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Hruskovicová H - - 2006
AIM: There is an assumption that ACE I/D polymorphism represents one of the possible genetic factors that might be associated with sports excellence. Recent studies have identified an increased frequency of I allele in elite endurance athletes, long distance runners, rowers and mountaineers. The aim of this study was to ...
Di Maria Emilio - - 2006
Huntington's disease (HD) is a late-onset, autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG trinucleotide expansion. The number of repeats on the HD chromosome explains most of the variability in age of onset, but genetic factors other than the HD gene are responsible for part of the residual variance. Based ...
Li Wentian - - 2006
Human chromosome 21 is the only chromosome in the human genome that exhibits oscillation of the (G+C) content of a cycle length of hundreds kilobases (kb) ( 500 kb near the right telomere). We aim at establishing the existence of a similar periodicity in structure-related sequence features in order to ...
Ishikawa Kinya - - 2006
Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) is a group of heterogeneous conditions. More than 20 genes or gene loci have been identified that are responsible for ADCA. Although expansions of the trinucleotide (CAG) repeat that encode polyglutamine are known to cause some forms of ADCA, growing knowledge about the genetic basis ...
Kim Seung-Hwan - - 2006
(CAG)(n)*(CTG)(n) expansion is associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. Repeat instability has been extensively studied in bacterial plasmids, where repeats undergo deletion at high rates. We report an assay for (CAG)(n)*(CTG)(n) deletion from the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene integrated into the Escherichia coli chromosome. In strain AB1157, deletion rates for 25-60 (CAG) ...
Wikström Anne M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how genetic features of the X chromosome influence growth, pubertal development and testicular degeneration in adolescent boys with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). Previous studies have suggested that genetic features of the X chromosome may contribute to the wide phenotypic variation in KS. DESIGN: A prospective clinical study. PATIENTS: ...
Pathak Deepali - - 2006
We assessed genomic instability of 3.4 kb DYZ1 repeat arrays in patients encompassing prostate cancer (PC), cases of repeated abortion (RA) and males exposed to natural background radiation (NBR) using real-time PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Normal males showed DYZ1 copies ranging from 3000 to 4300, RA, 0-2237; ...
Rajender Singh - - 2006
Androgens, acting through the androgen receptor (AR), play a role in secondary sexual differentiation from the prenatal stage to adulthood, including spermatogenesis. The AR gene has 2 polymorphic trinucleotide repeats (CAG and GGN) in exon 1. The CAG repeat length polymorphism has been well studied in a variety of medical ...
Gloria-Bottini F - - 2006
Associations with past malarial morbidity, season of conception, and common diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and allergy argue against neutrality of the ACP1 genetic polymorphism. Comparison of ACP1 distribution in mothers and their newborns and analysis of the joint wife-husband ACP1 phenotype distribution in couples with repeated spontaneous ...
Alcivar-Warren Acacia - - 2006
To develop genetic and physical maps for shrimp, accurate information on the actual number of chromosomes and a large number of genetic markers is needed. Previous reports have shown two different chromosome numbers for the Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, the most important penaeid shrimp species cultured in the Western ...
Tan Ene-Choo - - 2006
Most of the studies on single nucleotide variations are on substitutions rather than insertions/deletions. In this study, we examined the distribution and characteristics of single nucleotide insertions/deletions (SNindels), using data available from dbSNP for all the human chromosomes. There are almost 300,000 SNindels in the database, of which only 0.8% ...
Amrane S - - 2006
Trinucleotide repeats are involved in a number of debilitating diseases such as fragile-X syndrome and myotonic dystrophy. Eighteen to 75 base-long (CCG)(n) and (CGG)(n) oligodeoxynucleotides were analysed using a combination of biophysical (UV-absorbance, differential scanning calorimetry) and biochemical methods (non-denaturing gel electrophoresis, enzymatic footprinting). All oligomers formed stable intramolecular structures ...
Gosalakkal Jayaprakash A - - 2006
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 is one of the hereditary progressive cerebellar ataxias first described in 1997. Genetic studies have identified the defect as abnormal expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeat in 1 alpha subunit of the calcium channel gene located on chromosome 19p13. The symptomatic individuals have 20 or 23 repeats ...
Johzuka Katsuki - - 2006
An average of 200 copies of the rRNA gene (rDNA) is clustered in a long tandem array in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FOB1 is known to be required for expansion/contraction of the repeats by stimulating recombination, thereby contributing to the maintenance of the average copy number. In Deltafob1 cells, the repeats are ...
Dean Nicola L - - 2006
One form of myotonic dystrophy, dystrophia myotonica 1 (DM1), is caused by the expansion of a (CTG)(n) repeat within the dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase (DMPK) gene located in chromosome region 19q13.3. Unaffected individuals carry alleles with repeat size (CTG)(5-37), premutation carriers (CTG)(38-49) and DM1 affected individuals (CTG)(50-6,000). Preferential transmission both of ...
Borman Andrew M AM Mycology Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency South-West Regional Laboratory Myrtle Road, Bristol, UK. - - 2006
PCR amplification and sequencing of two separate regions of the nuclear ribosomal repeat region revealed that Polycytella hominis, a hyphomycete isolated from a human case of mycetoma, was genetically indistinguishable from Scedosporium apiospermum (the anamorph of Pseudallescheria boydii). These organisms also exhibited remarkably similar susceptibility profiles to common antifungal agents. ...
Bor-Kucukatay Melek - - 2006
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays important roles in the renin-angiotensin system. ACE converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II and also inactivates bradykinin, thereby modulating the vascular tone. A polymorphism of the ACE gene, located on chromosome 17, has been found in intron 16, and is characterized by the presence (insertion [I]) ...
Ustinova Jana - - 2006
It is commonly believed that both the average length and the frequency of microsatellites correlate with genome size. We have estimated the frequency and the average length for 69 perfect dinucleotide microsatellites in an insect with an exceptionally large genome: Chorthippus biguttulus (Orthoptera, Acrididae). Dinucleotide microsatellites are not more frequent ...
Terasaki A G - - 2006
Lasp-1 and lasp-2 are actin-binding proteins that contain a LIM domain, two nebulin repeats and an SH3 domain with significant identity. We determined the chromosomal locations of the LASP1 and LASP2 genes in chicken by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The LASP1 gene was localized to a pair of microchromosomes and ...
Moore Laoise T - - 2006
Seventeen-marker simple tandem repeat genetic analysis of Irish Y chromosomes reveals a previously unnoted modal haplotype that peaks in frequency in the northwestern part of the island. It shows a significant association with surnames purported to have descended from the most important and enduring dynasty of early medieval Ireland, the ...
Farlow Jason - - 2005
The causative agent of tularemia, Francisella tularensis, is a formidable biologic agent that occurs naturally throughout North America. We examined genetic and spatial diversity patterns among 161 US F. tularensis isolates by using a 24-marker multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) system. MLVA identified 126 unique genotypes. Phylogenetic analyses showed ...
Clark Rhonda M RM Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, - - 2006
We have previously shown that GAA trinucleotide repeats have undergone significant expansion in the human genome. Here we present the analysis of the length distribution of all 10 nonredundant trinucleotide repeat motifs in 20 complete eukaryotic genomes (6 mammalian, 2 nonmammalian vertebrates, 4 arthropods, 4 fungi, and 1 each of ...
Zarrabeitia Maria T - - 2006
We studied six X-linked microsatellites in a large group of Spanish individuals (n=614) from five different regions located in northern, central and southern Spain. All the markers had tetranucleotide repeat units (DXS9895, DXS9898, DXS7130, DXS7132, GATA172D05 and DXS6789). They were amplified in two triplex PCR reactions. There were no significant ...
van Vugt Joke J F A - - 2005
Part of the male population of the wasp Trichogramma kaykai carries a B chromosome that manipulates its host sex ratio in favour of males. The only known repeat on this paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome is the 45S rDNA, which includes here five different internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences. ...
Martins Sandra - - 2005
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 (SCA8) is an autosomal dominant late-onset neurodegenerative disorder, belonging to the group of diseases caused by trinucleotide repeat expansions. SCA8 remains one of the most intriguing SCAs, regarding the reduced disease penetrance, and the high instability and poorly understood functional meaning of the (CTA)(n)(CTG)(n) expansion. We ...
Ginger Rebecca S - - 2005
Profilaggrin is a key epidermal protein, critical for the generation and maintenance of the stratum corneum barrier. It is encoded by a gene located in the epidermal differentiation complex of Chromosome 1q21 and is composed of multiple filaggrin repeats connected by highly conserved linker peptides. Within the human population the ...
Bahl S - - 2005
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 12 (SCA12) is an autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia associated with the expansion of an unstable CAG repeat in the 5' region of the PPP2R2B gene on chromosome 5q31-5q32. We found that it accounts for approximately 16% (20/124) of all the autosomal dominant ataxia cases diagnosed in AIIMS, ...
Adams Susan M - - 2006
The Y-chromosomal binary marker P25 is a paralogous sequence variant, rather than a SNP: three copies of the P25 sequence lie within the giant palindromic repeats on Yq, and one copy has undergone a C to A transversion to define haplogroup R1b (designated C/C/A). Since gene conversion is known to ...
Zambon Alberto - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The common -514 C-T promoter polymorphism of the hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) and the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene TaqIB polymorphism affect atherogenesis. We investigated the potential relationship between these polymorphisms and the maximum-intima-media thickness (M-IMT) after carotid endarterectomy. METHODS: The LIPC and CETP genotypes were determined by ...
Westenberger Scott J - - 2005
Genetic variation in Trypanosoma cruzi is likely a key determinant in transmission and pathogenesis of Chagas disease. We have examined nine loci as markers for the extant T. cruzi strains. Four distinct alleles were found for each locus, corresponding to the sequence classes present in the homozygous discrete typing units ...
O'Connell Philip J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The Westran pig has been purposely inbred for use in xenotransplantation. The herd originated in the wild from a limited gene pool and has been inbred by repeated full-sib matings for nine generations. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of inbreeding by functional assays, ...
Kanari Yasuyoshi - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Despite multiple and repeated exposures to HIV-1, some individuals possess no detectable HIV genome and show T-cell memory responses to the viral antigens. HIV-1-reactive mucosal IgA detected in such uninfected individuals suggests their possible immune resistance against HIV. We tested if the above HIV-1-exposed but uninfected status was associated ...
Krueger Sharon K SK Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology and The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, - - 2005
Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) oxygenates drugs and xenobiotics containing a "soft-nucleophile", usually nitrogen or sulfur. FMO, like cytochrome P450 (CYP), is a monooxygenase, utilizing the reducing equivalents of NADPH to reduce 1 atom of molecular oxygen to water, while the other atom is used to oxidize the substrate. FMO and CYP ...
Swift-Scanlan Theresa - - 2005
Anticipation has been frequently found in bipolar families ascertained for linkage studies. An association of polymorphic triplet repeats with the bipolar phenotype in some pedigrees has been proposed. We have previously found linkage to chromosome 18 in a set of families with evidence of anticipation. As part of a search ...
Kim S-H - - 2005
BACKGROUND: 5-Lipooxygenase (ALOX5) and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP) are known as key enzymes in cysteinyl-leukotriene (cys-LT) production, critical mediators in aspirin acetylsalicyclic acid (ASA)-intolerant asthma (AIA). To date, studies of the promoter region of ALOX5 gene has revealed the potential influence of a variable number of tandem repeats of a Sp1- ...
AteĊŸ Nurcan Aras - - 2005
HYPOTHESIS: Glutathione and glutathione-related antioxidant enzymes are involved in the metabolism and detoxification of cytotoxic and carcinogenic compounds as well as reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species generation occurs in prolonged relative hypoperfusion conditions such as in aging. The etiology of presbycusis is much less certain; however, a complex genetic ...
van Dyck Christopher H - - 2005
A polymorphism involving a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) has been described in the 3' untranslated region of the gene (SLC6A3) coding for the dopamine transporter (DAT). This polymorphism has 2 common alleles, designated as 10-repeat (*10R) and 9-repeat (*9R), that have been linked with several human clinical phenotypes. ...
Vankeerberghen Anne - - 2005
Human beta defensins contribute to the first line of defense against infection of the lung. Polymorphisms in these genes are therefore potential modifiers of the severity of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Polymorphisms were sought in the human beta-defensin genes DEFB1, DEFB4, DEFB103A, and DEFB104 in healthy individuals and cystic ...
Yamanaka Hiroyuki - - 2005
The anticonvulsant agent phenytoin (5,5-diphenylhydantoin) is mainly excreted as 5-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin (4'-HPPH) O-glucuronide in humans. Previously, we demonstrated that the glucuronidation of 4'-HPPH is catalyzed by multiple UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) of UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, and UGT1A9. Since 4'-HPPH may be bioactivated to a reactive metabolite by peroxidase, the glucuronidation in considered to ...
Lephart Paul R - - 2005
The major repeat sequence (MRS) is found at least once on all but one chromosome in Candida albicans, but as yet it has no known relation to the phenotype. The MRS affects karyotypic variation by serving as a hot spot for chromosome translocation and by expanding and contracting internal repeats, ...
Takeda Masaharu - - 2005
We previously reported that there were three copies of ATP1 coding for F1-alpha and two copies of ATP3 coding for F1-gamma on the left and right arm of chromosome II, respectively. In this study, we present evidence that there are three closely linked copies of ATP2 encoding the beta subunit ...
Tanriverdi Sultan - - 2006
Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis are two morphologically identical species of Apicomplexan protozoa infecting humans. Although the genomes of these species are 97% identical, their host range is strikingly different. C. parvum infects humans and animals and is primarily a zoonotic infection, whereas C. hominis is typically not detected in ...
Barrow Irene M - - 2005
Despite the important influence of prosody on comprehension, it remains unclear how the individual parameters of prosody contribute to the process. Therefore, this study examined the magnitude of one prosodic cue, duration of the pause, that precipitates comprehension when the pause is located either early or late in an ambiguous ...
Zaidi S H E - - 2005
Arterial tortuosity associated with hyperextensible skin and hypermobility of joints, features that are characteristics of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), has been described in several families. An arterial tortuosity locus has recently been mapped to chromosome 20q13. Here, we report a consanguineous Kurdish family in which an affected child manifested elongation and ...
Vigouroux Yves - - 2005
How domestication bottlenecks and artificial selection shaped the amount and distribution of genetic variation in the genomes of modern crops is poorly understood. We analyzed diversity at 462 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites spread throughout the maize genome and compared the diversity observed at these SSRs in maize to ...
Goios A - - 2005
As for any non-recombining genome, any mutation at mtDNA, if not recurrent, appears on a particular haplotype background, allowing its detection by haplogroup association studies. It has been shown that the propensity for occurrence of single macrodeletions at a level beyond the pathological threshold is associated with super-haplogroup U/K. However, ...
Aird Steven D - - 2005
The nucleoside content of 32 elapid and viperid venoms was examined. Free purines, principally adenosine (ADO), inosine (INO), and guanosine (GUA), comprised as much as 8.7% of the solid components of some venoms. Thus, purines are far more abundant in some venoms than many proteinaceous toxins. Hypoxanthine (HYP) was found ...
Morange P E - - 2005
The mechanisms underlying the variability of factor VIII (FVIII) levels are still poorly understood. The only receptor of FVIII identified so far is the lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), which is thought to be involved in FVIII degradation. We aimed to characterize biological and genetic factors related to FVIII variability, focusing ...
van Passel M W J - - 2005
Recent analyses of prokaryotic genome sequences have demonstrated the important force horizontal gene transfer constitutes in genome evolution. Horizontally acquired sequences are detectable by, among others, their dinucleotide composition (genome signature) dissimilarity with the host genome. Genomic islands (GIs) comprise important and interesting horizontally transferred sequences, but information about acquisition ...
Ebersole Tom - - 2005
Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) provide a unique opportunity to study kinetochore formation and to develop a new generation of vectors with potential in gene therapy. An investigation into the structural and the functional relationship in centromeric tandem repeats in HACs requires the ability to manipulate repeat substructure efficiently. We describe ...
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