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Wong Tina B - - 2012
The management of a splenectomy in a boy with an unusual form of somatic overgrowth is presented. Except for a moderately difficult airway no unusual reactions to anesthesia and surgery were encountered. Possible anesthetic implications of different somatic overgrowth syndromes in children are presented.
Wang Xiaozhu - - 2012
We have developed a novel method for genetic characterization of single cells by integrating microfluidic stretching of chromosomal DNA and fiber fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In this method, individually isolated cell nuclei were immobilized in a microchannel. Chromosomal DNA was released from the nuclei and stretched by a pressure-driven ...
Crasta Karen - - 2012
The involvement of whole-chromosome aneuploidy in tumorigenesis is the subject of debate, in large part because of the lack of insight into underlying mechanisms. Here we identify a mechanism by which errors in mitotic chromosome segregation generate DNA breaks via the formation of structures called micronuclei. Whole-chromosome-containing micronuclei form when ...
Sawitzke James A - - 2012
Circularized regions of the chromosome containing the origin of replication, oriC, can be maintained as autonomous minichromosomes, oriC plasmids. We show that oriC plasmids containing precise, pre-determined segments of the chromosome can be generated by a simple in vivo recombineering technique. We generated two such plasmids carrying fluorescent markers. These ...
Xu Jing - - 2012
During meiotic cell division, proper chromosome synapsis and accurate repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are required to maintain genomic integrity, loss of which leads to apoptosis or meiotic defects. The mechanisms underlying meiotic chromosome synapsis, DSB repair and apoptosis are not fully understood. Here, we report that the ...
Poaty Henriette - - 2012
Eleven samples of DNA from choriocarcinomas were studied by high resolution CGH-array 244 K. They were studied after histopathological confirmation of the diagnosis, of the androgenic etiology and after a microsatellite marker analysis confirming the absence of contamination of tumor DNA from maternal DNA. Three cell lines, BeWo, JAR, JEG ...
Williamson Wes D - - 2012
Chromosomes undergo extensive structural rearrangements during the cell cycle, from the most open chromatin state required for DNA replication to the highest level of compaction and condensation essential for mitotic segregation of sister chromatids. It is now widely accepted that chromatin is a highly dynamic structure that participates in all ...
Beyreuther E - - 2011
Over the past years, several in vitro studies have been performed on DNA damage induced by soft X-rays, especially in the energy range below 50 keV. Radiation effects originating from such low-energy photons are relevant in the context of medical diagnostics, for example, mammography, or of accidental exposure to scattered radiation. ...
van Dyk E - - 2011
The autosomal recessive disorder, hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1), is caused by a defective fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase enzyme. Consequently intermediate metabolites such as fumarylacetoacetate, succinylacetone and p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid accumulate. Characteristic to HT1 is the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, irrespective of dietary intervention or pharmacological treatment. Carcinogenesis may occur through a chromosomal ...
Franken Nicolaas A P - - 2011
Ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) of DNA repair-related proteins accumulated at DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites have been suggested to be a powerful biodosimetric tool. However, the relationship between IRIF induction and biologically relevant endpoints, such as cell death and formation of chromosome rearrangements is less clear, especially for high linear ...
Khan Sharik R - - 2012
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is not known to induce chromosomal fragmentation in sublethal doses, and yet UV irradiation causes genetic instability and cancer, suggesting that chromosomes are fragmented. Here we show that UV irradiation induces fragmentation in sublethal doses, but the broken chromosomes are repaired or degraded by RecBCD; therefore, to ...
Kawagoshi Taiki - - 2011
The black marsh turtle (Siebenrockiella crassicollis) has morphologically differentiated X and Y sex chromosomes. To elucidate the origin and evolutionary process of S. crassicollis X and Y chromosomes, we performed cross-species chromosome painting with chromosome-specific DNA from Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and chromosome mapping of the sex-linked genes of ...
Ethier Sylvain D - - 2011
It has been known for some time that eukaryotic genomic DNA is packaged in the form of highly organized chromatin in vivo. This organization is important not only to reduce the length of chromosomes during interphase but also because it represents a type of higher-order genome regulation mechanism. Indeed, spatial ...
Min Jaewon J Department of Biological Sciences and the Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, - - 2012
Inactivating mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 cause gross chromosomal rearrangements. Chromosome structural instability in the absence of BRCA2 is thought to result from defective homology-directed DNA repair. Here, we show that BRCA2 links the fidelity of telomere maintenance with genetic integrity. Absence of BRCA2 resulted in signs ...
Sobetzko Patrick - - 2012
In Escherichia coli crosstalk between DNA supercoiling, nucleoid-associated proteins and major RNA polymerase σ initiation factors regulates growth phase-dependent gene transcription. We show that the highly conserved spatial ordering of relevant genes along the chromosomal replichores largely corresponds both to their temporal expression patterns during growth and to an inferred ...
Oki Takahito - - 2011
We selected 16 new X chromosomal SNPs (rs4827155, rs471205, rs7884160, rs16982419, rs985251, rs3813932, rs6630351, rs4132871, rs5966270, rs7471388, rs6641116, rs6521038, rs5990560, rs5959408, rs414960, and rs3006142) and developed the two X chromosomal SNPs Octaplex systems using multiplex single base extension reactions. To make the systems more useful for analyzing degraded DNA samples, ...
Shih B - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a common fibroproliferative disorder with an unknown aetiology. Emerging evidence suggests a strong genetic component involved in the manifestation of the disease. This study aims to investigate the potential involvement of copy number variations (CNVs) in DD pathogenesis. METHODS: Array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH)(NimbleGen Human ...
Brahem Sonia - - 2011
To compare the results of cytogenetic and molecular analysis between absolute polymorphic and monomorphic teratozoospermia. The semen samples from patients with polymorphic teratozoospermia (n = 20), globozoospermia (n = 8), or macrocephalic sperm head syndrome (n = 12), and healthy fertile men (n = 20) were analyzed according to the ...
Fujiki Ryoji - - 2011
Chromatin reorganization is governed by multiple post-translational modifications of chromosomal proteins and DNA. These histone modifications are reversible, dynamic events that can regulate DNA-driven cellular processes. However, the molecular mechanisms that coordinate histone modification patterns remain largely unknown. In metazoans, reversible protein modification by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is catalysed by ...
Movafagh A - - 2011
Heterochromatin is considered to play a role in protecting the genome against mutagens. Changes in the quantity and proportion of different types of satellite DNA could increase genetic susceptibility in individuals with heterochromatic variations; they cause chromosome instability and predispose patients to malignancies. We evaluated the heterochromatin associated with chromosomes ...
Kawankar Nikesh - - 2011
Chromosomal abnormalities are important in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The purpose of this study was to identify DNA copy number variations in karyotypically normal AML patients and their correlation with immunophenotypes. Conventional comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and immunophenotyping were performed in 46 untreated ...
Debatisse Michelle - - 2011
Common fragile sites (CFSs) are large chromosomal regions prone to breakage upon replication stress that are considered a driving force of oncogenesis. CFSs were long believed to contain sequences blocking fork progression, thus impeding replication completion and leading to DNA breaks upon chromosome condensation. However, recent studies show that delayed ...
Kapusi Eszter - - 2011
Engineered minichromosomes offer an enormous opportunity to plant biotechnology as they have the potential to simultaneously transfer and stably express multiple genes. Following a top-down approach, we truncated endogenous chromosomes in barley (Hordeum vulgare) by Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of T-DNA constructs containing telomere sequences. Blocks of Arabidopsis-like telomeric repeats were inserted ...
Nagarajan Sowmya - - 2012
There are two closely related hik31 operons involved in signal transduction on the chromosome and the pSYSX plasmid in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. We studied the growth, cell morphology, and gene expression in operon and hik mutants for both copies, under different growth conditions, to examine whether ...
Schneider Björn - - 2011
Chromosomal or mutational activation of BCL6 (at 3q27) typifies diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) which in the germinal center subtype may be accompanied by focal amplification of chromosome band 13q31 effecting upregulation of miR-17∼92. Using long distance inverse-polymerase chain reaction, we mapped and sequenced six breakpoints of a complex BCL6 ...
Smith Adam C - - 2011
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome associated with genetic or epigenetic alterations in one of two imprinted domains on chromosome 11p15.5. Rarely, chromosomal translocations or inversions of chromosome 11p15.5 are associated with BWS but the molecular pathophysiology in such cases is not understood. In our series of 3 translocation ...
Borowska Natalia - - 2011
Sequential immunolocalisation of 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with chromosome-specific BAC clones were performed on Brachypodium distachyon mitotic metaphase chromosomes to determine specific DNA methylation patterns of each chromosome in the complement. In the majority of cells examined, chromosomes Bd4 and Bd5, which bear the loci of 5S ...
Lacan Marie - - 2011
The impact of the Neolithic dispersal on the western European populations is subject to continuing debate. To trace and date genetic lineages potentially brought during this transition and so understand the origin of the gene pool of current populations, we studied DNA extracted from human remains excavated in a Spanish ...
Kai Hiroomi - - 2011
PK23-2, a line of six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) originating from Pakistan, has resistance to Japanese strains I and III of the barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV). To identify the source of resistance in this line, reciprocal crosses were made between the susceptible cultivar Daisen-gold and PK23-2. Genetic analyses in ...
Kildal Wanja - - 2011
DNA ploidy analysis is useful for prognostication in cancer patients, but the genomic details underlying ploidy changes are not fully understood. To improve this understanding, we compared DNA ploidy status with karyotypic and comparative genomic hybridization data on 51 endometrial adenocarcinomas. Out of 34 DNA diploid tumors evaluated by CGH, ...
Oliveira Thiago Y - - 2012
Chromosomal translocations require formation and joining of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). These events disrupt the integrity of the genome and are involved in producing leukemias, lymphomas and sarcomas. Translocations are frequent, clonal and recurrent in mature B cell lymphomas, which bear a particularly high DNA damage burden by virtue ...
Kasparek Torben R - - 2011
Chromosomal rearrangements, which can lead to oncogene activation and tumour suppressor loss, are a hallmark of cancer cells. Such outcomes can result from both the repair and misrepair of DNA ends, which arise from a variety of lesions including DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), collapsed replication forks and dysfunctional telomeres. ...
Mata Caterina - - 2011
ObjectivesTo gain insights into ampC transmission between bacterial strains.MethodsWe examined the genetic context of 117 acquired ampC genes from 27119 Enterobacteriaceae collected between 1999 and 2007. Plasmid analysis was carried out by PCR-based replicon or relaxase typing, S1-PFGE and Southern hybridization. I-CeuI/PFGE was used for isolates not characterized by plasmid ...
Niu Ben - - 2011
The genome of Paenibacillus polymyxa M-1 consisted of a 5.8-Mb chromosome and a 360-kb plasmid. Nine sites were dedicated to nonribosomal synthesis of lipopeptides and polyketides. Eight of them were located at the chromosome, while one gene cluster predicted to encode an unknown secondary metabolite was present on the plasmid.
Zhou Yi - - 2011
In a process similar to exon splicing, ciliates use DNA splicing to produce a new somatic macronuclear genome from their germline micronuclear genome after sexual reproduction. This extra layer of DNA rearrangement permits novel mechanisms to create genetic complexity during both evolution and development. Here we describe a chimeric macronuclear ...
Janssen Aniek - - 2011
Various types of chromosomal aberrations, including numerical (aneuploidy) and structural (e.g., translocations, deletions), are commonly found in human tumors and are linked to tumorigenesis. Aneuploidy is a direct consequence of chromosome segregation errors in mitosis, whereas structural aberrations are caused by improperly repaired DNA breaks. Here, we demonstrate that chromosome ...
Schwartz Monica A - - 2011
Accurate replication and segregation of the bacterial genome are essential for cell cycle progression. We have identified a single amino acid substitution in the Caulobacter structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein that disrupts chromosome segregation and cell division. The E1076Q point mutation in the SMC ATPase domain caused a dominant-negative ...
Szardenings Florian - - 2011
Prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids can be actively segregated by partitioning (par) loci. The common ParA-encoding par loci segregate plasmids by arranging them in regular arrays over the nucleoid by an unknown mechanism. Recent observations indicate that ParA moves plasmids and chromosomes by a pulling mechanism. Even though ParAs form filaments ...
Reynolds Gloria E - - 2011
Telomerase serves to maintain telomeric repeat sequences at the ends of chromosomes. However, telomerase can also add telomeric repeat sequences at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), a process called chromosome healing. Here, we employed a method of inducing DSBs near telomeres to query the role of two proteins, PIF1 and NBS1, ...
Ansar Muhammad - - 2011
A novel locus for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI), DFNB96, was mapped to the 1p36.31-p36.13 region. A whole-genome linkage scan was performed using DNA samples from a consanguineous family from Pakistan with ARNSHI. A maximum two-point logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 3.2 was obtained at marker rs8627 (chromosome ...
Shintani Masaki - - 2011
The carbazole-degradative plasmid pCAR1 carries the class II transposon Tn4676 that contains the car and ant genes, which are essential for conversion of carbazole into anthranilate, and anthranilate into catechol, respectively. In our previous study, DNA rearrangements in pCAR1 were frequently detected in the host Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 in the ...
Yamanouchi Jun - - 2011
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by t(15;17)(q22;q21), which results in the fusion of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene at 15q22 with the retinoic acid alpha-receptor (RARA) at 17q21. We report a patient with APL carrying a new complex variant translocation (5;17;15;20). Spectral karyotyping analysis of bone marrow cells revealed ...
Huh Yang Hoon - - 2011
Although non-random sister chromatid segregation is a singular property of distributed stem cells (DSCs) that are responsible for renewing and repairing mature vertebrate tissues, both its cellular function and its molecular mechanism remain unknown. This situation persists in part because of the lack of facile methods for detecting and quantifying ...
Mierzejewska Jolanta - - 2011
While the essential role of episomal par loci in plasmid DNA partitioning has long been appreciated, the function of chromosomally encoded par loci is less clear. The chromosomal parA-parB genes are conserved throughout the bacterial kingdom and encode proteins homologous to those of the plasmidic Type I active partitioning systems. ...
Oga Atsunori - - 2011
We analyzed 10 adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) of the salivary glands by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) using DNA chips spotted with 4,030 bacterial artificial chromosome clones. After the data smoothing procedure was applied, a total of 88 DNA copy number aberrations (DCNAs) were detected. The frequent (≥30%) DCNAs were ...
Imreh Gabriela - - 2011
Although the cause and outcome of mitotic catastrophe (MC) has been thoroughly investigated, precisely how the ensuing lethality is regulated during or following this process and what signals are involved remain unknown. Moreover, the mechanism of the decision of cell death modalities following MC is still not well characterised. We ...
Roh Kyoung Ho - - 2011
In our study of the diversity of AmpC β-lactamase in clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp., we found a strain carrying plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase, ACT-1 on its chromosome. The strain was identified as Enterobacter hormaechei using phylogenetic analysis of 16s rRNA and hsp60 genes. In addition, the species was confirmed by ...
Basu Reelina - - 2011
Each mammalian female cell transcriptionally inactivates one X chromosome to balance X-linked gene dosage between males and females. This phenomenon, called X chromosome inactivation, is a perfect epigenetic event, in which two chromosomes with identical DNA sequences are solely distinguished by epigenetic modifications. In this case, epigenetic marks, such as ...
da Silva M - - 2011
Neotropical fishes have a low rate of chromosome differentiation between sexes. The present study characterizes the first meiotic analysis of sex chromosomes in the order Gymnotiformes. Gymnotus pantanal - females had 40 chromosomes (14m/sm, 26st/a) and males had 39 chromosomes (15m/sm, 24st/a), with a fundamental number of 54 - showed ...
Sharp Andrew J - - 2011
X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a dosage compensation mechanism that silences the majority of genes on one X chromosome in each female cell. To characterize epigenetic changes that accompany this process, we measured DNA methylation levels in 45,X patients carrying a single active X chromosome (X(a)), and in normal females, who ...
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