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Widenbrant Elizabeth M - - 2007
We report an altered pattern of genetic instability for Streptomyces coelicolor when the bacterium harbored a foreign transposon, Tn4560. Deletions, amplifications, and circularizations of the linear 8.7-Mb chromosome occurred more frequently at sites adjacent to native insertion elements, notably IS1649. In contrast, deletions, amplifications, and circularizations of a wild-type strain ...
Duncan Alistair - - 2007
Artificial chromosomes (ACs) are engineered chromosomes with defined genetic contents that can function as non-integrating vectors with large carrying capacity and stability. The large carrying capacity allows the engineering of ACs with multiple copies of the same transgene, gene complexes, and to include regulatory elements necessary for the regulated expression ...
Carayanniotis George - - 2007
Among known autoantigens, thyroglobulin (Tg) is unique in its capacity to store iodine, an element provided in our daily diet. Evolutionary pressure has sculpted Tg into a large molecular scaffolding to allow organification of iodide and its incorporation into thyroid hormones. The increase in molecular size and the posttranslational modification ...
Dostie Josée - - 2007
Chromosome conformation capture (3C) is used to quantify physical DNA contacts in vivo at high resolution. 3C was first used in yeast to map the spatial chromatin organization of chromosome III, and in higher eukaryotes to demonstrate that genomic DNA elements regulate target genes by physically interacting with them. 3C ...
Brauer C A - - 2007
The objective of our study was to use decision analysis to compare four common surgical treatments for cubital tunnel syndrome: simple decompression of the cubital tunnel, medial epicondylectomy, anterior subcutaneous transposition and anterior submuscular transposition. The variables used for this decision analysis model were based on data from the literature. ...
Papaceit Montserrat - - 2007
We estimated the number of copies for the long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposable element roo in a set of long-standing Drosophila melanogaster mutation-accumulation full-sib lines and in two large laboratory populations maintained with effective population size approximately 500, all of them derived from the same isogenic origin. Estimates were based ...
Vázquez J Fernando - - 2007
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile repetitive DNA sequences that constitute a structurally dynamic component of genomes. In order to understand the dynamics of TEs it is necessary to have information about the control of transposition and its dependence of environmental factors. After a great deal of previous work on transposition ...
Ryder Edward E Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EH, United - - 2007
We describe a second-generation deficiency kit for Drosophila melanogaster composed of molecularly mapped deletions on an isogenic background, covering approximately 77% of the Release 5.1 genome. Using a previously reported collection of FRT-bearing P-element insertions, we have generated 655 new deletions and verified a set of 209 deletion-bearing fly stocks. ...
Jones R Neil - - 2008
Supernumerary B chromosomes (Bs) are a major source of intraspecific variation in nuclear DNA amounts in numerous species of plants. They favour large genomes, and create polymorphisms for DNA variation in natural populations. By studying Bs we can gain useful knowledge about the organization, function and evolution of genomes. There ...
Simmons Michael J - - 2007
P elements inserted at the left telomere of the X chromosome evoke the P cytotype, a maternally inherited condition that regulates the P-element family in the Drosophila germline. This regulation is completely disrupted in stocks heterozygous for mutations in aubergine, a gene whose protein product is involved in RNA interference. ...
Drew Horace R - - 2007
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) undergoes preferential Rep-mediated integration into the AAVS1 region of human chromosome 19 during latent infection, at least in highly-selected cell cultures. However, integration at the level of the whole eukaryotic genome in unselected cells has not yet been monitored for AAV as it has been for retro- ...
van den Hurk José A J M - - 2007
L1 elements are autonomous retrotransposons that can cause hereditary diseases. We have previously identified a full-length L1 insertion in the CHM (choroideremia) gene of a patient with choroideremia, an X-linked progressive eye disease. Because this L1 element, designated L1(CHM), contains two 3'-transductions, we were able to delineate a retrotransposition path ...
Abazov V M - - 2007
The D0 Collaboration presents first evidence for the production of single top quarks at the Fermilab Tevatron pp[over ] collider. Using a 0.9 fb(-1) dataset, we apply a multivariate analysis to separate signal from background and measure sigma(pp[over ]-->tb+X,tqb+X)=4.9+/-1.4 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value ...
Ferris Julie A - - 2007
Spring development of diatoms in Ford Lake, Michigan, USA was markedly different in 2004 from 2005 and 2006. In 2004, diatom biovolume surpassed 15 mm(3)l(-1) but in 2005 and 2006 maximum biovolume was less than 5 mm(3)l(-1). Soluble reactive silica (SRSi) in 2004 fell below 5 microM whereas in 2005 ...
Ivics Zoltán - - 2007
Transposons are natural gene delivery vehicles. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon shows efficient transposition and long-term transgene expression in the cells of vertebrates including humans. SB transposition into chromosomal DNA occurs in a fairly random manner. This is clearly not desirable in human gene therapeutic applications because there are potential ...
Yoon Young Soo - - 2007
Transcriptional insulators are specialized cis-acting elements that protect promoters from inappropriate activation by distal enhancers. The H19 imprinting control region (ICR) functions as a CTCF-dependent, methylation-sensitive transcriptional insulator. We analyzed several insertional mutations and demonstrate that the ICR can function as a methylation-regulated maternal chromosome-specific insulator in novel chromosomal contexts. ...
Athanasiadis Georgios - - 2007
Alu elements are the most abundant mobile elements in the human genome (approximately 1,100,000 copies). Polymorphic Alu elements have been proved to be useful in studies of human origins and relationships owing to two important advantages: identity by descent and absence of the Alu element known to be the ancestral ...
Ambrogelly Alexandre - - 2007
Pyrrolysine (Pyl), the 22nd naturally encoded amino acid, gets acylated to its distinctive UAG suppressor tRNA(Pyl) by the cognate pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS). Here we determine the RNA elements required for recognition and aminoacylation of tRNA(Pyl) in vivo by using the Pyl analog N-epsilon-cyclopentyloxycarbonyl-l-lysine. Forty-two Methanosarcina barkeri tRNA(Pyl) variants were tested ...
Hanssen Anne-Merethe - - 2007
We investigated the nature of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements and cognate insertion sites in a collection of 42 clinical staphylococcal isolates of various species from Norway. The ccr and mec genes and the attachment sites (attL/attR) were identified by PCR, Southern blot hybridization, and DNA sequencing. We ...
Sanogo Y O - - 2007
Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say and Culex pipiens pipiens Linnaeus are sibling species incriminated as important vectors of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases worldwide. The two forms differ little morphologically and are differentiated mainly based upon ecological, behavioural, physiological and genetic traits. Within the North American zone of sympatry, populations of ...
Ng S Y - - 2007
There may be a role for single-use laryngeal mask airways with concerns about inability to adequately sterilise laryngeal mask airways to eradicate prion proteins. A single-blinded prospective randomised controlled trial was conducted to compare the clinical performance of the single-use AMBU LMA with the reuseable LMA Classic. There was no ...
Boulin Thomas - - 2007
We describe a protocol for mutating genes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans using the Mos1 transposon of Drosophila mauritiana. Mutated genes containing a Mos1 insertion are molecularly tagged by this heterologous transposable element. Mos1 insertions can therefore be identified in as little as 3 weeks using only basic molecular biology ...
Boulesteix M - - 2007
The insertion polymorphism of five transposable element (TE) families was studied by Southern blots in several populations of the M and S molecular forms of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto from southern Cameroon. We showed that the mean TE insertion site number and the within-population insertion site polymorphism globally ...
Bensch Michael - - 2007
We have previously demonstrated that an EEG-controlled web browser based on self-regulation of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) enables severely paralyzed patients to browse the internet independently of any voluntary muscle control. However, this system had several shortcomings, among them that patients could only browse within a limited number of web ...
Lamb Jonathan C - - 2007
Dispensable chromosomes in addition to the normal complement in diverse taxa are called B chromosomes. The maize B chromosome is discernible in mitotic chromosome spreads as a small compact chromosome composed mainly of heterochromatin. Although much of this chromosome consists of repetitive elements common to the A chromosomes, several sequences ...
Yudkin D V - - 2007
B chromosomes are often considered to be one of the most mysterious elements of karyotypes (Camacho, 2004). It is generally believed that mammalian B chromosomes do not contain any protein coding genes. The discovery of a conserved KIT gene in Canidae B chromosomes has changed this view. Here we performed ...
Campos S R C - - 2007
The drosophilid Zaprionus indianus due to its economical importance as an insect pest in Brazil deserves more investigation into its genetics. Its mitotic karyotype and a line-drawing map of its polytene chromosomes are already available. This paper presents a photomap of Z. indianus polytene chromosomes, which was used as the ...
Lamb Jonathan C - - 2007
The majority of genomic DNA in most plant species is made up of repetitive elements including satellites and retrotransposons. The maize genome is intermediate in size and abundance of repetitive elements between small genomes such as Arabidopsis and rice and larger genomes such as wheat. Although repetitive elements are present ...
Huh Jae-Won - - 2006
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) contribute to various kinds of genomic instability via rearrangement and retrotransposition events. In the present study the formation of a new human-specific solo-LTR belonging to the HERV-H family (AP001667; chromosome 21q21) was detected by a comparative analysis of human chromosome 21 and chimpanzee chromosome 22. The ...
Rodríguez María Margarita - - 2007
This study characterised the genetic environment of the chromosomally encoded bla(KLUA-9) gene from a clinical Kluyvera ascorbata isolate and performed a kinetic characterisation of KLUA-9. Purified KLUA-9 showed the highest catalytic efficacies towards benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, piperacillin, first-generation cephalosporins, cefuroxime and cefoperazone; like other 'cefotaximases', it showed a much higher rate ...
Robert Valérie - - 2007
The Drosophila element Mos1 is a class II transposon, which moves by a 'cut-and-paste' mechanism and can be experimentally mobilized in the Caenorhabditis elegans germ line. Here, we triggered the excision of identified Mos1 insertions to create chromosomal breaks at given sites and further manipulate the broken loci. Double-strand break ...
De La Fuente Rabindranath - - 2006
Lymphoid specific helicase (Lsh) is a major epigenetic regulator that is essential for DNA methylation and transcriptional silencing of parasitic elements in the mammalian genome. However, whether Lsh is involved in the regulation of chromatin-mediated processes during meiosis is not known. Here, we show that Lsh is essential for the ...
Kuttler Fabien - - 2007
Extrachromosomal elements (EEs) were first discovered as minute chromatin bodies [Cox et al. Minute chromatin bodies in malignant tumors of childhood. Lancet 1965;62:55-8], and subsequently characterized as small circular DNA molecules physically separated from chromosomes. They include episomes, minichromosomes, small polydispersed DNAs or double minutes. This review focuses on eukaryotic ...
Yu Weichang - - 2007
Global genomic analysis of transposable element distributions of both natural (En/Spm, Ac-Ds, and MuDR/Mu) and modified (RescueMu) types was performed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on somatic chromosomes coupled with karyotyping of each chromosome. In lines without an active transposable element, the locations of silent En/Spm, Ac-Ds, and MuDR/Mu ...
Kendal Wayne S - - 2007
The local density of gene structures and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) along human chromosomes appears inhomogeneous. In chromosome 1, the density patterns from both these elements are shown here to exhibit similar scale invariant clustering, as well as long-ranged and scale invariant auto- and cross-correlations. The local densities of these ...
Hee Hwan T - - 2006
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical study in human cadaveric thoracic spines. OBJECTIVE: To compare the insertion torque profile of cylindrical and conical screws with normal insertion tract, and with violation of the pedicle. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies revealed higher insertion torque for conical screws. No study has investigated the torque ...
Martin Fernando - - 2006
Enhancer trap P-element insertion has become a common method for generating new mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. When this method is used to isolate mutants for quantitative traits, an appropriate control must be established to define normal and mutant phenotypes. Considering that enhancer-trap lines are generated by crossing several strains, usually ...
Alonso-González Lucía - - 2006
Two sets of mutation accumulation lines, one reared at 28 degrees C and the other at 24 degrees C, were compared for their transposition and rearrangement rates of eleven transposable element families. The changes affecting mobile elements were analysed by the Southern technique and in situ hybridization. No differences were ...
Genka Hiroyuki - - 2006
DNA fragments containing argK-tox clusters and their flanking regions were cloned from the chromosomes of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar (pv.) actinidiae strain KW-11 (ACT) and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola strain MAFF 302282 (PHA), and then their sequences were determined. Comparative analysis of these sequences and the sequences of P. syringae pv. ...
Geurts Aron M - - 2006
Previous studies of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system, as an insertional mutagen in the germline of mice, have used reverse genetic approaches. These studies have led to its proposed use for regional saturation mutagenesis by taking a forward-genetic approach. Thus, we used the SB system to mutate a region ...
McNally Lacey R - - 2006
Transgenic avian bioreactors produce therapeutic recombinant proteins in egg white. To date, however, methods for transgenic modification of the avian genome or determining transgenic status of individual birds are scarce. The dual, but interrelated, goals of this research were to: (1) develop a method of detecting stable DNA insertion into ...
Golubovskaya Inna N - - 2006
REC8 is a master regulator of chromatin structure and function during meiosis. Here, we dissected the functions of absence of first division (afd1), a maize rec8/alpha-kleisin homolog, using a unique afd1 allelic series. The first observable defect in afd1 mutants is the inability to make a leptotene chromosome. AFD1 protein ...
McBride Alison A - - 2006
Papillomavirus infections are long-lived and persistent. The circular DNA of the viral genome is maintained in dividing epithelial cells as an extrachromosomal element. The E2 protein of the virus binds to the viral genome and tethers it to mitotic chromosomes to ensure that the genome is retained and faithfully partitioned ...
Casals Ferran - - 2006
The abundance and chromosomal distribution of six class-II transposable elements (TEs) of Drosophila buzzatii have been analyzed by Southern blotting and in situ hybridization. These six transposons had been previously found at the breakpoints of inversions 2j and 2q ( 7 ) of D. buzzatii. These two polymorphic inversions were ...
Veneziano V - - 2006
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be used to make transect sampling when non-moving objects are to be counted, involving choosing a line or series of lines along which the counts are to take place. This approach has been used by us in order to study canine faecal contamination in the ...
Cardelli Maurizio - - 2006
The uneven distribution of Alu repetitive elements in the human genome is related to specific functional properties of genomic regions. We report the identification of a locus associated with human longevity in one of the chromosomal regions with the highest density of Alu elements, in 1p35. The locus, corresponding to ...
Kim Kwang-Seo - - 2006
The AMT4 locus of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which we mapped to the long arm of chromosome 8, provides a good experimental system for the study of transposition. Most mutations that confer resistance to the toxic ammonium analog methylammonium are in AMT4 and a high proportion of spontaneous mutations ...
Meeuwig Michael H - - 2006
The effectiveness of morphometric and meristic characteristics for taxonomic discrimination of Lampetra tridentata and L. richardsoni (Petromyzonidae) during embryological, prolarval, and early larval stages (i.e., age class 1) were examined. Mean chorion diameter increased with time from fertilization to hatch and was significantly greater for L. tridentata than for L. ...
Miele Adriana - - 2006
Chromosome conformation capture (3C) is one of the only techniques that allows for analysis of an intermediate level of chromosome structure ranging from a few to hundreds of kilobases, a level most relevant for gene regulation. The 3C technique is used to detect physical interactions between sequence elements that are ...
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