prognostic implications of chromosome 1p and 19q status in a set of 23 low grade oligodendrogliomas (OGD II), and correlated the results with ...
Castorina Sergio - - 2010
Two forms of genetic instability have been described in colorectal cancer: chromosomal instability, characterized by structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities and associated to aneuploidy; and microsatellite instability, characterized by a deficiency in the mismatch repair system that leads to slippage in microsatellites and is associated to euploidy. Thirteen colorectal cancer ...
Chen Meng - - 2009
The identification of genetic aberrations may help understand the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and has important implications in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. We applied Illumina's 317K high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays to profile chromosomal aberrations in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from 80 patients and analyzed the association of ...
Houillier Caroline - - 2010
The loss of chromosomes 1p-19q is the only prognostic molecular alteration identified in low-grade gliomas (LGGs) to date. Search for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosomes 1p, 9p, 10q, and 19q was performed in a series of 231 LGGs. Loss of chromosomes 1p-19q was strongly correlated with prolonged progression-free survival ...
Gadji Macoura - - 2009
The diagnosis and classification of diffusely infiltrative gliomas are based on their histopathological appearance; however, histopathological delineation of diffuse gliomas can be difficult because of vague and subjective histopathological criteria. Combined loss of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (denoted as 1p-/19q-) has proven to be a powerful predictor of chemotherapeutic ...
Yen Chueh-Chuan - - 2009
Five osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines, 37 OS tumors and 9 corresponding non-neoplastic samples were genotyped by Affymetrix 10 K 2.0 SNP array. Regions of high level amplification and homozygous deletion were identified and validated by quantitative PCR and FISH. Certain recurrent cytogenetic alterations were more frequent in recurrent/metastatic than in ...
Gorringe Kylie L - - 2009
Ovarian cancer is characterized by complex genetic alterations, including copy number loss and copy number-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH). These alterations are assumed to represent the "second hit" of the underlying tumor suppressor gene (TSG), however, relative to the number of LOH hotspots reported, few ovarian TSGs have been identified. ...
Tinline-Purvis Helen H CRUK-MRC Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, - - 2009
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH), a causal event in cancer and human genetic diseases, frequently encompasses multiple genetic loci and whole chromosome arms. However, the mechanisms by which such extensive LOH arises, and how it is suppressed in normal cells is poorly understood. We have developed a genetic system to investigate ...
Hanlon Katy - - 2009
Chromosome 13q deletions are common in multiple myeloma and other cancers, demonstrating the importance of this region in tumorigenesis. We used a novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based technique, digital SNP (dSNP), to identify loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosome 13q in paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsies from 22 patients with multiple ...
Krieger David - - 2010
Although deletions of cell cycle regulatory gene loci have long been reported in various malignancies, little is known regarding their relevance in pediatric T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) and T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (TALL). The current study focused on loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses of the CDKN2A/B (chromosome 9p), ATM (chromosome 11q) ...
Hanlon Katy - - 2009
Deletions of chromosome 13q14 are common in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other cancers, demonstrating the importance of this region in tumorigenesis. We report the use of two single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based techniques to determine 13q loss of heterozygosity (LOH) status in 15 patients with CLL: (i) digital SNP (dSNP), where analysis ...
Kim Na Rae - - 2009
Meningioangiomatosis (MA) is a rare lesion appearing sporadically or as a part of neurofibromatosis 2. The occurrences of meningiomas arising from MA (MA-M) have raised doubts about the traditional concept of a hamartomatous origin for MA. Cytogenetic or molecular studies on MA, with or without meningiomas, are limited because of ...
Maru Dipen M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Previous microarray expression profiling studies have shown that genes located on chromosome region 1q21-23 were down-regulated in the progression of Barrett esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma and that, among patients with the latter condition, these genes were differentially expressed between responders and nonresponders of preoperative chemoradiation therapy. It was unclear ...
Wang Jianyong - - 2009
The mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) uses the thymidine kinase (Tk) gene of the L5178Y/Tk(+/-)-3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cell line as a reporter gene to evaluate the mutagenicity of chemical and physical agents. The MLA is recommended by both the United States Food and Drug Administration and the United States Environmental Protection ...
Midorikawa Yutaka - - 2009
Early hepatocellular carcinoma (eHCC) originates from the hepatocytes of chronic liver disease and develops into classical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To identify sequential genetic changes in multistep hepatocarcinogenesis, we analyzed molecular karyotypes using oligonucleotide genotyping 50K arrays. First, 1q21.3-44 gain and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on 1p36.21-36.32 and 17p13.1-13.3 were frequently ...
Takeuchi Masao - - 2009
Aneuploidy (an abnormal number of chromosomes) is commonly observed in most human cancer cells, highlighting the need to examine chromosomal instability in tumorigenesis. Previously, the immortalized human mesenchymal stem cell line UE6E7T-3 was shown to undergo a preferential loss of one copy of chromosome 13 after prolonged culture. Here, the ...
Zhou Wen - - 2009
Allelic loss of chromosome 3p, including the 3p21.3 region, is found in 95-100% of primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biopsies, suggesting that this region should harbor some tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) closely related to NPC development. Several TSGs located at 3p21.3, such as RASSF1A, LTF and BLU, have been demonstrated to ...
Kissel Heather D - - 2009
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been shown to be a promising biomarker of cancer risk in patients with premalignant conditions. In this study we describe analytical validation in clinical biopsy samples of a SNP-based pyrosequencing panel targeting regions of LOH on chromosomes 17p and 9p including TP53 and CDKN2A tumor ...
Diogo Dorothée - - 2009
Candida albicans is a commensal and the most frequent fungal pathogen of humans. One mechanism of genetic variation in this diploid asexual yeast involves loss of heterozygosity (LOH). LOH events occur upon infection and contribute to the acquisition of antifungal resistance in patients. In contrast, little is known about the ...
Fundia Ariela F - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Malignant complications of celiac disease (CD) include carcinomas and lymphomas. The genetic basis behind cancer development in CD is not known, but acquisition of genetic abnormalities and genomic instability has been involved. The aim of this study was to explore molecular characteristics of genomic instability in CD ...
Borkosky Silvia S - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the ING family members has been shown in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) except for ING2. Like all the other members of ING family, ING2, which is located at chromosome 4q35.1, is a promising tumor suppressor gene (TSG). In this study, we ...
Broholm H - - 2008
Histological classification of gliomas is important for treatment and as a prognostic predictor, but classification by histology alone can be a challenge. Molecular genetic investigations, in particular the combined loss of the short arm of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 19 (LOH1p/19q), has become a significant predictor ...
Li Xiaohong - - 2008
Chromosome copy gain, loss, and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) involving most chromosomes have been reported in many cancers; however, less is known about chromosome instability in premalignant conditions. 17p LOH and DNA content abnormalities have been previously reported to predict progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). Here, ...
Jiang Li-Xin - - 2008
To search candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) on chromosome 4q through detecting high loss of heterozygosity (LOH) regions in sporadic colorectal carcinoma in Chinese patients. Thirteen fluorescent labeled polymorphic microsatellite markers were analyzed in 83 cases of colorectal carcinoma and matched normal tissue DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR ...
Delgado Mauricio R MR Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102, - - 2008
We take advantage of our knowledge of the neural circuitry of reward to investigate a puzzling economic phenomenon: Why do people overbid in auctions? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we observed that the social competition inherent in an auction results in a more pronounced blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response ...
Middeldorp A - - 2008
Genetic instability is known to drive colorectal carcinogenesis. Generally, a distinction is made between two types of genetic instability: chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MIN or MSI). Most CIN tumours are aneuploid, whereas MSI tumours are considered near-diploid. However, for MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) the genetic instability involved in the ...
Gunnarsson Rebeqa - - 2008
Screening for gene copy-number alterations (CNAs) has improved by applying genome-wide microarrays, where SNP arrays also allow analysis of loss of heterozygozity (LOH). We here analyzed 10 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) samples using four different high-resolution platforms: BAC arrays (32K), oligonucleotide arrays (185K, Agilent), and two SNP arrays (250K, Affymetrix ...
Fujiwara S-i - - 2008
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AILT) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (PTCL-u) are relatively frequent subtypes of T- or natural killer cell lymphoma. To characterize the structural anomalies of chromosomes associated with these disorders, we here determined chromosome copy number alterations (CNAs) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at >55,000 single nucleotide polymorphism ...
Pinheiro R F - - 2008
Deletions on chromosomes 5 and 7 are frequently seen in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is assumed that these deletions indicate loss of tumor suppressor genes on these chromosomes and until these tumor suppressor genes are identified, the functional consequences of these deletions and the molecular ...
Velasco Ana - - 2008
Inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene typically occurs in two steps, thus fulfilling Knudson hypothesis. One "hit" is frequently a point mutation or a small deletion. The other alteration is usually a large genomic loss of part of a gene, or even part of a chromosome, or the whole chromosome. ...
Yu Jingcui - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Based on the authors' data collected by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), loss at multiple loci on whole chromosome 17 is believed to be associated with sporadic gastric cancer (GC). METHODOLOGY: In this study, previous results were extended by analyzing further loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 15 loci along chromosome ...
Dobyns William B - - 2008
Polymicrogyria is a malformation of cortical development characterized by loss of the normal gyral pattern, which is replaced by many small and infolded gyri separated by shallow, partly fused sulci, and loss of middle cortical layers. The pathogenesis is unknown, yet emerging data supports the existence of several loci in ...
Kurashina Kentaro - - 2008
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) remains the major cause of cancer death in humans. Although chromosomal structural anomaly is presumed to play an important role in the carcinogenesis of CRC, chromosomal copy number alterations (CNA) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) have not yet been analyzed extensively at high resolution in CRC. Here ...
Andersen Marguerite P - - 2008
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) can be a driving force in the evolution of mitotic/somatic diploid cells, and cellular changes that increase the rate of LOH have been proposed to facilitate this process. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, spontaneous LOH occurs by a number of mechanisms including chromosome loss and reciprocal ...
Pehlivan Davut - - 2008
PURPOSE AND METHODS: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a chromosomal location indicates the presence of an inactivated tumor suppressor gene (TSG). Inactivation of TSG has a functional role in the tumorigenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Based on the recent evidences of a putative TSG on chromosome ...
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