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Manieu Catalina C Programa Genética Humana, ICBM, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, - - 2014
Rb translocations are chromosomal rearrangements frequently found in natural populations of the house mouse Mus musculus domesticus. The standard diploid karyotype of the house mouse consisting of 40 telocentric chromosomes may be reduced by the emergence of metacentric Rb chromosomes. Multiple simple Rb heterozygotes form trivalents exhibiting higher anaphase nondisjunction ...
Gavrilov Alexey - - 2014
Formaldehyde cross-linking is an important component of many technologies, including chromatin immunoprecipitation and chromosome conformation capture. The procedure remains empirical and poorly characterized, however, despite a long history of its use in research. Little is known about the specificity of in vivo cross-linking, its efficiency and chemical adducts induced by ...
Akbaş H H Department of Medical Biology, Medical Faculty, University of Harran, Şanlıurfa, Turkey. - - 2012
Polymorphisms of the p53 gene, which participates in DNA repair, can affect the functioning of the p53 protein. The Arg and Pro variants in p53 codon 72 were shown to have different regulation properties of p53-dependent DNA repair target genes that can affect various levels of cytogenetic aberrations in chronic ...
Salaria Manju - - 2012
A novel duplication of Xp is described. A 20-year-old man had minor anomalies ichthyosis, congenital heart defect, varicose veins, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. He had an interstitial duplication of approximately 2.8 Mb from chromosome region Xp22.31p22.2. His similarly affected brother and asymptomatic mother were shown to carry the same duplication. Knowledge about ...
Quénet Delphine - - 2012
The centromere is a specialized locus that directs the formation of the kinetochore protein complex for correct chromosome segregation. The specific centromere histone H3 variant CENP-A has been described as the epigenetic mark of this chromatin region. Several laboratories have explored its properties, its partners, and its role in centromere ...
Li Jie - - 2012
The transcriptional repressor Bach1 mediates various stress responses. Despite its role in transcription, Bach1 is predominantly exported to the cytoplasm in a Crm1-dependent manner, but the functional role of its cytoplasmic retention is still unclear. We found that Bach1 was also excluded from mitotic chromatin by a C-terminal cytoplasmic localization ...
Gasi Delila - - 2011
ETV1 is overexpressed in a subset of clinical prostate cancers as a fusion transcript with many different partners. However, ETV1 can also be overexpressed as a full-length transcript. Full-length ETV1 protein functions differently from truncated ETV1 produced by fusion genes. In this study we describe the genetic background of full-length ...
Kaur Harpreet - - 2010
The chromosomal passenger complex consisting of Borealin, INCENP, Survivin, and Aurora B follows a dynamic pattern of localization to perform its role as a regulator of chromosome alignment, aspects of the spindle assembly checkpoint, and cytokinesis. Post-translational modifications of chromosomal passenger proteins play an important role in regulating the localization ...
Sargent Linda M - - 2010
The development of novel engineered nano-sized materials is a rapidly emerging technology with many applications in medicine and industry. In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested many deleterious effects of carbon nanotube exposure including granulomatous inflammation, release of cytosolic enzymes, pulmonary fibrosis, reactive oxygen damage, cellular atypia, DNA fragmentation, ...
Sluder Greenfield G Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. - - 2010
In preparation for mitosis, the centrosome doubles once and only once to provide the two poles of the mitotic spindle. The presence of more than two centrosomes increases the chances that mitosis will be multipolar, and chromosomes will be distributed unequally. Since the number of mother-daughter centriole pairs determines the ...
Uppalapati Maruti M Department of Bioengineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16802, - - 2011
The mitotic spindle is a dynamic assembly of microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins that controls the directed movement of chromosomes during cell division. Because proper segregation of the duplicated genome requires that each daughter cell receives precisely one copy of each chromosome, numerous overlapping mechanisms have evolved to ensure that every ...
Kwon Sojung - - 2011
Formin-2 (Fmn2) nucleates actin filaments required for spindle migration during the metaphase of meiosis I in mouse oocytes. While recent studies showed that Fmn2 is involved in the formation of a dynamic actin meshwork on meiotic spindle and the migration of chromosomes, the precise location and the mechanism of action ...
Han Zhiming - - 2010
Embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) display low term developmental potential. This is associated with deficiencies in spindle composition prior to activation and at early mitotic divisions, including failure to assemble certain proteins on the spindle. The protein-deficient spindles are accompanied by chromosome congression defects prior to activation ...
Malureanu Liviu L Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, - - 2010
Cdc20 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome that initiates anaphase onset by ordering the destruction of cyclin B1 and securin in metaphase. To study the physiological significance of Cdc20 in higher eukaryotes, we generated hypomorphic mice that express small amounts of this essential cell cycle regulator. In this study, ...
Ou Xiang-Hong - - 2010
P38αMAPK (p38α) is usually activated in response to various stresses and plays a role in the inhibition of cell proliferation and tumor progression, but little is known about its roles in meiotic spindle assembly. In this study, we characterized the dynamic localization of p38α and explored its function in mouse ...
Bolanos-Garcia Victor M - - 2011
The multidomain protein kinases BUB1 and BUBR1 (Mad3 in yeast, worms and plants) are central components of the mitotic checkpoint for spindle assembly (SAC). This evolutionarily conserved and essential self-monitoring system of the eukaryotic cell cycle ensures the high fidelity of chromosome segregation by delaying the onset of anaphase until ...
Mogilner Alex - - 2010
The 'simple' view of the mitotic spindle is that it self-assembles as a result of microtubules (MTs) randomly searching for chromosomes, after which the spindle length is maintained by a balance of outward tension exerted by molecular motors on the MTs connecting centrosomes and chromosomes, and compression generated by other ...
Bezler Alexandra - - 2010
The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) triggers the separation of sister chromatids and exit from mitosis across eukaryotic evolution. The APC/C is inhibited by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) until all chromosomes have achieved bipolar attachment, but whether the APC/C reciprocally regulates the SAC is less understood. Here, we report the ...
Uehara Ryota - - 2010
The central spindle forms between segregating chromosomes during anaphase and is required for cytokinesis. Although anaphase-specific bundling and stabilization of interpolar microtubules (MTs) contribute to formation of the central spindle, it remains largely unknown how these MTs are prepared. Using live imaging of MT plus ends and an MT depolymerization ...
Fu Wenxiang W The MOE Key Laboratory of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, - - 2010
Transforming acidic coiled-coil-containing protein 3 (TACC3) has been implicated in mitotic spindle assembly, although the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here we identify that clathrin heavy chain (CHC) binds specifically to phosphorylated TACC3 and recruits it to spindle poles for proper spindle assembly and chromosome alignment. Phosphorylation of Xenopus TACC3 ...
Wang Ke - - 2011
SummarySurvivin is a novel member of the inhibitor of apoptosis gene family that bear baculoviral IAP repeats (BIRs), whose physiological roles in regulating meiotic cell cycle need to be determined. Confocal microscopy was employed to observe the localization of survivin in rat oocytes. At the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, survivin ...
Duncan Andrew W AW Oregon Stem Cell Center, Papé Family Pediatric Research Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. - - 2010
Mononucleated and binucleated polyploid hepatocytes (4n, 8n, 16n and higher) are found in all mammalian species, but the functional significance of this conserved phenomenon remains unknown. Polyploidization occurs through failed cytokinesis, begins at weaning in rodents and increases with age. Previously, we demonstrated that the opposite event, ploidy reversal, also ...
Wadsworth Patricia P Department of Biology, Morrill Science Center, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. - - 2011
The mitotic spindle faithfully separates the genetic material, and has been reverently observed for well over a century. Across eukaryotes, while the mechanisms for moving chromosomes seem quite conserved, mechanisms for assembling the spindle often seem distinct. Two major pathways for spindle assembly are known, one based on centrosomes and ...
Liu Hung-Ching - - 2010
Apply Dicer siRNA to study functions of Dicer and miRNA during oogenesis. Mouse oocytes were injected with Dicer siRNA and negative control siRNA and then matured in vitro. After IVM, oocytes were examined for maturation rates, spindle and chromosomal organization, and various gene expressions. Dicer siRNA significantly reduced maturation rates, ...
Archinti Marco - - 2010
Proper assembly and function of a bipolar mitotic spindle is crucial for faithful bidirectional chromosome segregation during cell division. In animal cells, the two poles of the mitotic spindle are organized by centrosomes, microtubule-organizing structures composed of a pair of centrioles surrounded by the so-called pericentriolar material. Proteomic studies have ...
Fabritius Amy S AS Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616, United - - 2011
Female meiosis is unique in that an asymmetrically positioned meiotic spindle expels chromosomes into tiny, non-developing polar bodies. The extrusion of chromosomes into polar bodies is always mediated by meiotic spindles that are attached to the oocyte cortex by one pole. The asymmetric, cortical positioning of the oocyte meiotic spindle ...
Forer Arthur - - 2010
It generally is assumed that cleavage furrows start ingression at anaphase, but this is not always true. Cleavage furrows are initiated during prometaphase in spermatocytes of the flatworm Mesostoma, becoming detectable soon after the spindles achieve bipolarity. The furrows deepen during prometaphase, but ingression soon arrests. After anaphase the pre-existing ...
Fernández-Miranda Gonzalo G Cell Division and Cancer Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO), Madrid, - - 2010
Aurora kinases are central regulators of mitotic-spindle assembly, chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Aurora B is a member of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) with crucial functions in regulation of the attachment of kinetochores to microtubules and in cytokinesis. We report here that Aurora B contains a conserved SUMO modification motif ...
Ptacin Jerod L JL Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Beckman Center, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2010
Until recently, a dedicated mitotic apparatus that segregates newly replicated chromosomes into daughter cells was believed to be unique to eukaryotic cells. Here we demonstrate that the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus segregates its chromosome using a partitioning (Par) apparatus that has surprising similarities to eukaryotic spindles. We show that the C. ...
Santaguida Stefano S Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, I-20139 Milan, - - 2010
The catalytic activity of the MPS1 kinase is crucial for the spindle assembly checkpoint and for chromosome biorientation on the mitotic spindle. We report that the small molecule reversine is a potent mitotic inhibitor of MPS1. Reversine inhibits the spindle assembly checkpoint in a dose-dependent manner. Its addition to mitotic ...
Mirchenko Lesia - - 2010
The mitotic checkpoint, also known as the spindle assembly checkpoint, delays anaphase onset until all chromosomes have reached bipolar tension on the mitotic spindle [1-3]. Once this is achieved, the protease separase is activated to cleave the chromosomal cohesin complex, thereby triggering anaphase. Cohesin cleavage releases tension between sister chromatids, ...
Nam Hyun-Ja - - 2010
The oncogenic ability of aberrant hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met) signaling is thought to mainly rely on its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic effects. Recently, however, cumulating evidences suggest that genomic instability may be a crucial factor in tumorigenesis. Here, we address whether oncogenic Met receptor is linked to the centrosome abnormality ...
Larson Matthew E ME Department of Biology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, CB# 3280, Coker Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280, - - 2010
The mitotic spindle is a structure that forms during mitosis to help ensure that each daughter cell receives a full complement of genetic material. In metaphase, the spindle contains microtubules that nucleate inward from two opposing poles. Chromosomes are attached to plus-ends of these microtubules via protein structures called kinetochores. ...
Lin Chiou-Hong - - 2010
Mitotic spindles play essential roles in chromosome congression and segregation during mitosis. Aurora A regulates spindle assembly in part via phosphorylating human TACC3 on S558, which triggers TACC3 relocalization to mitotic spindles and stabilizes microtubules (MTs). In this study, we identified clathrin heavy chain (CHC) as an adaptor protein to ...
Bower J J JJ Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, - - 2010
Topoisomerase IIalpha (topoIIalpha) is an essential mammalian enzyme that topologically modifies DNA and is required for chromosome segregation during mitosis. Previous research suggests that inhibition of topoII decatenatory activity triggers a G(2) checkpoint response, which delays mitotic entry because of insufficient decatenation of daughter chromatids. Here we examine the effects ...
Martínez-A Carlos - - 2010
Genetic instability is a hallmark of cancer. Most tumors show complex patterns of translocations, amplifications, and deletions, which have occupied scientists for decades. A specific problem arises in carcinomas with a genetic defect termed chromosomal instability; these solid tumors undergo gains and losses of entire chromosomes, as well as segmental ...
Tseng Boo Shan BS Laboratory of Chromosome and Cell Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, - - 2010
Chromosome-dependent spindle assembly requires the chromosomal recruitment and activation of Aurora B, the kinase subunit of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC). It remains unclear how the chromosome-activated kinase spatially transmits signals to organize the micron-scale spindle. Here we reveal that the CPC must detect two structures, chromosomes and microtubules, to ...
Bagheri-Yarmand Rozita R Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. - - 2010
Overexpression of the low molecular weight isoforms (LMW-E) of cyclin E induces chromosome instability; however, the degree to which these tumor-specific forms cause genomic instability differs from that of full-length cyclin E (EL), and the underlying mechanism(s) has yet to be elucidated. Here, we show that EL and LMW-E overexpression ...
Ohshima Susumu - - 2010
The significant increase in chromosomal instability with aging is well known, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Our earlier studies showed a high frequency of abnormal mitosis, such as mitotic slippage or incomplete mitosis in near-senescent human fibroblasts. This study examined the centrosome aberrations in mitotic and interphase ...
Chai Chuan Chung - - 2010
During normal metaphase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, chromosomes are captured at the kinetochores by microtubules emanating from the spindle pole bodies at opposite poles of the dividing cell. The balance of forces between the cohesins holding the replicated chromosomes together and the pulling force from the microtubules at the kinetochores result ...
Díaz-Martínez Laura A - - 2010
Multi-polar mitosis is strongly linked with aggressive cancers and it is a histological diagnostic of tumor-grade. However, factors that cause chromosomes to segregate to more than two spindle poles are not well understood. Here we show that cohesins Rad21, Smc1 and Smc3 are required for bipolar mitosis in human cells. ...
Colnaghi Rita - - 2010
Survivin and Plk1 kinase are important mediators of cell survival that are required for chromosome alignment, cytokinesis, and protection from apoptosis. Interference with either survivin or Plk1 activity manifests many similar outcomes: prometaphase delay/arrest, multinucleation, and increased apoptosis. Moreover, the expression of both survivin and Plk1 is deregulated in cancer. ...
Holmfeldt Per - - 2010
Op18/stathmin (Op18) is a microtubule-destabilizing protein that is phosphorylation-inactivated during mitosis and its normal function is to govern tubulin subunit partitioning during interphase. Human tumors frequently overexpress Op18 and a tumor-associated Q18-->E mutation has been identified that confers hyperactivity, destabilizes spindle microtubules, and causes mitotic aberrancies, polyploidization, and chromosome loss ...
Vogt E - - 2010
Mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK) is an ATP-dependent microtubule (MT) depolymerase regulated by Aurora kinase (AURK) phosphorylation and implicated in resolution of improper MT attachments in mitosis. Distribution of MCAK was studied in oocyte maturation by anti-MCAK antibody, anti-tubulin antibody, anti-AURKB antibody and anti-centromere antibody (ACA) and by the expression of ...
Zhu Jin-Liang - - 2010
In mitosis, centrosomes nucleate microtubules that capture the sister kinetochores of each chromosome to facilitate chromosome congression. In contrast, during meiosis chromosome congression on the acentrosomal spindle is driven primarily by movement of chromosomes along laterally associated microtubule bundles. Previous studies have indicated that septin2 is required for chromosome congression ...
Kops Geert J P L GJ Department of Physiological Chemistry and Cancer Genomics Centre, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. - - 2010
Error-free chromosome segregation depends on timely activation of the multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase APC/C. Activation of the APC/C initiates chromosome segregation and mitotic exit by targeting critical cell-cycle regulators for destruction. The APC/C is the principle target of the mitotic checkpoint, which prevents segregation while chromosomes are unattached to spindle ...
Wozniak Richard - - 2010
The trafficking of macromolecules between the cytoplasm and the nucleus is controlled by the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and various transport factors that facilitate the movement of cargos through the NPCs and their accumulation in the target compartment. While their functions in transport are well established, an ever-growing number of ...
Herring Matthew - - 2010
The conserved fission yeast protein Rad26(ATRIP) preserves genomic stability by occupying central positions within DNA-structure checkpoint pathways. It is also required for proper cellular morphology, chromosome stability and following treatment with microtubule poisons. Here, we report that mutation of a putative nuclear export sequence in Rad26(ATRIP) disrupted its cytoplasmic localization ...
Woodcock Simon A - - 2010
Centrosome separation, critical for bipolar spindle formation and subsequent chromosome segregation during mitosis, occurs via distinct prophase and prometaphase pathways. Kinesin-5 (Eg5), a microtubule (MT) motor, pushes centrosomes apart during bipolar spindle assembly; its suppression results in monopolar spindles and mitotic arrest. Forces that antagonize Eg5 in prophase are unknown. ...
Roostalu Johanna - - 2010
Different organisms employ a variety of strategies to segregate their chromosomes during mitosis. Despite these differences, however, the basic regulatory principles that govern this intricate process are evolutionarily conserved. Above all, rapid dephosphorylation of mitotic phosphoproteins upon the metaphase-to-anaphase transition has proven to be essential for proper function of the ...
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