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Weidinger Stephan - - 2013
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common dermatological disease of childhood. Many children with AD have asthma and AD shares regions of genetic linkage with psoriasis, another chronic inflammatory skin disease. We present here a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of childhood-onset AD in 1563 European cases with known asthma status ...
Dia Ibrahima - - 2011
Anopheles funestus is one of the major vectors of malaria in Africa. Cytogenetic studies conducted on populations from West Africa have shown variable degrees of polymorphism with a genetic structure leading to the description of two chromosomal forms called "Folonzo" and "Kiribina" that exhibit limited gene flow. Because studies on ...
Choi K S - - 2011
The M and S molecular forms of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) are morphologically identical incipient species in which reproductive isolation is incomplete, enabling low-level gene flow between forms. In an attempt to find differences between the M and S forms, sequence variation was studied at loci ...
Borges Sofia S UEI Malária, Centro de Malária e Outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Junqueira no. 100, 1349-008 Lisbon, Portugal. - - 2011
Multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites pose a threat to effective drug control, even to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Here we used linkage group selection and Solexa whole-genome resequencing to investigate the genetic basis of resistance to component drugs of ACTs. Using the rodent malaria parasite P. chabaudi, we analyzed the ...
Bourque D K - - 2011
An imbalance of imprinted gene expression within 11p15.5 is observed in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), as well as in a variety of placental abnormalities including complete hydatidiform mole (CHM), placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) and triploidy. To facilitate the diagnosis of epigenetic errors and chromosomal imbalance of 11p15.5, we validated a pyrosequencing ...
Peery Ashley - - 2011
Anopheles nili is a major vector of malaria in the humid savannas and forested areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the population genetic structure and evolutionary dynamics of this species is important for the development of an adequate and targeted malaria control strategy in Africa. Chromosomal inversions and microsatellite markers are ...
Homolka David - - 2011
Tight regulation of testicular gene expression is a prerequisite for male reproductive success, while differentiation of gene activity in spermatogenesis is important during speciation. Thus, comparison of testicular transcriptomes between closely related species can reveal unique regulatory patterns and shed light on evolutionary constraints separating the species. Here, we compared ...
Grossmann V - - 2010
Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are rare findings in clinical cytogenetics. As a result of the high risk of unbalanced segregation, familial cases are even rarer and maternal transmission occurs more frequently than paternal transmission. Analogous to Drosophila and mice, as well as to CCRs involving the Y chromosome or a ...
Suzuki S - - 2010
Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM) usually develops within the first few weeks of life and resolves at a median age of 3 months. In most of the cases, TNDM is caused by the over-expression of a paternally expressed imprinted PLAGL1 locus on chromosome 6q24. The most frequent manifestation other than ...
Battaglia Agatino - - 2010
Idic(15) syndrome is a neurogenetic disorder clinically delineated by early central hypotonia, developmental delay and intellectual disability (ID), epilepsy, absent or very poor speech, and autistic or autistic-like behavior. It is due to the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome formed by the inverted duplication of proximal chromosome 15, resulting ...
Yamazawa Kazuki - - 2011
This report describes androgenetic/biparental mosaicism in a 4-year-old Japanese girl with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS)-like and paternal uniparental disomy 14 (upd(14)pat)-like phenotypes. We performed methylation analysis for 18 differentially methylated regions on various chromosomes, genome-wide microsatellite analysis for a total of 90 loci and expression analysis of SNRPN in leukocytes. Consequently, ...
Bruining Hilgo - - 2010
Several genetic mechanisms have been proposed for the variability of the Klinefelter syndrome (KS) phenotype such as the parent-of-origin of the extra X chromosome. Parent-of-origin effects on behavior in KS can possibly provide insights into X-linked imprinting effects on psychopathology that may be extrapolated to other populations. Here, we investigated ...
Bastepe Murat - - 2011
Pseudohypoparathyoridism type Ib (PHP-Ib) typically defines the presence of end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone in the absence of Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy. Patients affected by this disorder present with imprinting defects in the complex GNAS locus. Microdeletions within STX16 or GNAS have been identified in familial cases with PHP-Ib, but the ...
Lin Shin-Yu - - 2010
Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous congenital disorder characterized by severe growth retardation. Hypomethylation of the differentially methylated region (DMR) of the H19 gene and uniparental disomy of maternal chromosome 7 is present in ∼45% of the patients with SRS so more than half of these patients ...
Brandvain Yaniv - - 2010
The conflict theory of genomic imprinting argues that parent-of-origin effects on allelic expression evolve as a consequence of conflict between maternally and paternally derived genomes. I derive explicit population-genetic models of this theory when individuals in a cohort with an arbitrary and variable number of sires and dams interact. I ...
Fernández-Rebollo Eduardo - - 2010
Type I pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP-I) can be subclassified into Ia and Ib, depending on the presence or absence of Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy's phenotype, diminished α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (G(s)α) activity and multihormonal resistance. Whereas PHP-Ia is mainly associated with heterozygous inactivating mutations in G(s)α-coding exons of GNAS, PHP-Ib is ...
Stark Zornitza - - 2010
We report on a patient with atypical Silver-Russell phenotype comprising severe growth retardation, unusual facies, bilateral Duane anomaly and infantile hypercalcemia caused by maternal uniparental iso/heterodisomy (mUPD) of chromosome 7. The development of myoclonus in this patient lends further support to the hypothesis that abnormal imprinting of the SGCE gene ...
Kleefstra Tjitske - - 2010
Supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMC) originating from chromosome 15 are the most common SMCs. They encompass clinically irrelevant SMC(15)s containing only heterochromatin and 15p material, and clinically relevant SMC(15)s that consist of both eu- and heterochromatic 15q material. On the basis of size, the clinically relevant SMC(15)s can be subdivided into ...
Yamazawa Kazuki - - 2010
Uniparental disomy (UPD) refers to the situation in which both homologues of a chromosomal region/segment have originated from only one parent. This can involve the entire chromosome or only a small segment. As a consequence of UPD, or uniparental duplication/deficiency of part of a chromosome, there are two types of ...
Eggermann Thomas - - 2010
In comparison to Prader-Willi or Angelman syndrome, Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) is a relatively "young" imprinting disorder. This congenital disease is characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, relative macrocephaly, a typical triangular face, asymmetry, and further less constant characteristic features. Genetic and epigenetic disturbances can meanwhile be detected in approximately ...
Buiting Karin - - 2010
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are two distinct neurogenetic disorders in which imprinted genes on the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 are affected. Although the SNORD116 gene cluster has become a prime candidate for PWS, it cannot be excluded that other paternally expressed genes in the chromosomal ...
Horsthemke Bernhard - - 2010
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic process by which the male and the female germ line confer specific marks (imprints) onto certain gene regions, so that one allele of an imprinted gene is active and the other allele is silent. Genomic imprints are erased in primordial germ cells, newly established during ...
Yamazawa K - - 2010
We report a 34-year-old Japanese female with a Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS)-like phenotype and a mosaic Turner syndrome karyotype (45,X/46,XX). Molecular studies including methylation analysis of 17 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) on the autosomes and the XIST-DMR on the X chromosome and genome-wide microsatellite analysis for 96 autosomal loci and 30 ...
Hoppman-Chaney Nicole L - - 2010
Extra copies of the Prader-Willi-Angelman syndrome critical region (PWASCR) have been shown to have detrimental phenotypic effects depending on the parent of origin. Hexasomy for the PWASCR is rare; only 6 cases have been described to date. We report on a 15-year-old girl referred for developmental delay and seizures with ...
Irving Melita D MD Department of Clinical Genetics, Guy's Hospital, London, UK. - - 2010
Uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14 is associated with well-recognized phenotypes, depending on the parent of origin. Studies in mouse models and human patients have implicated the involvement of the distal region of the long arm of chromosome 14 in the distinctive phenotypes. This involvement is supported by the identification ...
Sharp Andrew J - - 2010
The maternal and paternal genomes possess distinct epigenetic marks that distinguish them at imprinted loci. In order to identify imprinted loci, we used a novel method, taking advantage of the fact that uniparental disomy (UPD) provides a system that allows the two parental chromosomes to be studied independently. We profiled ...
Cardarelli Laura - - 2010
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon resulting in differential expression of maternal and paternal alleles of a subset of genes. In the mouse, mutation of imprinted genes often results in contrasting phenotypes, depending on parental origin. The overgrowth-associated Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and the growth restriction-associated Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) have been ...
Nimmo Graeme - - 2010
Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) is an autosomal-recessive disorder resulting from mutations in one of three peroxisomal genes essential for ether lipid biosynthesis, PEX7 (RCDP1), GNPAT (RCDP2), and AGPS (RCDP3). Affected patients have characteristic features including shortening of the proximal long bones, epiphyseal stippling, bilateral cataracts, growth and developmental delays. Whereas ...
Duker Angela L - - 2010
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurobehavioral disorder manifested by infantile hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy, followed by morbid obesity secondary to hyperphagia. It is caused by deficiency of paternally expressed transcript(s) within the human chromosome region 15q11.2. PWS patients harboring balanced chromosomal translocations with breakpoints within small nuclear ribonucleoprotein ...
Manoli Irini - - 2010
Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by variable oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, mild bleeding diathesis, and an accelerated lymphoproliferative state. Abnormal lysosome-related organelle membrane function leads to the accumulation of large intracellular vesicles in several cell types, including granulocytes, melanocytes, and platelets. This report describes a severe ...
Kagami Masayo M Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, - - 2010
Human chromosome 14q32.2 harbors the germline-derived primary DLK1-MEG3 intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) and the postfertilization-derived secondary MEG3-DMR, together with multiple imprinted genes. Although previous studies in cases with microdeletions and epimutations affecting both DMRs and paternal/maternal uniparental disomy 14-like phenotypes argue for a critical regulatory function of the two ...
Castanet Mireille - - 2010
CONTEXT: Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in forkhead box E1/thyroid transcription factor 2 (FOXE1/TTF-2) cause syndromic congenital hypothyroidism, with thyroid dysgenesis, cleft palate, spiky hair, and variable choanal atresia and bifid epiglottis in three cases reported hitherto. We have elucidated the molecular basis of the disorder in a female with a similar ...
Sumida Noriyuki - - 2010
Distant interactions among chromosomal loci are increasingly being seen as an important third dimension of genome biology. Thus, chromatin fibres can interact in cis and in trans to form chromatin loops and bridges, respectively. While it is generally assumed that regulatory elements from neighbouring domains or from other chromosomes interact ...
Le Bouc Y - - 2010
Epigenetic mechanisms play a key role in regulating gene expression. One hallmark of these modifications is DNA methylation at cytosine residues of CpG dinucleotides in gene promoters, transposons and imprinting control regions. Genomic imprinting refers to an epigenetic marking of genes that results in monoallelic expression depending on their parental ...
Chamberlain Stormy J - - 2010
Human chromosome 15q11-q13 is subject to regulation by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic process by which genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin specific manner. Three neurodevelopmental disorders, Prader-Willi syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and 15q duplication syndrome, result from aberrant expression of imprinted genes in this region. Here, we review the current literature ...
Prando Carolina - - 2010
Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency associated with clinical disease caused by weakly virulent mycobacterial species. Interferon gamma receptor 1 (IFN-gammaR1) deficiency is a genetic etiology of MSMD. We describe the clinical and genetic features of a 7-year-old Italian boy suffering from MSMD associated with ...
Ko Jung Min - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported the effects of parental origin of the X chromosome on specific phenotypic and cognitive profiles in Turner syndrome (TS). Here, we investigate the possible parent-of-origin effects on physical phenotypes and responsiveness to GH in Korean patients with TS. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Thirty-three patients with TS ...
Alsum Zobaida - - 2010
Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1b (PHP1b) is a rare metabolic bone disorder characterized by isolated renal parathyroid hormone resistance. The disorder is almost always associated with an imprinting defect or deletions in the differentially methylated region of the GNAS locus located on chromosome 20q13. In addition to the epigenetic and genetic aberrations ...
Conlin Laura K - - 2010
Mosaic aneuploidy and uniparental disomy (UPD) arise from mitotic or meiotic events. There are differences between these mechanisms in terms of (i) impact on embryonic development; (ii) co-occurrence of mosaic trisomy and UPD and (iii) potential recurrence risks. We used a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to study patients ...
Stanke Frauke - - 2010
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease characterized by a high variability of disease severity and outcome that points to the role of environmental factors and modulating genes that shape the course of this multiorgan disease. We genotyped families of cystic fibrosis sib pairs homozygous for F508del-CFTR who represent extreme ...
Menon Debashish U - - 2010
Germ line imprinting produces parent-specific differences in the behavior of chromosomes or expression of genes. Epigenetic marks, placed on chromosomes in the parental germ line, govern classical imprinted effects such as chromosomal inactivation, chromosome elimination and mono-allelic expression. Germ line imprinting occurs in insects, plants and mammals. Several Drosophila systems ...
MacDonald William A - - 2010
BACKGROUND: CTCF is a versatile zinc finger DNA-binding protein that functions as a highly conserved epigenetic transcriptional regulator. CTCF is known to act as a chromosomal insulator, bind promoter regions, and facilitate long-range chromatin interactions. In mammals, CTCF is active in the regulatory regions of some genes that exhibit genomic ...
Liehr Thomas - - 2010
Uniparental disomy (UPD) is often considered as an event to be characterized exclusively by molecular genetic or epigenetic approaches. This review shows that at least one third of UPD cases emerge in connection with or due to a chromosomal rearrangement. Thus, additional (molecular) cytogenetic characterization of UPD cases is essential. ...
Eggermann Thomas - - 2010
Imprinted genes with a parent-of-origin specific expression are involved in various aspects of growth that are rooted in the prenatal period. Therefore it is predictable that many of the so far known congenital imprinting disorders (IDs) are clinically characterised by growth disturbances. A noteable imprinting disorder is Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), ...
Buchold Gregory M - - 2010
Only thirteen microRNAs are conserved between D. melanogaster and the mouse; however, conditional loss of miRNA function through mutation of Dicer causes defects in proliferation of premeiotic germ cells in both species. This highlights the potentially important, but uncharacterized, role of miRNAs during early spermatogenesis. The goal of this study ...
Ferrer-Bolufer Irene - - 2009
Uniparental isodisomy arises when an individual inherits two copies of a specific chromosome from a single parent, which can unmask a recessive mutation or cause a problem of genetic imprinting. Here we describe an exceptional case in which the patient simultaneously presents tyrosinemia type 1 and Angelman syndrome. The genetic ...
Wawrzik Michaela - - 2010
C15orf2 (Chromosome 15 open reading frame 2) is an intronless gene, which is located in the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) chromosomal region on human chromosome 15. Mice do not have an orthologous gene. Here we show that expression of C15orf2 in the fetal human brain is imprinted. Using Western blot and ...
Kanber Deniz - - 2009
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic process leading to parent-of-origin-specific DNA methylation and gene expression. To date, approximately 60 imprinted human genes are known. Based on genome-wide methylation analysis of a patient with multiple imprinting defects, we have identified a differentially methylated CpG island in intron 2 of the retinoblastoma (RB1) ...
Sandhu Kuljeet Singh - - 2009
Recent observations highlight that the mammalian genome extensively communicates with itself via long-range chromatin interactions. The causal link between such chromatin cross-talk and epigenetic states is, however, poorly understood. We identify here a network of physically juxtaposed regions from the entire genome with the common denominator of being genomically imprinted. ...
Horike Shin-Ichi - - 2009
Over a 10-year period blood samples were collected from 57 individuals with growth restriction and RSS-like features. Our goal was to identify epigenetic abnormalities in this cohort, including uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 (UPD7), methylation changes at chromosome 11p15, as well as new epigenomic alterations. We evaluated the methylation status ...
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