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Ackert-Bicknell Cheryl C The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, - - 2013
In the past 15 years, the quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approach has been applied to crosses between different inbred mouse strains to identify genetic loci associated with plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Although successful, a disadvantage of this method is low mapping resolution, as often several hundred candidate genes fall ...
Bischoff Steve R - - 2013
To gain insight into differences in placental physiology between two swine breeds noted for their dissimilar reproductive performance, that is, the Chinese Meishan and white composite (WC), we examined gene expression profiles of placental tissues collected at 25, 45, 65, 85, and 105 days of gestation by microarrays. Using a ...
Alshahid Maie M King Faisal Heart Institute, MBC-16, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh 11211, Saudi - - 2013
The muscle Ras (MRAS) gene resides on chromosome 3q22.3 and encodes a member of the membrane-associated Ras small GTPase proteins, which function as signal transducers in multiple processes including cell growth and differentiation. Its role in cardiovascular disease is not fully understood yet. In a preliminary study in heterozygous familial ...
Bennett Dion - - 2012
A large proportion of the worlds' wheat growing regions suffers water and/or heat stress at some stage during the crop growth cycle. With few exceptions, there has been no utilisation of managed environments to screen mapping populations under repeatable abiotic stress conditions, such as the facilities developed by the International ...
Chen Guangbo - - 2012
Aneuploidy--the state of having uneven numbers of chromosomes--is a hallmark of cancer and a feature identified in yeast from diverse habitats. Recent studies have shown that aneuploidy is a form of large-effect mutation that is able to confer adaptive phenotypes under diverse stress conditions. Here we investigate whether pleiotropic stress ...
Dickey Cherec - - 2012
The SHR Y chromosome has loci which are involved with behavioral, endocrine and brain phenotypes and respond to acute stress to a different degree than that of the WKY Y chromosome. The objectives were to determine if WKY males with an SHR Y chromosome (SHR/y) when compared to males with ...
Pagano Giovanni - - 2012
Down syndrome (DS) or trisomy 21 is the genetic disease with highest prevalence displaying phenotypic features that both include neurologic deficiencies and a number of clinical outcomes. DS-associated neurodegeneration recalls the clinical course of Alzheimer disease (AD), due to DS progression toward dementia and amyloid plaques reminiscent of AD clinical ...
Kumar Manoj - - 2012
Premature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as the cessation of ovarian function under the age of 40 yr and is characterized by amenorrhoea, hypoestrogenism and elevated serum gonadotrophin levels. The cause of POF remains undetermined in majority of the cases. This study was aimed to investigate the type and frequency ...
Koo Dal-Hoe - - 2011
Centromeres are determined by poorly understood epigenetic mechanisms. Centromeres can be activated or inactivated without changing the underlying DNA sequences. However, virtually nothing is known about the epigenetic transition of a centromere from an active to an inactive state because of the lack of examples of the same centromere exhibiting ...
Muñiz Ortiz Jorge G - - 2011
The mechanisms by which exposure to arsenic induces its myriad pathological effects are undoubtedly complex, while individual susceptibility to their type and severity is likely to be strongly influenced by genetic factors. Human metabolism of arsenic into methylated derivatives, once presumed to result in detoxification, may actually produce species with ...
Cryderman Diane E - - 2011
The Drosophila melanogaster fourth chromosome contains interspersed domains of active and repressive chromatin. We investigated a stock harboring a silenced transgene inserted into Dyrk3 and near Caps-two expressed genes on chromosome four. In an HP1a-deficient background, transgene expression was activated while, paradoxically, expression of Dyrk3 and Caps was reduced. We ...
Koryakov Dmitry E - - 2011
In the present work, we found that the SUUR protein is required for the SU(VAR)3-9 enzyme to bind to the salivary gland polytene chromosomes. The SuUR mutation results in loss of SU(VAR)3-9 on the chromosomes, whereas artificial expression of the SuUR gene restores its binding. The SUUR protein is also ...
Feitoza Lidiane - - 2011
Eukaryotic chromosomes are organized into two large and distinct domains, euchromatin and heterochromatin, which are cytologically characterized by different degrees of chromatin compaction during interphase/prophase and by post-synthesis modifications of histones and DNA methylation. Typically, heterochromatin remains condensed during the entire cell cycle whereas euchromatin is decondensed at interphase. However, ...
Grønskov Karen - - 2011
Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is characterised by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, and body asymmetry. In 35-60% of SRS cases the paternally methylated imprinting control region (ICR) upstream of the H19 gene (H19-ICR) is hypomethylated, leading to downregulation of IGF2 and bi-allelic expression of H19. H19 and IGF2 ...
Montoro A - - 2011
Radioprotection with natural products may be relevant to the mitigation of ionizing radiation-induced damage in mammalian systems; in this sense, propolis extracts have shown effects such as antioxidant, antitumoral, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulant. We report for the first time a cytogenetic study to evaluate the radioprotective effect, in vitro, of propolis ...
Hamzi Khalil - - 2010
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is neurogenetic disorder involving the imprinting mechanism at 15q11-13 region. We report a 4-year-old girl who was referred to our laboratory to be investigated for clinical obesity, mental deficiency and respiratory problems. The patient was born for non-consanguineous and healthy biological parents. After normal pregnancy, the patient ...
Iizuka Daisuke - - 2010
Chromosomal amplifications and deletions are thought to be important events in spontaneous and radiation-induced carcinogenesis. To clarify how ionizing radiation induces mammary carcinogenesis, we characterized genomic copy number aberrations for gamma-ray-induced rat mammary carcinomas using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. We examined 14 carcinomas induced by gamma radiation (2 Gy) and ...
Bhatti Parveen - - 2010
Controversy regarding potential health risks from increased use of medical diagnostic radiologic examinations has come to public attention. We evaluated whether chromosome damage, specifically translocations, which are a potentially intermediate biomarker for cancer risk, was increased after exposure to diagnostic X-rays, with particular interest in the ionizing radiation dose-response below ...
Eskiocak Ugur - - 2010
Radiation-induced carcinogenesis is a major concern both for astronauts on long-term space missions and for cancer patients being treated with therapeutic radiation. Exposure to radiation induces oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, which are critical initiators and promoters of carcinogenesis. Many studies have demonstrated that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antioxidants can ...
Pignalosa D - - 2010
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a known radiation-induced tumor. Rearrangements in human chromosome 10 and in particular intrachromosomal exchanges are often associated with PTC formation. In this study we measured intrachromosomal exchanges in human thyroid follicular cells exposed to sparsely or densely ionizing radiation. Assuming that inversions in chromosome 10 ...
Zakeri F - - 2010
Interventional cardiologists (ICs) are likely to receive high radiation exposure as a result of procedures they undertake. To assess the effects of low-dose X-ray radiation exposure on chromosomal damage and on selected indices of cellular and humoral immunity in ICs. The study population consisted of 37 ICs and 37 clinical ...
Terzoudi G I - - 2010
The established dogma in radiation sciences that underlies radiation protection and therapeutic applications is that radiation effects require induction of DNA damage only in cells that are directly hit by the radiation. However, extensive work during the last decade demonstrates that DNA damage responses can be detected in cells that ...
Jovici? Dubravka - - 2010
We have analyzed the frequency of premature centromeric division (PCD) in medical personnel professionally exposed to low doses of radiation. They had chromosome aberrations (CAs) involving dicentric chromosomes, ring chromosomes, acentric fragments, chromosome breaks, and chromatid breaks. The study included 30 exposed subjects and 23 controls who were each analyzed ...
Ritter Sylvia - - 2010
Heavy-ion radiobiology is attracting increasing interest for its implications in radiation oncology and space radiation protection. The analysis of chromosome aberrations induced by heavy-ions started already in the 1960s, but the new FISH-painting methodologies are revealing unique features of the action of the heavy charged particles. Heavy-ions induce a high ...
Eken Ayşe - - 2010
Ionizing radiation is known to induce mutations and cell transformations, predominantly by causing single-strand and double-strand DNA breakage, thereby leading to chromosome instability and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxic effects in hospital staff exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation in comparison with a selected control group, ...
Bryant Peter E - - 2010
Although much is now known about the mechanisms of radiation-induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), there is less known about the conversion of DSB into chromosomal aberrations. In particular the induction and 'rejoining' of chromatid breaks has been a controversial topic for many years. However, its importance becomes clear in ...
George K - - 2010
Cytogenetic damage was assessed in blood lymphocytes from 16 astronauts before and after they participated in long-duration space missions of 3 months or more. The frequency of chromosome damage was measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting before flight and at various intervals from a few days to ...
Fenech Michael - - 2010
The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN Cyt) assay is one of the best-validated methods for measuring chromosome damage in human lymphocytes. This paper describes the methodology, biology, and mechanisms underlying the application of this technique for biodosimetry following exposure to ionizing radiation. Apart from the measurement of micronuclei, it is also ...
Suzuki Go - - 2010
Onion, Allium cepa, is a model plant for experimental observation of somatic cell division, whose mitotic chromosome is extremely large, and contains the characteristic terminal heterochromatin. Epigenetic status of the onion chromosome is a matter of deep interest from a molecular cytogenetic point of view, because epigenetic marks regulate chromatin ...
Tsui Dana W Y - - 2010
Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal aneuploidy by maternal plasma analysis is challenging owing to the low fractional and absolute concentrations of fetal DNA in maternal plasma. Previously, we demonstrated for the first time that fetal DNA in maternal plasma could be specifically targeted by epigenetic (DNA methylation) signatures in the ...
Lindholm Carita - - 2010
A large number of studies have revealed that irradiated subjects produce soluble factors found in their blood plasma which, when transferred into cell cultures from non-irradiated individuals, show clastogenic (chromosome breaking) activity. Increased yields of chromatid-type aberrations have been characteristic in most of these studies. Exposed cohorts of various origins ...
Aseeva Elena A - - 2010
A comparative analysis of the distribution and the frequency of multiaberrant cells (MAC) among lymphocytes in different categories of low dose (up to 0.5 Gy) irradiated people was carried out. The highest MAC frequency was observed in people exposed to alpha-radiation (Pu, Rn) and in cosmonauts. This fact allows MAC ...
Ainsbury E A - - 2009
The international radiation biodosimetry community has recently been engaged in activities focused on establishing cooperative networks for biodosimetric triage for radiation emergency scenarios involving mass casualties. To this end, there have been several recent publications in the literature regarding the potential for shared scoring in such an accident or incident. ...
Belloni Paola - - 2010
To evaluate the effect of storage conditions of blood on the direct relationship between radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and apoptosis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, whole blood was irradiated with 3Gy X-rays. Directly after irradiation, a sample of blood was analyzed for chromosome damage and proliferation index, after phytohaemagglutinin stimulation and ...
Hille Andrea - - 2010
The aim of the study was to compare the spontaneous and ex vivo radiation-induced chromosomal damage in lymphocytes of untreated prostate cancer patients and age-matched healthy donors, and to evaluate the chromosomal damage, induced by radiotherapy, and its persistence. Blood samples from 102 prostate cancer patients were obtained before radiotherapy ...
Geng-Sheng Cao - - 2009
X inactivation is the process of a chromosome-wide silencing of the majority of genes on the X chromosome during early mammalian development. This process may be aberrant in cloned animals. Here we show that repressive modifications, such as methylation of DNA, and the presence of methylated histones, H3K9me2 and H3K27me3, ...
Tawn E J - - 2009
Using a single colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation technique, dose-responses were derived for a range of chromosomally aberrant cell types and categories of aberrations induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes by alpha-particle radiation and analysed in their first in vitro division. For a range of doses that resulted predominantly in targeted ...
Lee Sang Eun - - 2009
Chromosome integrity in response to chemically or radiation-induced chromosome breaks and the perturbation of ongoing replication forks relies on multiple DNA repair mechanisms. However, repair of these lesions may lead to unwanted chromosome rearrangement if not properly executed or regulated. As these types of chromosomal alterations threaten the cell's and ...
Joksić Gordana - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate radioprotective properties of Echinacea purpurea tablets in vivo. We analysed lymphocyte chromosome aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN), apoptosis of leukocytes and haematological parameters in a group of radiation workers who were identified as carrying dicentric chromosomes in their lymphocytes. All radiation workers were ...
Liu Q - - 2009
The objective of this study was to assess the radiation exposure levels in victims of a (60)Co radiation accident using chromosome aberration analysis and the micronucleus assay. Peripheral blood samples were collected from three victims exposed to (60)Co 10 days after the accident and were used for the chromosome aberration ...
Wu Xingen - - 2009
PURPOSE: To find the coefficients for bi- and tri-exponential fitting functions to represent the radial dose functions of 16 commercially available brachytherapy sources. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The search for the coefficients was done using a genetic algorithm. Coefficients were encoded into chromosomes, which were subjected to crossover and mutation. After ...
Pujari Geetanjali - - 2009
Endogenous thiols, especially the tripeptide-reduced glutathione (GSH), are known to play an important role in cellular defense against radiation. However, there are evidences that suggest that GSH may not be an efficient protector of DNA. The present study will determine whether modulation of endogenous GSH levels protects or potentiates the ...
Cavusoglu K?ltigin - - 2009
In this study we tried to define incidence and types of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) caused by radiotherapy (RT) in circulating lymphocytes from patients with lung cancer. For this purpose, we used cumulative dose-effect relationship, and correlate these data with statistical parameters. CAs were evaluated in terms of chromosome break, dicentric, ...
Pathak Rupak - - 2009
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations lead to a plethora of detrimental effects at cellular level. Chromosome aberrations provide broad spectrum of information ranging from probability of malignant transformation to assessment of absorbed dose. Studies mapping differences in radiation sensitivities between human chromosomes are seldom undertaken. Consequently, health risk assessment based ...
Jovicic Dubravka - - 2009
Occupational exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation is a particularly delicate subject for investigation, due to the cumulative effects of chronic exposure. It is extremely important to consider and to measure the biological response to given conditions of exposure. The aim of this study was to establish possible recovery ...
Elahi Eiram - - 2009
Ionising radiation is a carcinogen capable of inducing tumours, including colorectal cancer, in both humans and animals. By backcrossing a recombinant line of Apc(Min/+) mice to the inbred BALB/c mouse strain, which is unusually sensitive to radiation-induced tumour development, we obtained panels of 2Gy-irradiated and sham-irradiated N2 Apc(Min/+) mice for ...
De Luca Julio César - - 2009
The authors analyzed the effects of chronic exposure of Argentine air crew members to low doses of ionizing radiations. Genetic damage induced by either low doses or low rates of ionizing radiation was higher than expected. Seventy-one heparinized blood samples were obtained from technical ground workers (group A; n = ...
Cavusoglu Kultigin - - 2009
The present study was carried out to evaluate the radioprotective role of lycopene on chromosomal aberrations (CAs) induced by gamma (gamma) radiation in human lymphocytes. For this purpose, we used in vitro dose-effect relationship, and correlate these data with statistical parameters. CAs were evaluated in terms of chromosome break, dicentric, ...
Milacic S - - 2009
PURPOSE: To investigate the possibility of using the granulocytes' enzymes alkaline phosphatase (L-ALP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) as biomarkers to study and analyse contamination of nuclear medicine personnel working with radionuclides (RN) when radiotoxic effects are very low, before occupational radiation illness or benign haematological disorders and malignant diseases have occurred. ...
Romm Horst - - 2009
Biological dosimetry, based on the analysis of dicentric chromosomes, is an internationally established, independent method applied in the area of radiation protection. The biodosimetry is mainly performed, in addition to physical dosimetry, with the aim of individual dose assessment, especially after unclear or suspected radiation dose exposures. However, a new ...
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