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Benn Peter P Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, - - 2014
To calculate the theoretical performance of non-invasive prenatal testing based on counting methods. The calculations were based on Gaussian distributions of the percent cell-free DNA from selected chromosome regions in affected and normal pregnancies. The means were derived from the relative genomic size of the chromosome region and the fetal ...
Basu-Roy Sayantani - - 2013
In most organisms that have been studied, crossovers formed during meiosis exhibit interference: nearby crossovers are rare. Here we provide an in-depth study of crossover interference in Arabidopsis thaliana, examining crossovers genome-wide in over 1500 backcrosses for both male and female meiosis. This unique data set allows us to take ...
Liu Qiu-Ling - - 2013
The aim of this study is to investigate genetic linkage and recombination fractions of 26 X-Chromosome short tandem repeats (X-STR) loci with two multiplex PCR systems (MX15-STR and MX12-STR). MX15-STR (including DXS7133, DXS6801, DXS981, DXS6809, DXS7424, DXS6789, DXS9898, DXS7132, GATA165B12, DXS101, DXS10075, DXS6800, GATA31E08, DXS10074 and DXS10079) and MX12-STR (including ...
Fridholm Helena - - 2013
Telomeres, the chromatin structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, are essential for chromosome stability. The telomere terminates with a TG-rich 3' overhang, which is bound by sequence-specific proteins that both protect the end and regulate the telomerase elongation process. Here, we demonstrate the presence of 3' overhangs as long ...
Johnson Emily B - - 2012
Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is susceptible to late blight, a major disease caused by Phytophthora infestans, but quantitative resistance exists in the wild tomato species S. habrochaites. Previously, we mapped several quantitative trait loci (QTL) from S. habrochaites and then introgressed each individually into S. lycopersicum. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) were ...
Val Marie-Eve - - 2012
Although bacteria with multipartite genomes are prevalent, our knowledge of the mechanisms maintaining their genome is very limited, and much remains to be learned about the structural and functional interrelationships of multiple chromosomes. Owing to its bi-chromosomal genome architecture and its importance in public health, Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent ...
Shani Tali - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Most cases of laryngeal cancer are preceded by precursor lesions which, if left untreated, can progress toward an invasive cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of chromosomal numerical aberrations in cells that were collected by noninvasive brush sampling from laryngeal lesions. METHODS: Laryngeal brush ...
Ruiz José F - - 2011
Transcription of the switch (S) regions of immunoglobulin genes in B cells generates stable R-loops that are targeted by Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID), triggering class switch recombination (CSR), as well as translocations with c-MYC responsible for Burkitt's lymphomas. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, stable R-loops are formed co-transcriptionally in mutants of ...
Vitale I - - 2011
Tetraploidy and the depolyploidization of tetraploid cells may contribute to oncogenesis. Several mechanisms have evolved to avoid the generation, survival, proliferation and depolyploidization of tetraploids. Cells that illicitly survive these checkpoints are prone to chromosomal instability and aneuploidization. Along with their replication, tetraploids constantly undergo chromosomal rearrangements that eventually lead ...
Cadwell Kevin K - - 2011
Significant inter-individual variation in G(2) chromosomal radiosensitivity, measured as radiation-induced chromatid-type aberrations in the subsequent metaphase, has been reported in peripheral blood lymphocytes of both healthy individuals and a range of cancer patients. One possible explanation for this variation is that it is driven, at least in part, by the ...
Rothman Nathaniel N Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, - - 2010
We conducted a multi-stage, genome-wide association study of bladder cancer with a primary scan of 591,637 SNPs in 3,532 affected individuals (cases) and 5,120 controls of European descent from five studies followed by a replication strategy, which included 8,382 cases and 48,275 controls from 16 studies. In a combined analysis, ...
Cetin Bulent - - 2010
Aneuploidy, or an abnormal number of chromosomes, adversely affects cell growth, but it is also linked with cancer and tumorigenesis. Now, Torres et al. (2010) help to resolve this paradox by demonstrating that aneuploid yeast cells can evolve mutations in the proteasome protein degradation pathway that alleviate imbalances in protein ...
Bermudo Raquel - - 2010
Despite its high incidence as the second most common tumor in males worldwide, primary prostate cancer has been associated with few recurrent chromosomal gains and deletions that are consistent across various studies. Few studies have explored how chromosomal alterations are coupled to abnormal gene expression. Here, we review the major ...
Roschke Anna V - - 2010
Multiple karyotypic abnormalities and chromosomal instability are characteristic features of many cancers that are relatively resistant to chemotherapeutic agents currently used in the clinic. These same features represent potentially targetable "states" that are essentially tumor specific. The assessment of the chromosomal state of a cancer cell population may provide a ...
Kjeldsen Eigil - - 2010
Human topoisomerase I has been suggested to be implicated in the maintenance of genomic stability via its ability to regulate genome topology during transcription and replication. In the present study, we demonstrate by whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis that topoisomerase I deficiency ...
Sareeboot Tawiwan - - 2011
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Genetic markers involved in prognosis of colorectal cancer are still being elucidated. In this study, genetic alterations associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer were determined using arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) and analyzed quantitatively by real-time PCR. Seven different ...
Hsiung Chao Agnes - - 2010
Genome-wide association studies of lung cancer reported in populations of European background have identified three regions on chromosomes 5p15.33, 6p21.33, and 15q25 that have achieved genome-wide significance with p-values of 10(-7) or lower. These studies have been performed primarily in cigarette smokers, raising the possibility that the observed associations could ...
Rugge Massimo - - 2010
In Barrett's mucosa, both aneuploidy and TP53 mutations are consistently recognized as markers of an increased risk of Barrett's adenocarcinoma. Overexpression of the mitotic kinase encoding gene (AURKA) results in chromosome instability (assessed from the micronuclei count) and ultimately in aneuploidy. Eighty-seven esophageal biopsy samples representative of all the phenotypic ...
Phillips Jeffrey C - - 2010
Spontaneous tumors in dogs share many of the same features of their human orthologues including clinical behavior, response to treatment, and molecular defects. It is therefore natural to consider the use of dogs and their spontaneous malignancies in the study of complex disease such as cancer. Scottish Deerhounds are a ...
Ponti Giovanni - - 2010
The multiple cancers (MC) phenotype represents an intriguing entity from both the clinical and the biomolecular points of view. Multiple cancers can arise in a patient either synchronously or metachronously and are frequently detected in hereditary disorders. Here we report the clinical and cytogenetic characterization of 48 patients developing at ...
Roschke Anna V - - 2010
Multiple karyotypic abnormalities and chromosomal instability are characteristic features of many cancers that are relatively resistant to chemotherapeutic agents currently used in the clinic. These same features represent potentially targetable "states" that are essentially tumor specific. The assessment of the chromosomal state of a cancer cell population may provide a ...
Hosein Abdel Nasser - - 2010
It has become increasingly clear that the cells within the tumor microenvironment play a critical role in cancer growth and metastasis. Studies in experimental models suggest that carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF) differ from normal fibroblasts and are capable of promoting cancer progression through a variety of mechanisms. At present, a definitive ...
Rossi Elisa - - 2010
AIMS: Topoisomerase IIalpha (TOPOIIalpha) and HER-2/neu are chromosome 17q genes coamplified in various cancers; no data exist for Barrett's oesophagus (BO) and BO adenocarcinoma (ADC). The aim was to investigate gene amplification and protein overexpression of TopoIIalpha and Her-2/neu in non-dysplastic BO, dysplastic BO, Barrett ADC, and chromosome 17 aneusomy. ...
Sage Julien - - 2010
The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor RB is the downstream mediator of a cellular pathway that is thought to prevent cancer by controlling the ability of cells to enter or exit the cell cycle in G0/G1. Recently, however, accumulating evidence has suggested that RB, its family members p107 and p130, and their ...
Coschi Courtney H - - 2010
Condensation and segregation of mitotic chromosomes is a critical process for cellular propagation, and, in mammals, mitotic errors can contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer. In this report, we demonstrate that the retinoblastoma protein (pRB), a well-known regulator of progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle, plays a ...
Bernheim Alain - - 2010
The role of acquired chromosomal rearrangements in oncogenesis (cytogenomics) and tumor progression is now well established. These alterations are multiple and diverse and the products of these rearranged genes play an essential role in the transformation and growth of cancer cells. The validity of this assumption is demonstrated by the ...
Minner Sarah - - 2010
AIMS: Y chromosome losses have been described in 10-40% of bladder cancers and were suggested to be age-related. The clinical significance of chromosome Y losses is largely unknown, since only small sets of male bladder cancer patients have been evaluated in previous studies. The aim of this study was to ...
Pino Maria S MS Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2010
The acquisition of genomic instability is a crucial feature in tumor development and there are at least 3 distinct pathways in colorectal cancer pathogenesis: the chromosomal instability (CIN), microsatellite instability, and CpG island methylator phenotype pathways. Most cases of colorectal cancer arise through the CIN pathway, which is characterized by ...
Selmecki Anna - - 2010
The genomic plasticity of Candida albicans, a commensal and common opportunistic fungal pathogen, continues to reveal unexpected surprises. Once thought to be asexual, we now know that the organism can generate genetic diversity through several mechanisms, including mating between cells of the opposite or of the same mating type and ...
Ivanov Sergey V - - 2010
The human genome encodes several hundred microRNA (miRNA) genes that produce small (21-23n) single strand regulatory RNA molecules. Although abnormal expression of miRNAs has been linked to cancer progression, the mechanisms of this dysregulation are poorly understood. Malignant mesothelioma (MM) of pleura is an aggressive and highly lethal cancer resistant ...
Demirhan Osman - - 2010
Chromosomal aberrations and instability of gene(s) are two factors related to the genetic instability of cancer cells. A loss of the tumor-suppressor function of the genes p16 and p53 is the most common event leading to the development of human cancers. Carcinoma of the lung is the leading cause of ...
Yamamoto Shogo - - 2010
In colorectal cancer (CRC) care, treatment decisions depend on the efforts to estimate the metastatic potential of tumors. The liver is one of the most common metastatic sites of CRC and the prognosis of CRC patients often reflects metastases to distant sites. To identify chromosomal aberrations associated with liver metastasis, ...
Baker Darren J - - 2010
A longstanding hypothesis in the field of cancer biology is that aneuploidy causes cancer by promoting loss of chromosomes that contain tumor suppressor genes. By crossing aneuploidyprone Bub1 hypomorphic mice onto a heterozygous null background for p53, we provided conclusive evidence for this idea.(1) Surprisingly, the tumors that developed in ...
Nussenzweig André - - 2010
Aberrant fusions between heterologous chromosomes are among the most prevalent cytogenetic abnormalities found in cancer cells. Oncogenic chromosomal translocations provide cells with a proliferative or survival advantage. They may either initiate transformation or be acquired secondarily as a result of genomic instability. Here, we highlight recent advances toward understanding the ...
Lekomtsev Sergey - - 2010
Germline mutations in the tumor-suppressor gene BRCA2 predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. BRCA2 plays a well-established role in maintaining genome stability by regulating homologous recombination. BRCA2 has more recently been implicated in cytokinesis, the final step of cell division, but the molecular basis for this remains unknown. We have ...
Thompson Sarah L - - 2010
Most solid tumors are aneuploid, having a chromosome number that is not a multiple of the haploid number, and many frequently mis-segregate whole chromosomes in a phenomenon called chromosomal instability (CIN). CIN positively correlates with poor patient prognosis, indicating that reduced mitotic fidelity contributes to cancer progression by increasing genetic ...
Unger Kristian - - 2010
Chromosomal copy number alterations and chromosomal rearrangements are frequent mutations in human cancer. Unlike copy number alterations, little is known about the role and occurrence of chromosomal rearrangements in breast cancer. This may be due to the fact that chromosome-based breakpoint analysis is widely restricted to cultured cells. In order ...
Talos Flaminia - - 2010
Cellular defects resulting in chromosomal instability and aneuploidy are the most common features of human cancers. As a major tumor suppressor and intrinsic part of several cellular checkpoints, p53 contributes to maintenance of the stability of the genetic material, both in quality (ensures faithful replication) and quantity (preservation of diploidy). ...
Stevens Joshua B - - 2010
Mitotic cell death is an important form of cell death, particularly in cancer. Chromosome fragmentation is a major form of mitotic cell death which is identifiable during common cytogenetic analysis by its unique phenotype of progressively degraded chromosomes. This morphology however, can appear similar to the morphology of premature chromosome ...
Ashktorab Hassan - - 2010
Colon cancer (CRC) development often includes chromosomal instability (CIN) leading to amplifications and deletions of large DNA segments. Epidemiological, clinical, and cytogenetic studies showed that there are considerable differences between CRC tumors from African Americans (AAs) and Caucasian patients. In this study, we determined genomic copy number aberrations in sporadic ...
Shani Tali - - 2010
Cigarette smoke creates a field of injury in the epithelial lining of the entire respiratory tract causing an increased risk for the development of malignant lesions. It is conceivable, therefore, that early genetic alterations, can be detected in oral mucosa of heavy smokers mainly those affected by lung cancer. As ...
Sotillo Rocio - - 2009
Mechanisms by which whole chromosome instability lead to tumorigenesis have eluded the cancer research field. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Baker et al. show that CIN induced by a defective mitotic checkpoint, under certain genetic and tissue contexts, leads to accelerated loss of heterozygosity of a tumor suppressor gene.
Peterson Samuel M - - 2009
The zebrafish system has been established as a useful model for the study of carcinogenesis. The cytogenetic characterization of the genome is vital for furthering our understanding of the progression of the disease. Establishing a basic description of the zebrafish chromosomal karyotype and markers for each specific chromosome permitted the ...
Garsed Dale W - - 2009
Malignant tumours are often characterised by significant rearrangement of the genome. This may be visible in the form of a deranged karyotype with both loss and gain of DNA sequences extending from chromosomal regions to whole chromosomes. In several tumour types, however, gross genomic derangements are minimal, and tumour cells ...
Panani Anna D - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and its pathogenesis is closely associated with various environmental exposures and gene alterations. The identification of genetic changes is a useful strategy toward understanding tumourigenesis and specific genetic associations. Since the tumor suppressor gene p16 located at ...
McClelland Sarah E - - 2009
Chromosomal instability (CIN) is defined as continual gain or loss of whole chromosomes or fractions of chromosomes and is a major cause of the genomic instability that characterizes most solid tumors. CIN is associated with intrinsic resistance to taxanes, acquired multidrug resistance and poor prognosis in many solid tumors, although ...
Chuang Kun-Lung - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cytogenetic marker detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH; UroVysion, Vysis, Inc., Abbott Laboratories, Des Plaines, IL, USA) in the diagnosis of bladder cancer and upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UC) in Taiwanese patients, as FISH has been used in Western countries for detecting UC, but there ...
Marella Narasimharao V - - 2009
Numerous studies indicate that the genome of higher eukaryotes is organized into distinct chromosome territories and that the 3-D arrangement of these territories may be closely connected to genomic function and the global regulation of gene expression. Despite this progress, the degree of non-random arrangement remains unclear and no overall ...
Ozery-Flato Michal - - 2009
Since the discovery of the "Philadelphia chromosome" in chronic myelogenous leukemia in 1960, there has been ongoing intensive research of chromosomal aberrations in cancer. These aberrations, which result in abnormally structured genomes, became a hallmark of cancer. Many studies provide evidence for the connection between chromosomal alterations and aberrant genes ...
Weier H-U G - - 2009
Structural chromosome aberrations are known hallmarks of many solid tumors. In the papillary form of thyroid cancer (PTC), for example, activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) genes, ret or the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type I (NTRK1) by intra- or interchromosomal rearrangements have been suggested as a cause of ...
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