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Jordanova Albena - - 2002
Spinal muscular atrophy is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders, classified into three major clinical forms. It is caused mainly by deletions or gene conversions of the telomeric survival motor neuron gene (SMN1) on human chromosome 5. We have conducted molecular studies of the disorder in genetically isolated ...
Vielhaber Stefan - - 2002
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is associated with the deletion of a variable number of 3.3-kb subunits of a tandemly arranged repeat (D4Z4) on chromosome 4q35. EcoRI/BlnI fragments in the range of 10-35 kb are currently defined as disease-associated. Diagnosis of FSHD is frequently complicated by interchromosomal exchange with a homologous ...
Ulbrich Michael - - 2002
The autosomal recessive mutation wobbler of the mouse (phenotype WR; genotype wr/wr) causes muscular atrophy due to motoneuron degeneration with 100% penetrance on the standard Mus musculus laboratorius C57BL/6J background. In inter- and backcrosses with M. m. castaneus strain CAST/EI we have observed a variability in the severity of neurological ...
Upadhyaya Meena - - 2002
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is the third most common inherited neuromuscular disorder after Duchenne muscular dystrophy and myotonic dystrophy. The gene underlying FSHD was mapped to chromosome 4q35 in 1990 and was shown to be closely linked to locus D4F104S1. Although D4F104S1-associated deletions are closely associated with FSHD, the identity ...
Eichers Erica R - - 2002
Some isolated populations exhibit an increased prevalence of rare recessive diseases. The island of Newfoundland is a characteristic geographic isolate, settled by a small number of families primarily during the late 1700s and early 1800s. During our studies of this population, we identified a group of families exhibiting a retinal ...
van Geel Michel - - 2002
The subtelomeric region of human chromosome 4q contains the locus for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). The FSHD mutation is a deletion within an array of 3.3-kb tandem repeats (D4Z4). The disease mechanism is unknown but is postulated to involve position effect. A closely related 3.3-kb array on chromosome 10qter, in ...
Garvey Sean M - - 2002
Muscular dystrophy with myositis (mdm) is a recessive mouse mutation that causes severe and progressive muscular degeneration. Here we report the identification of the mdm mutation as a complex rearrangement that includes a deletion and a LINE insertion in the titin (Ttn) gene. Mutant allele-specific splicing results in the deletion ...
De Angelis M V - - 2002
Distal spinal muscular atrophy is genetically heterogeneous, as sporadic cases and both autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance have been described. An autosomal dominant distal spinal muscular atrophy with upper limb predominance has been mapped to chromosome 7p, and more recently, an autosomal dominant distal spinal muscular atrophy with lower limb ...
Fanning James - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the amount of tissue removed at loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) vs. cold knife conization. STUDY DESIGN: Forty consecutive LEEP or cold knife conization specimens were prospectively measured and weighed by a single pathology technician. Diameter, length and weight of the specimens were compared using Student's ...
Porto F B - - 2001
PURPOSE: To report a late-onset cone-rod dystrophy that revealed a familial neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa syndrome as a consequence of the T8993G mitochondrial mutation. METHODS: Observational case series. A 42-year-old female disclosed a late-onset retinal dystrophy. The family history revealed that her three sons, one of them ...
Morris G E - - 2001
The X-linked form of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (X-EDMD) is caused by absence, or greatly reduced amounts, of the inner nuclear-membrane protein, emerin. The autosomal dominant form (AD-EDMD) is caused by missense mutations in lamins A and C, two components of the nuclear lamina that interact directly with emerin. Lamin A/C ...
Lemmers RJL - - 2001
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is caused by partial deletion of the D4Z4 repeat array on chromosome 4q35. Genetic diagnosis is based on sizing of this repeat array, which is complicated by cross-hybridization of a homologous polymorphic repeat array on chromosome 10 and by the frequent exchanges between these chromosomal regions. The ...
Brockington M - - 2001
The congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders presenting in infancy with muscle weakness, contractures, and dystrophic changes on skeletal-muscle biopsy. Structural brain defects, with or without mental retardation, are additional features of several CMD syndromes. Approximately 40% of patients with CMD have a primary ...
Udd B - - 2001
Distal myopathies are frequently encountered in the Nordic countries, and are now being increasingly recognized elsewhere. Three new descriptions of distal myopathy phenotypes have been published in the past year. At the same time there has been considerable progress in molecular genetics and in understanding the molecular pathophysiology underlying distal ...
Daniels G - - 2001
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe neurodegenerative autosomal recessive disorder, second only in frequency to cystic fibrosis. In its most severe form, SMA type I (Werdnig-Hoffman), death invariably ensues before age 2 years from respiratory failure or infection. Around 98% of clinical cases of SMA are caused by the ...
Tim R W - - 2001
To characterize clinically and molecularly a large, non-chromosome 4-linked facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHMD) family. Neurological evaluations of affected (N = 55) and at-risk (N = 48) individuals were performed along with selected laboratory analyses, including creatine kinase testing, muscle biopsy, p13E-11 fragment analysis, and cytogenetic studies. Genetic analyses of the ...
Dean N L - - 2001
Preimplantation genetic diagnoses (PGD) for single gene defects require considerable time and resources for the standardization of polymerase chain reactions that are rapid, sensitive and reliable. Developing tests for the trinucleotide repeat diseases, where the expansion of unstable repeats produces the phenotypes, are particularly complex. One of these disorders is ...
Yamanaka G - - 2001
Involvement of the lingual muscle is considered one of the exclusion criteria of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). In a series of 151 Japanese patients with 4q35-FSHD, seven patients (4.6%) had tongue atrophy with abnormal MRI findings and typical myogenic patterns of electromyography. All seven patients belong to a group of ...
De Repentigny Y - - 2001
Here, we describe a novel spontaneous autosomal recessive mutation in the mouse that is characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration. We have named this mutant degenerating muscle (dmu). At birth, mutant mice are indistinguishable from their normal littermates. Thereafter, the disease progresses rapidly and a phenotype is first observed ...
Diep Tran T - - 2001
Spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with progressive weakness and atrophy of voluntary muscles. The survival motor neuron gene (SMN) is present in two highly homologous copies (SMN1 and SMN2) on chromosome 5q13. Homozygous deletion of exons 7 and 8 of SMN1 is responsible for spinal muscular ...
Kirby R J - - 2001
SIX5 belongs to a family of highly conserved homeodomain transcription factors implicated in development and disease. The mammalian SIX5/SIX4 gene pair is likely to be involved in the development of mesodermal structures. Moreover, a variety of data have implicated human SIX5 dysfunction as a contributor to myotonic dystrophy type 1 ...
Scheffer H - - 2001
With a prevalence of approximately 1/10 000, and a carrier frequency of 1/40-1/60 the proximal spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are among the most frequent autosomal recessive hereditary disorders. Patients can be classified clinically into four groups: acute, intermediate, mild, and adult (SMA types I, II, III, and IV, respectively). The ...
Grewal P K - - 2001
Spontaneous and engineered mouse mutants have facilitated our understanding of the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy and they provide models for the development of therapeutic approaches. The mouse myodystrophy (myd) mutation produces an autosomal recessive, neuromuscular phenotype. Homozygotes have an abnormal gait, show abnormal posturing when suspended by the tail and ...
Ray P F - - 2001
Large deletions in the dystrophin gene account for > 60% of mutations responsible for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We have developed a genetic test that can be used directly for the preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of a majority of couples at risk of transmitting DMD. The test, a double nested ...
Bartes A - - 2001
Intestinal N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase (I-GlcNAc6ST, GST-4alpha) and corneal N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferases (C-GlcNAc6ST, GST-4beta) are two highly homologous GlcNAc 6-O-sulfotransferase isozymes encoded by two intronless open reading frames that reside approximately 50 kb apart on human chromosome 16q23.1. I-GlcNAc6ST has been shown to catalyze 6-O-sulfation of the endothelial mucin GlyCAM-1. C-GlcNAc6ST catalyzes 6-O-sulfation ...
Haravuori H - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Tibial muscular dystrophy (TMD), a late-onset dominant distal myopathy, is caused by yet unknown mutations on chromosome 2q, whereas MD with myositis (MDM) is a muscular dystrophy of the mouse, also progressing with age and linked to mouse chromosome 2. For both disorders, linkage studies have implicated titin as ...
Veldink J H - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) results from mutations of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene on chromosome 5. The SMN gene exists in two highly homologous copies, telomeric (SMN1) and centromeric (SMN2). SMA is caused by mutations in SMN1 but not SMN2. The clinical phenotype of SMA appears to be ...
Gamez J - - 2001
PURPOSE: To document a case of bilateral optic atrophy in a patient with myotonic dystrophy. Myotonic dystrophy is an autosomal dominant disorder, genetically resulting from an expansion of an unstable CTG repeat in the 3'-untranslated region of a protein kinase gene (DMPK) on chromosome 19q13.3. METHODS: Case report, clinical examination, ...
Mailman M D - - 2001
We have analyzed the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1) dosage in 100 parents of children with homozygous SMN1 deletions. Of these parents, 96 (96%) demonstrated the expected one-copy SMN1 carrier genotype. However, four parents (4%) were observed to have a normal two-copy SMN1 dosage. The presence of two intact SMN1 ...
Scholl H P - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The scotopic 15-Hz flicker electroretinogram (ERG) has two limbs (slow and fast ERG rod signals), and these have been attributed to two retinal rod pathways (the ON rod bipolar and AII amacrine pathway and the rodcone gap-junction pathway). The aim of this study was to provide normative values of ...
Jungbluth H - - 2001
Nemaline myopathy is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition. The clinical spectrum ranges from severe cases with antenatal or neonatal onset and early death to late onset cases with only slow progression. Three genes are known to cause nemaline myopathy: the genes for nebulin (NEB) on chromosome 2q22, slow alpha-tropomyosin ...
O'Brien K F - - 2001
Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) is an autosomal dominant eye movement disorder linked to the pericentromere of chromosome 12 (12p11.2 - q12). Sarcospan is a member of the dystrophin associated protein complex in skeletal and extraocular muscle and maps to human chromosome 12p11.2. Mutations in the ...
van Grieken N C - - 2001
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Grading of Helicobacter pylori induced atrophic gastritis using the updated Sydney system is severely limited by high interobserver variability. The aim of this study was to set up a quantitative test of gastric corpus mucosal atrophy in tissue sections and test its reproducibility and correlation with the Sydney scores ...
Celebi S - - 2001
PURPOSE: Classic teaching suggests that surgery for intermittent exotropia should be based on distance/near differences. True divergence excess exotropia should be treated with symmetric lateral rectus recession. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of large bilateral lateral rectus (LR) recession in large-angle intermittent exotropia. METHODS: Thirty-three ...
Shawky R M - - 2001
This study was carried out with 33 spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) patients. DNA molecular studies of the SMA gene on the long arm of chromosome 5 (5q11.2q13.3) revealed homozygous deletion of exon 7 in 55% of cases, 36% of whom also had a homozygous delition of exon 8. The adult ...
Illarioshkin S N - - 2000
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B) and Miyoshi myopathy (MM) are autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in the dysferlin gene on chromosome 2p13. The authors studied a large Russian family with both LGMD2B and MM. All affected individuals, as well as one preclinical boy with dystrophic changes on muscle ...
Colombo R - - 2000
Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), an autosomal recessive disorder with a high prevalence in the Japanese population, is characterised by severe muscular dystrophy associated with brain malformation (cortical dysgenesis) and mental retardation. In Japan, 87% of FCMD-bearing chromosomes carry a 3-kb retrotransposal insertion of tandemly repeated sequences within the disease ...
Kunst C B - - 2000
Mutations in the cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene on human chromosome 21q22.1 cause 10-20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. The expression of the ALS phenotype in mice carrying the murine G86R SOD1 mutation is highly dependent upon the mouse genetic background. This is similar to the phenotypic ...
Meola G - - 2000
This review of myotonic dystrophies primarily concentrates on the clinical and genetic findings that can distinguish a novel form of myotonic dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2); proximal myotonic myopathy (PROMM); and proximal myotonic dystrophy (PDM) from myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). The multisystemic nature of these disorders leads to ...
Villanova M - - 2000
We describe four Italian patients (aged 3, 4, 12, and 13 years ) affected by a novel autosomal form of recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. These patients were from three non-consanguineous families and presented an almost identical phenotype. This was characterized by hypotonia at birth, joint contractures associated with severe psychomotor ...
Gal A - - 2000
Mutation of a receptor tyrosine kinase gene, Mertk, in the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat results in defective phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and retinal degeneration. We screened the human orthologue, MERTK, located at 2q14.1 (ref. 10), in 328 DNA samples from individuals ...
Pegoraro E - - 2000
Laminin alpha2 deficiency presents at birth with muscle weakness, hypotonia, and usually asymptomatic white matter signal on MRI. Few patients with laminin alpha2 deficiency have been described with seizures and structural brain abnormalities. The reason for the variation in the severity of the clinical phenotype in congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) ...
Lagali P S - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Inherited macular dystrophies account for a major fraction of the cases of retinal degenerative disease that lead to permanent blindness. We describe the clinical and genetic findings in a Canadian family with a form of macular dystrophy resembling autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy. METHODS: Standard ophthalmologic examinations were performed ...
Akama T O - - 2000
Macular corneal dystrophy (MCD; MIM 217800) is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease in which progressive punctate opacities in the cornea result in bilateral loss of vision, eventually necessitating corneal transplantation. MCD is classified into two subtypes, type I and type II, defined by the respective absence and presence of sulphated ...
Lisch W - - 2000
PURPOSE: There is an ongoing discussion whether Lisch corneal dystrophy (band-shaped and whorled microcystic dystrophy of the corneal epithelium) represents a disorder that is different from Meesmann corneal dystrophy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate at the molecular level if Lisch and Meesmann corneal dystrophies are genetically distinct. ...
Ricker K - - 2000
Core features of the dominantly inherited myotonic dystrophies are myotonia, muscle weakness and cataract. Classic myotonic dystrophy (Steinert's disease) has been defined as a genetic entity by the underlying CTG repeat expansion on chromosome 19q13.3 (= DM1 locus). Later on, another disorder similar to but different from myotonic dystrophy was ...
Hauser M A - - 2000
We have identified a mutation in the myotilin gene in a large North American family of German descent expressing an autosomal dominant form of limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD1A). We have previously mapped this gene to 5q31. Symptoms of this adult onset disease are progressive weakness of the hip and ...
Gérard B - - 2000
Precise quantitation of SMN1 copy number is of great interest in many clinical applications such as direct detection of SMA carriers or detection of an SMA-affected patient with a hemizygous deletion of the SMN1 gene. We describe a method that combines two independent nonradioactive PCR assays: determination of the relative ...
Schneider C - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To investigate anticipation in proximal myotonic myopathy (PROMM). BACKGROUND: PROMM is a recently described autosomal dominantly inherited disorder similar to but distinct from myotonic dystrophy (DM). DM belongs to the group of inherited disorders with anticipation caused by an unstable trinucleotide repeat expansion. In PROMM, no mutation has been ...
Kniazeva M - - 2000
PURPOSE: To report the localization of a gene causing drusen and macular degeneration in a previously undescribed North American family. METHODS: Genetic mapping studies were performed using linkage analysis in a single family with drusen and atrophic macular degeneration. RESULTS: The clinical manifestations in this family ranged from fine macular ...
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