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Gorbsky Gary J GJ Cell Cycle & Cancer Biology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK, - - 2014
The spindle checkpoint is a key regulator of chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Its function is to prevent precocious anaphase onset before chromosomes have achieved bipolar attachment to the spindle. The spindle checkpoint comprises a complex set of signaling pathways that integrate microtubule dynamics, biomechanical forces at the kinetochores, ...
Godek Kristina M KM Department of Biochemistry, The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA, and at the Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766, - - 2014
Faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis is essential for genome integrity and is mediated by the bi-oriented attachment of replicated chromosomes to spindle microtubules through kinetochores. Errors in kinetochore-microtubule (k-MT) attachment that could cause chromosome mis-segregation are frequent and are corrected by the dynamic turnover of k-MT attachments. Thus, regulating the ...
Tang Ngang Heok - - 2014
Upon establishment of proper kinetochore-microtubule attachment, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) must be silenced to allow anaphase onset in which sister chromatids segregate equally to two daughter cells. However, how proper kinetochore-microtubule attachment leads to timely anaphase onset remains elusive. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of chromosome movement during anaphase A ...
Young Sarah S Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3BF, Scotland, - - 2014
Spindle length varies dramatically across species and during early development to segregate chromosomes optimally. Both intrinsic factors, such as regulatory molecules, and extrinsic factors, such as cytoplasmic volume, determine spindle length scaling. However, the properties that govern spindle shape and whether these features can be modulated remain unknown. Here, we ...
Bancroft James - - 2014
A key step of mitosis is the congression of chromosomes to the spindle equator. Congression is driven by at least two distinct mechanisms: (1) kinetochores slide along the microtubule lattice using the plus-end directed CENP-E motor, and (2) kinetochores biorientating near the pole move to the equator through microtubule depolymerisation-coupled ...
Izawa Daisuke D The Gurdon Institute and Department of Zoology, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, - - 2014
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) maintains genomic stability by delaying chromosome segregation until the last chromosome has attached to the mitotic spindle. The SAC prevents the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase from recognizing cyclin B and securin by catalysing the incorporation of the APC/C co-activator, CDC20, into a complex ...
Barisic Marin M Chromosome Instability and Dynamics Laboratory, Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto, - - 2014
Accurate chromosome segregation during cell division in metazoans relies on proper chromosome congression at the equator. Chromosome congression is achieved after bi-orientation to both spindle poles shortly after nuclear envelope breakdown, or by the coordinated action of motor proteins that slide misaligned chromosomes along pre-existing spindle microtubules. These proteins include ...
Nam Hyun-Ja HJ Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, - - 2014
Accurate segregation of duplicated chromosomes between two daughter cells depends on bipolar spindle formation, a metaphase state in which sister kinetochores are attached to microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles. To ensure bi-orientation, cells possess surveillance systems that safeguard against microtubule-kinetochore attachment defects, including the spindle assembly checkpoint and the ...
Nannas Natalie J NJ *Molecular and Cellular Biology Department, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 †FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA - - 2014
The mitotic spindle's length varies between different cell types. A simple model for spindle length regulation requires balancing two forces: pulling, due to microtubules that attach to the chromosomes at their kinetochores, and pushing, due to interactions between microtubules that emanate from opposite spindle poles. In the budding yeast, S. ...
Nguyen Alexandra L - - 2014
Meiosis I (MI), the division that generates haploids, is prone to errors that lead to aneuploidy in females. Haspin is a kinase that phosphorylates histone H3 on threonine 3 thereby recruiting Aurora kinase B (AURKB) and the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) to kinetochores to regulate mitosis. Haspin and AURKC, an ...
London Nitobe N 1] Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N., PO Box 19024, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. [2] Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Washington/Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, - - 2014
The spindle checkpoint ensures proper chromosome segregation during cell division. Unravelling checkpoint signalling has been a long-standing challenge owing to the complexity of the structures and forces that regulate chromosome segregation. New reports have now substantially advanced our understanding of checkpoint signalling mechanisms at the kinetochore, the structure that connects ...
Reinecke James B JB Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Fred and Pamela Buffet Cancer Research Center, Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, - - 2014
MICAL-L1 and EHD1 mediate recycling endosome transport during cytokinesis. Depletion of MICAL-L1 or EHD1 leads to bi-nucleation and/or multi-nucleation. In addition to regulating cytokinesis, MICAL-L1 localizes to the mitotic spindle and regulates kinetochore fiber dynamics. Depletion of MICAL-L1 leads to hyperstabilization of kinetochore fibers, defects in chromosome alignment and lagging ...
Paganelli Laetitia L UMR 1355, Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, INRA, 400 route des Chappes, F-06903, Sophia-Antipolis, France; UMR 7254, CNRS, 400 route des Chappes, F-06903, Sophia-Antipolis, France; UMR 1355, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, 400 route des Chappes, F-06903, Sophia-Antipolis, - - 2014
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a refined surveillance mechanism which ensures that chromosomes undergoing mitosis do not segregate until they are properly attached to the spindle microtubules (MT). The SAC has been extensively studied in metazoans and yeast, but little is known about its role in plants. We identified ...
McAinsh Andrew D AD Mechanochemical Cell Biology Building, Division of Biomedical Cell Biology, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Kinetochores orchestrate chromosome segregation during mitosis and must cope with dynamic forces generated by attached microtubules. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Suzuki et al. (2014) demonstrate that the constitutive centromere-associated network (CCAN) displays a complex architecture that plays a crucial role in resisting these forces.
Ma Wei W Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine, 501 DW Brooks Dr., Athens, GA, - - 2014
Accurate chromosome segregation is dependent on the formation and stability of the microtubule spindle apparatus. Meiotic spindle assembly in oocytes differs from the process used during mitosis, and is regulated by unique microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) that lack centrioles. To gain insight into the molecular composition and function of acentriolar ...
Costa Judite J Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 Institut Curie-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 144, Paris 75005 - - 2014
Proper chromosome segregation is of paramount importance for proper genetic inheritance. Defects in chromosome segregation can lead to aneuploidy, which is a hallmark of cancer cells. Eukaryotic chromosome segregation is accomplished by the bipolar spindle. Additional mechanisms, such as the spindle assembly checkpoint and centromere positioning, further help to ensure ...
Espert Antonio A Sir William Dunn School of Pathology and Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RE, England, - - 2014
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors correct attachment of chromosomes to microtubules, an important safeguard mechanism ensuring faithful chromosome segregation in eukaryotic cells. How the SAC signal is turned off once all the chromosomes have successfully attached to the spindle remains an unresolved question. Mps1 phosphorylation of Knl1 results in ...
Bloom Kerry S KS Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280; email: - - 2014
Centromeres are specialized domains of heterochromatin that provide the foundation for the kinetochore. Centromeric heterochromatin is characterized by specific histone modifications, a centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CENP-A), and the enrichment of cohesin, condensin, and topoisomerase II. Centromere DNA varies orders of magnitude in size from 125 bp (budding yeast) to ...
Chmátal Lukáš L Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, 433 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2014
Mammalian karyotypes (number and structure of chromosomes) can vary dramatically over short evolutionary time frames [1-3]. There are examples of massive karyotype conversion, from mostly telocentric (centromere terminal) to mostly metacentric (centromere internal), in 10(2)-10(5) years [4, 5]. These changes typically reflect rapid fixation of Robertsonian (Rb) fusions, a common ...
Sacristan Carlos C Molecular Cancer Research, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CG Utrecht, The - - 2014
Error-free chromosome segregation relies on stable connections between kinetochores and spindle microtubules. The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors such connections and relays their absence to the cell cycle machinery to delay cell division. The molecular network at kinetochores that is responsible for microtubule binding is integrated with the core components ...
Muñoz-Barrera Marta M Andalusian Center for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine (CABIMER), 41092 Seville, Spain; Spanish National Research Council, 41092 Seville, Spain; - - 2014
Aurora B kinase regulates the proper biorientation of sister chromatids during mitosis. Lack of Aurora B kinase function results in the inability to correct erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments and gives rise to aneuploidy. Interestingly, increased Aurora B activity also leads to problems with chromosome segregation, and overexpression of this kinase has ...
Xu Peng - - 2014
Proper alignment of duplicated chromosomes at the metaphase plate involves both motor-driven chromosome movement, and the functional and physical end-on connection (K-fiber formation) between the kinetochore and the plus-end of microtubules. The B56 family of Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunits, through their interaction with the mitotic checkpoint protein BUBR1, ...
Andrioli Nancy B NB Grupo de Investigación en Biología Evolutiva (GIBE), Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires - IEGEBA (CONICET-UBA), Intendente Güiraldes 2160 - Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EGA Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address: - - 2014
Microtubules (MT) are formed by the assembly of α- and β-tubulins and MT-associated proteins. We characterized the effects of pharmaceutical formulations containing the microtubule disruptors thiabendazole (TBZ) and griseofulvin (GF) on the mitotic machinery of plant (A. cepa) meristematic cells. GF concentrations between 10 and 250μg/ml were tested. GF induced ...
Li Cuiling C The Key Laboratory of Plant Cell Engineering and Germplasm Innovation, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, People's Republic of - - 2014
Fertile hybrids were produced with genetic material transferred from Th. intermedium into a wheat background and supply a source of genetic variation to wheat improvement. Both symmetric and asymmetric somatic hybrids have been obtained from the combination of wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Two wheat protoplast populations, ...
Lee Semin S Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University Boston, MA, - - 2014
The control of chromosome segregation relies on the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a complex regulatory system that ensures the high fidelity of chromosome segregation in higher organisms by delaying the onset of anaphase until each chromosome is properly bi-oriented on the mitotic spindle. Central to this process is the establishment ...
Hinchcliffe Edward H EH Cellular Dynamics Section, Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, Austin, MN, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The assembly of a bipolar spindle lies at the heart of mitotic chromosome segregation. In animal somatic cells, the process of spindle assembly involves multiple complex interactions between various cellular compartments, including an emerging antiparallel microtubule network, microtubule-associated motor proteins and spindle assembly factors, the cell's cortex, and the chromosomes ...
Ran Yuanyuan Y School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, PR - - 2013
The radioprotective effects of Dragon's blood (DB) and its extracts (DBE) were investigated using the chromosomal aberrant test, micronucleus and oxidative stress assay for anti-clastogenic and anti-oxidative activity. Adult BALB/C mice were exposed to the whole body irradiation with 4 Gy (60)Co γ-rays. DB and DBE were administered orally once a ...
Kitamura Yohei - - 2013
Chordomas are invasive tumors that develop from notochordal remnants and frequently occur in the skull base. The T gene and its product (brachyury) have recently been suggested to play an important role in chordoma progression. To date, few studies have investigated the relationship between the molecular/genetic characteristics of chordoma and ...
Schwarz-Finsterle Jutta - - 2013
The exposure of tumour cells to high doses of ionizing radiation can induce endopolyploidization as an escape route from cell death. This strategy generally results in mitotic catastrophe during the first few days after irradiation. However, some cells escape mitotic catastrophe, polyploidize and attempt to undergo genome reduction and de-polyploidization ...
Zhang Xiaojuan X Center for Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, - - 2013
The effect of UV irradiation on replicating cells during interphase has been studied extensively. However, how the mitotic cell responds to UV irradiation is less well defined. Herein, we found that UV-C irradiation (254 nm) increases recruitment of the spindle checkpoint proteins Mps1 and Mad2 to the kinetochore during metaphase, ...
Berardinelli Francesco - - 2013
Telomere integrity is important for chromosome stability. The main objective of our study was to investigate the relationship between telomere length modulation and mitotic chromosome segregation induced by ionizing radiation in human primary fibroblasts. We used X-rays and low-energy protons because of their ability to induce different telomeric responses. Samples ...
Hu Burong - - 2013
A major concern for bystander effects is the probability that normal healthy cells adjacent to the irradiated cells become genomically unstable and undergo further carcinogenesis after therapeutic irradiation or space mission where astronauts are exposed to low dose of heavy ions. Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. In ...
Fujii Yoshihiro - - 2013
Abstract Purpose: The impact of the damage distribution to cellular survival and chromosomal aberrations following high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation was investigated. Materials and methods: High LET iron-ions (500MeV/n, LET 200keV/μm) were delivered to G1-phase synchronized Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells located at a vertical or horizontal angle relative ...
Tsuji Hideo - - 2013
Changes in the thymic microenvironment lead to radiation-induced thymic lymphomagenesis, but the phenomena are not fully understood. Here we show that radiation-induced chromosomal instability and bystander effects occur in thymocytes and are involved in lymphomagenesis in C57BL/6 mice that have been irradiated four times with 1.8-Gy γ-rays. Reactive oxygen species ...
Baverstock Keith - - 2013
I would like to take issue with Rithidech et al., authors of the paper entitled "Lack of genomic instability in mice at low doses" [1] who claim to have shown that their results on the measurement of late occurring chromosome aberrations after irradiation of SCID mice with X-rays show that ...
Jurisic Vladimir - - 2012
A 56-year-old male with chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis and cytogenetic finding of 20q- after a period of 10 months developed acute Philadelphia-positive lymphoblastic leukemia. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood by flow cytometry showed HLA-DR, CD34, CD19, CD22, CD10, CD33, and CD11b positivity. Cytogenetic analysis revealed the presence of 20q- and Philadelphia chromosome ...
Tassano Elisa - - 2012
Abstract The incidence of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) in pediatric age is increasing in parallel with the more successful management of the primary tumor, but scanty information is available on clinical and cytogenetic characteristics. We report here on two children affected by t-MDS after chemo/radiotherapy for a primary solid tumor, ...
Su Pen-Hua - - 2012
We report on a newborn girl with facial anomalies, a congenital heart defect, severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation, feeding problems, and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Cytogenetic analysis by high resolution GTG banding showed extra chromosomal material on the short arm of one chromosome 1 of the patient, but neither ...
Ocak Z - - 2012
This is a unique case of intrachromosomal triplication of the X chromosome q arm detected with cytogenetic and spectral karyotyping in a 21-year-old woman with primary amenorrhea, who had been referred because of primary hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and Mullerian hypoplasia. Intrachromosomal triplications are rare rearrangements resulting in partial tetrasomy. Since 1993, ...
González-Yebra Beatriz - - 2012
Association between DNA alterations and clinical parameters as recurrence, survival or prognosis has been found in a variety of tumors. A clear association between Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC) and RET oncogene mutation has been accepted. Specifically M918T RET mutation represents the main genetic event in most cases of sporadic MTC ...
McCannel Tara A - - 2011
To identify genomic targets for ciliochoroidal melanoma diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Fifty-eight ciliochoroidal melanomas were analyzed by high-resolution, genome-wide, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping arrays. The 58 SNP arrays were compared to 48 HapMap normals representing both sexes and assessed with a systematic statistical method, Genomic Identification of Significant Targets ...
López Fernando - - 2011
Sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are rare tumors with no etiologic link to tobacco and alcohol, as opposed to other SCCs of the head and neck (HNSCC). Little is known about the genetic changes in sinonasal SCC. DNA copy number changes of sinonasal SCC were analyzed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe ...
Hillman S C - - 2011
Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is transforming clinical cytogenetics with its ability to interrogate the human genome at increasingly high resolution. The aim of this study was to determine whether array CGH testing in the prenatal population provides diagnostic information over conventional karyotyping. MEDLINE (1970 to December 2009), EMBASE (1980 ...
Miwa Tomoru - - 2011
: Reports of genetic analyses on pediatric gliomas are few, and those tumors have been far less characterized than adult gliomas. : To characterize the genetic and biological features of pediatric gliomas. : We investigated 23 pediatric nonependymal, nonpilocytic gliomas for chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNAs) by comparative genomic hybridization ...
Grant Paul - - 2011
This case describes for the first time a de novo chromosomal abnormality (46, XX, inv dup del(12)(qter-p13.3::p13.3-p12.3:)dn.ish inv dup del(12)(TEL-ETV6++) which produced the phenotype of a female with primary ovarian failure and subsequent osteopenia in early adult life. This warranted treatment with oestrogen replacement therapy and close supportive monitoring.
Hoang Sarah - - 2011
Mosaicism for chromosome imbalance has traditionally been detected by karyotype analysis. The introduction of array CGH into clinical diagnostic laboratories and routine clinical practice has raised concerns as to the ability of this new test to detect the presence of more than one cell line. We present our validation data ...
Micci Francesca - - 2010
Alterations of chromosome 19 are among the most frequent cytogenetic changes in ovarian carcinomas. They usually occur as added extra material of unknown origin to 19p or, less frequently, 19q but sometimes as homogeneously staining regions. The precise nature of these markers, i.e., exactly which regions of chromosome 19 are ...
Manning Melanie - - 2010
Laboratory evaluation of patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability, congenital anomalies, and dysmorphic features has changed significantly in the last several years with the introduction of microarray technologies. Using these techniques, a patient's genome can be examined for gains or losses of genetic material too small to be detected by standard ...
Myung Jae Kyung - - 2011
Liposarcoma develops extremely rarely in the oesophagus. Microscopically, it exhibits subtle atypia of H&E-stained features. Accordingly, immunohistochemical features and chromosomal alterations are used for its confirmatory diagnosis. However, cytogenetic analysis has not been performed for oesophageal liposarcoma. We studied chromosomal alterations using array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), as well as ...
Hayashi Shin - - 2011
Recent advances in the analysis of patients with congenital abnormalities using array-based comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) have uncovered two types of genomic copy-number variants (CNVs); pathogenic CNVs (pCNVs) relevant to congenital disorders and benign CNVs observed also in healthy populations, complicating the screening of disease-associated alterations by aCGH. To apply ...
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