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Sotnik Natalia V NV Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), 19 Ozyorskoe Shosse, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region, 456780, Russia, - - 2014
We performed a study on the presence of chromosome aberrations in a cohort of plutonium workers of the Mayak production association (PA) with a mean age of 73.3 ± 7.2 years to see whether by multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) translocation analysis can discriminate individuals who underwent occupational exposure with internal and/or ...
Blumenthal Daniel J DJ *U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave SW, Washington,DC 20585; †Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site, PO Box 117, MS-39, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; ‡Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4301 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22203; §U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Ave SW, Washington, DC 20201; **Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD - - 2014
In the moments immediately following a nuclear detonation, casualties with a variety of injuries including trauma, burns, radiation exposure, and combined injuries would require immediate assistance. Accurate and timely radiation dose assessments, based on patient history and laboratory testing, are absolutely critical to support adequately the triage and treatment of ...
Larmuseau Maarten H D MH Laboratory of Forensic Genetics and Molecular Archaeology, UZ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Imaging & Pathology, Biomedical Forensic Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Laboratory of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Genomics, Department of Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven, - - 2014
Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are often used in addition to Y-chromosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP) to detect subtle patterns in a population genetic structure. There are, however, indications for Y-STR haplotype resemblance across different subhaplogroups within haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) which may lead to erosion in the observation of the population ...
Aoki Jun-Ya - - 2014
Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) are an economically important species in Japan. However, there are currently no methods for captive breeding and early rearing for yellowtail. Thus, the commercial cultivation of this species is reliant upon the capture of wild immature fish. Given this, there is a need to develop captive breeding ...
Ray F Andrew FA Department of Environmental & Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA, - - 2014
Chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes provide a useful measure of past exposure to ionizing radiation. Despite the widespread and successful use of the dicentric assay for retrospective biodosimetry, the approach suffers substantial drawbacks, including the fact that dicentrics in circulating blood have a rather short half-life (roughly 1-2 years by most ...
Shim Grace G Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA), DSV/IRCM/SRO-Laboratory of Radiobiology and Oncology, 18 route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses, France; Department of Radiology, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School Cancer Center, 205 South Orange Avenue, Newark, NJ 07103, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
It is well established that ionizing radiation induces chromosomal damage, both following direct radiation exposure and via non-targeted (bystander) effects, activating DNA damage repair pathways, of which the proteins are closely linked to telomeric proteins and telomere maintenance. Long-term propagation of this radiation-induced chromosomal damage during cell proliferation results in ...
Rovatsos Michail M Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Department of Ecology, Vini─Źná 7, 12844 Praha 2, Czech - - 2014
Vertebrates possess diverse sex determining systems, which differ in evolutionary stability among particular groups. It has been suggested that poikilotherms possess more frequent turnovers of sex chromosomes than homoiotherms, whose effective thermoregulation can prevent the emergence of the sex-reversals induced by environmental temperature. Squamate reptiles used to be regarded as ...
Cartwright Ian M - - 2014
In this study we evaluated the effect of linear energy transfer (LET) and chromatin structure on the induction of chromosomal inversion. High LET radiation causes more complex DNA damage than low LET radiation; this "dirty" damage is more difficult to repair and may result in an increase in inversion formation. ...
Robinson T J - - 2013
A South African endemic antelope, the Grey Rhebok (Pelea capreolus), has long been an evolutionary enigma in bovid systematics-its phylogenetic intractability attributed to its curious combination of derived and primitive morphological attributes and the consequences of a rapid radiation. By using a combination of DNA sequences, chromosomal characteristics and quantitative ...
Zhang Yang - - 2013
Ionizing radiation can lead to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) which belong to the most dangerous forms of damage to the DNA. Cells possess elaborate repair mechanisms and react in a complex manner to the emergence of DSBs. Experiments have shown that gene expression levels in irradiated cells are changed, and ...
Olme C-H - - 2013
The CBA/H mouse model of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (rAML) has been studied for decades to bring to light the molecular mechanisms associated with multistage carcinogenesis. A specific interstitial deletion of chromosome 2 found in a high proportion of rAML is recognised as the initiating event. The deletion leads to ...
Liu Qing-Jie - - 2013
In November 1992, a radiation accident occurred in Xinzhou, due to the collection by a farmer of an unused (60)Co source; 37 individuals were exposed to ionizing radiation. Three individuals died and the farmer's 19-weeks-pregnant wife suffered acute radiation symptoms. Conventional chromosome analysis, cytokinesis-block micronuclei (CBMN) assay and fluorescence in ...
Bassi F M - - 2013
Since the dawn of wheat cytogenetics, chromosome 3B has been known to harbor a gene(s) that, when removed, causes chromosome desynapsis and gametic sterility. The lack of natural genetic diversity for this gene(s) has prevented any attempt to fine map and further characterize it. Here, gamma radiation treatment was used ...
Gorelick Root - - 2013
There are two ways eukaryotes double number of chromosomes: (1) whole genome duplication (polyploidy), in which all nuclear DNA is replicated, and (2) karyotypic fission (pseudopolyploidy), in which all chromosomes are physically bifurcated. We contrast polyploidy with pseudopolyploidy, highlighting when it is crucial to look at genetic vs. genomic levels. ...
Nieri Dino D Department of Computer Science, University Roma Tre, Rome, - - 2013
Biological effects produced by low doses of ionizing radiations, though relevant for the risk assessment, have not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present work was to evaluate cytogenetic endpoints, as telomere dysfunctions and chromosome instability in the low-dose range as a function of radiation quality. In particular, we ...
Gonzalez Vasconcellos Iria - - 2013
Germ-line mutations of the retinoblastoma gene (RB1) predispose to both sporadic and radiation-induced osteosarcoma, tumors characterized by high levels of genomic instability and activation of ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres). Mice with haploinsufficiency of the Rb1 gene in the osteoblastic lineage reiterate the radiation-susceptibility to osteosarcoma seen in patients with ...
George K - - 2013
Human missions onboard the International Space Station (ISS) are increasing in duration and several astronauts have now participated in second ISS increments. The radiation environment in space is very different from terrestrial radiation exposure and it is still unclear if space flight effects and radiation from repeat missions are simply ...
Wong K F - - 2013
Dicentric assay is the international gold standard for cytogenetic biodosimetry after radiation exposure, despite being very labour-intensive, time-consuming, and highly expertise-dependent. It involves the identification of centromeres and structure of solid-stained chromosomes and the enumeration of dicentric chromosomes in a large number of first-division metaphases of cultured T lymphocytes. The ...
Bitelo Ludwig Luciane - - 2013
Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder, inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Total blood samples were collected from 20 patients with AT, 13 parents of patients, and 17 healthy volunteers. This study aimed at evaluating the frequency of chromosomal breaks in spontaneous cultures, induced by bleomycin and ionizing ...
Cao Jia - - 2013
The present study investigates cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes, derived from three victims who were unfortunately exposed to cobalt-60 (60Co) radiation (the 1999 accident occurred in a village in China's Henan province). Case A of the three victims was exposed to a higher dose of 60Co radiation than Cases B and ...
Blanchard Orland J OJ University of Florida Herbarium, Florida Museum of Natural History, 379 Dickinson Hall, P. O. Box 110575, Gainesville, Florida 32611-0575, - - 2013
Kosteletzkya C. Presl, 1835 (Malvaceae, Malvoideae, Hibisceae) includes 17 species, all but two of which are about evenly distributed between Africa and the northern Neotropics. Fifteen of the species were brought into cultivation and used in a hybridization program in an attempt to shed light on evolutionary and phytogeographic relationships ...
Stoilov Lubomir - - 2012
The potential of cytologically reconstructed barley line D-2946 to cope with the major lesions that hamper genome integrity, namely DNA single- and double-strand breaks was investigated. Strand breaks induced by γ-rays and Li ions were assessed by neutral and alkaline comet assay. Repair capacity after bleomycin treatment was evaluated by ...
Brassesco María Sol - - 2012
Ionizing radiation is the most recognized risk factor for meningioma in pediatric long-term cancer survivors. Information in this rare setting is exceptional. We report the clinical and cytogenetic findings in a radiation-induced atypical meningioma following treatment for desmoplastic medulloblastoma in a child. This is the second study to describe the ...
Pesnya Dmitry S - - 2012
The goal of this study was to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and GSM 900 modulated mobile phone radiation in the Allium cepa test. Three groups of bulbs were exposed to mobile phone radiation during 0 (sham), 3 and 9hours. A positive control group was ...
Greulich-Bode K M - - 2012
In radiotherapy the normal tissue reaction is often a limiting factor for radiation treatment. Still there is no screening method, which predicts normal tissue reaction on radiotherapy, especially in comparison to tumor tissue, and therefore allows tailoring of the radiation dose to each patient. Here, we present a case of ...
Kumar Ajay - - 2012
Development of a high quality reference sequence is a daunting task in crops like wheat with large (~17Gb), highly repetitive (>80%) and polyploid genome. To achieve complete sequence assembly of such genomes, development of a high quality physical map is a necessary first step. However, due to the lack of ...
Shimura Mari - - 2011
Although pericentromeric heterochromatin is essential for chromosome segregation, its role in humans remains controversial. Dissecting the function of HIV-1-encoded Vpr, we unraveled important properties of heterochromatin during chromosome segregation. In Vpr-expressing cells, hRad21, hSgo1, and hMis12, which are crucial for proper chromosome segregation, were displaced from the centromeres of mitotic ...
Trask J Satkoski JS Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis, 95616, USA. - - 2011
Genetic differences between Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques contribute to the phenotypic variance of clinical trials, including infection with SIVmac. The completion of the rhesus genome has facilitated the discovery of several thousand markers. We developed a genome-wide SNP map for rhesus macaques containing 3869 validated markers with an average ...
Wierinckx Anne - - 2011
Integrative genomics approaches associating DNA structure and transcriptomic analysis should allow the identification of cascades of events relating to tumour aggressiveness. While different genome alterations have been identified in pituitary tumours, none have ever been correlated with the aggressiveness. This study focused on one subtype of pituitary tumour, the prolactin ...
Wang Dian - - 2011
Complete understanding of the route of HIV-1 transmission is an important prerequisite for curbing the HIV/AIDS pandemic. So far, the known routes of HIV-1 transmission include sexual contact, needle sharing, puncture, transfusion and mother-to-child transmission. Whether HIV can be vertically transmitted from human sperm to embryo by fertilization is largely ...
Luo Ming-Cheng - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The presence of closely related genomes in polyploid species makes the assembly of total genomic sequence from shotgun sequence reads produced by the current sequencing platforms exceedingly difficult, if not impossible. Genomes of polyploid species could be sequenced following the ordered-clone sequencing approach employing contigs of bacterial artificial chromosome ...
Pérez-Luz Sara - - 2010
Artificial chromosomes and minichromosome-like episomes are large DNA molecules capable of containing whole genomic loci, and be maintained as nonintegrating, replicating molecules in proliferating human somatic cells. Authentic human artificial chromosomes are very difficult to engineer because of the difficulties associated with centromere structure, so they are not widely used ...
Park Young-Jin - - 2010
An electrophoretic karyotype of Korean Flammulina velutipes was obtained using contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) gel electrophoresis. The monokaryotic progenies (4019-20 and 4019-18) and a dikaryotic strain (4019-2018) had 6-8 chromosomes, with sizes ranging from 1.6 to 5.8 megabase (Mb) pairs. Among the 3 strains that were examined, strain 4019-20 ...
Macnab S - - 2009
Artificial chromosomes (ACs) are highly promising vectors for use in gene therapy applications. They are able to maintain expression of genomic-sized exogenous transgenes within target cells, without integrating into the host genome. Although these vectors have huge potential and benefits when compared against normal expression constructs, they are highly complex, ...
Schemerhorn Brandon J - - 2009
Ninety-four microsatellites from enriched genomic libraries of Hessian fly (Hf, Mayetiola destructor [Say]) were localized to 170 cognate clones in an Hf bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. These microsatellite-positive BAC clones were physically mapped to polytene chromosomes by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The mapped microsatellite loci can be used to ...
Ma, Lingli
Physical maps provide rapid access to any chromosomal region of interest, and serve as essential tools for the localization of genes. Of particular interest is the observation that gene clustering occurs in telomeric areas, although few genes have been mapped to the telomeric end of human chromosome 8p. In an ...
Stack S M - - 2009
The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genome is being sequenced by a consortium of laboratories in 10 countries. Seventy-seven percent of the tomato genome (DNA) is located in repeat-rich, gene-poor, pericentric heterochromatin, while 23% of the genome is located in repeat-poor, gene-rich, distal euchromatin. It is estimated that approximately 90% of ...
Yang Zhongan - - 2009
Transgenesis using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) allows greater fidelity in directing desirable expression of transgenes. Application of this technology in the optically transparent zebrafish with fluorescent protein reporters enables unparalleled visual analysis of gene expression in a living organism. We have developed a streamlined procedure of directly selecting multiple BAC ...
Shi Bu-Jun - - 2009
Large insert libraries are valuable tools for the positional cloning of genes of interest, physical mapping of chromosomes, comparative genomics, and molecular breeding. There are five types of large DNA insert libraries: cosmid, yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), bacteriophage P1, bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs) libraries. Of ...
Szinay Dóra - - 2008
Within the framework of the International Solanaceae Genome Project, the genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is currently being sequenced. We follow a 'BAC-by-BAC' approach that aims to deliver high-quality sequences of the euchromatin part of the tomato genome. BACs are selected from various libraries of the tomato genome on the ...
Ogata T - - 2008
AIMS: To determine the chromosomal location and entire sequence of Lg-FLO1, the expression of which causes the flocculation of bottom-fermenting yeast. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two cosmid clones carrying DNA from a bottom-fermenting yeast chromosome VIII right-arm end were selected by colony hybridization. Sequencing revealed that the clones contained DNA derived ...
Ogihara Fukashi - - 2008
Genomic analysis of industrial yeast strains is important for exploitation of their potential. We analysed the genomic structure of the most widely used sake yeast strain, Kyokai no. 7 (K7), by DNA microarray. Since the analysis suggested that the copy number of the AQY1-ARR3 region in the right arm of ...
Ishii Kotaro - - 2008
Sex determination in Silene latifolia uses the XX/XY system. The recent evolution of dioecy in S. latifolia provides a unique opportunity to study the early stages of Y chromosome evolution. However, the current Y chromosome map still contains many large gaps with no available markers. In this study, a sequence ...
Li Xianran - - 2008
To facilitate cloning gene(s) underlying gpa7, a deep-coverage BAC library was constructed for an isolate of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) collected from Dongxiang, Jiangxi Province, China (DXCWR). gpa7, a quantitative trait locus corresponding to grain number per panicle, is positioned in the short arm of chromosome 7. The ...
Brandt William - - 2008
Transcription factor GATA-2 is vital for both hematopoietic progenitor cell function and urogenital patterning. Transgenic mapping studies have shown that the hematopoietic and urogenital enhancers are located hundreds of kbp 5' and 3' to the Gata2 structural gene, and both are vital for embryonic development. Because the size of mammalian ...
Guimarães Patricia M - - 2008
Cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea is an allotetraploid of recent origin, with an AABB genome. In common with many other polyploids, it seems that a severe genetic bottle-neck was imposed at the species origin, via hybridisation of two wild species and spontaneous chromosome duplication. Therefore, the study of the genome of ...
Chen Liping - - 2007
Gibbons have experienced extensive karyotype rearrangements during evolution and represent an ideal model for studying the underlying molecular mechanism of evolutionary chromosomal rearrangements. It is anticipated that the cloning and sequence characterization of evolutionary chromosomal breakpoints will provide vital insights into the molecular force that has driven such a radical ...
Sahara Ken - - 2007
The successful assignment of the existing genetic linkage groups (LGs) to individual chromosomes and the second-generation linkage map obtained by mapping a large number of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, together with public nucleotide sequence databases, offer a powerful tool for the study of synteny ...
Carlson Shawn R - - 2007
Autonomous chromosomes are generated in yeast (yeast artificial chromosomes) and human fibrosarcoma cells (human artificial chromosomes) by introducing purified DNA fragments that nucleate a kinetochore, replicate, and segregate to daughter cells. These autonomous minichromosomes are convenient for manipulating and delivering DNA segments containing multiple genes. In contrast, commercial production of ...
Chandler Kelly J - - 2007
Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are excellent tools for manipulating large DNA fragments and, as a result, are increasingly utilized to engineer transgenic mice by pronuclear injection. The demand for BAC transgenic mice underscores the need for careful inspection of BAC integrity and fidelity following transgenesis, which may be crucial for ...
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