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Oh Bong-Kyeong - - 2011
Subtelomeric chromatin modifications are important regulators of telomere length. We examined the subtelomeric DNA methylation status of 7q, 8q, 17q, 18p, 21q and XpYp in 32 pairs of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and their adjacent non-HCCs via methylation-specific PCR (quantified as methylation ratio). In addition, 10q was subjected to bisulfite-genomic-sequencing. Telomere ...
Dubruille Raphaëlle - - 2010
A critical function of telomeres is to prevent fusion of chromosome ends by the DNA repair machinery. In Drosophila somatic cells, assembly of the protecting capping complex at telomeres notably involves the recruitment of HOAP, HP1, and their recently identified partner, HipHop. We previously showed that the hiphop gene was ...
Hannes Femke - - 2010
Constitutional developmental disorders are frequently caused by terminal chromosomal deletions. The mechanisms and/or architectural features that might underlie those chromosome breakages remain largely unexplored. Because telomeres are the vital DNA protein complexes stabilizing linear chromosomes against chromosome degradation, fusion, and incomplete replication, those terminal-deleted chromosomes acquired new telomeres either by ...
Demin S - - 2011
Karyotype analysis of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was performed after DAPI-banding of metaphase chromosomes obtained from cultivated skin fibroblasts of a newborn animal. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomeric FITC-conjugated peptide nucleic acid probe was applied to map interstitial blocks of (TTAGGG)(n) repeats. Strong fluorescence in situ hybridization signals ...
DeBaryshe P G - - 2011
Repeated DNA in heterochromatin presents enormous difficulties for whole-genome sequencing; hence, sequence organization in a significant portion of the genomes of multicellular organisms is relatively unknown. Two sequenced BACs now allow us to compare telomeric retrotransposon arrays from Drosophila melanogaster telomeres with an array of telomeric retrotransposons that transposed into ...
Bennardo Nicole - - 2010
Chromosome rearrangements can form when incorrect ends are matched during end joining (EJ) repair of multiple chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs). We tested whether the ATM kinase limits chromosome rearrangements via suppressing incorrect end utilization during EJ repair of multiple DSBs. For this, we developed a system for monitoring EJ of ...
Scherthan Harry - - 2011
Attachment of telomeres to the nuclear envelope (NE) and their clustering in a chromosomal bouquet during meiotic prophase I is an evolutionary conserved event that promotes chromosome pairing and recombination. In fission yeast, bouquet formation fails when the telomeric protein Rap1 is absent or when the telomeric protein Taz1 fails ...
Moskovtsev Sergey I - - 2010
Telomeres play a fundamental role in the organization of the sperm nucleus resulting in the looped chromosome configuration and non-random positioning of chromosomes. Telomeres localize in the nuclear periphery and interact dynamically by forming dimers and tetramers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of telomere interactions ...
Mason Mark - - 2010
Cdc13 is a single stranded telomere binding protein that specifically localizes to the telomere ends of budding yeasts and is essential for cell viability. It caps the ends of chromosomes thus preventing chromosome end-to-end fusions and exonucleolytic degradation, events that could lead to genomic instability and senescence, the hallmark of ...
Ye Jing - - 2010
Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that protect the ends of human chromosomes through the formation of a 'cap', thus preventing exonucleolytic degradation, inter- and intra-chromosomal fusion, and subsequent chromosomal instability. During aging, telomere shortening correlates with tissue dysfunction and loss of renewal capacity. In human cancer, telomere dysfunction is involved in ...
Kulikowski Leslie Domenici - - 2010
Deletion of the long arm of chromosome 18 is one of the most common segmental aneusomies compatible with life and usually involves a deletion of the terminal chromosomal region. However, the mechanisms implicated in the stabilization of terminal deletions are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed a girl ...
Jain Devanshi - - 2010
The notion that telomeres are essential for chromosome linearity stems from the existence of two chief dangers: inappropriate DNA damage response (DDR) reactions that mistake natural chromosome ends for double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs), and the progressive loss of DNA from chromosomal termini due to the end replication problem. Telomeres avert ...
Takubo Kaiyo - - 2010
We monitored the telomere lengths and chromosomal instability characteristics of fibroblasts at different population doubling levels (PDLs) to gain further insight into the role of telomere shortening in chromosomal instability. We used 7 normal diploid human fibroblast strains (TIG-1, 3, 7, 103, 104, 112, and 114) and a quantitative fluorescence ...
Monaghan Pat - - 2010
Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences at the ends of eukaryote chromosomes. Telomere loss limits the number of times cells can divide and is intimately involved in cell loss and renewal. Average telomere length in cell samples generally declines with donor age but shows substantial intraspecific variation. Telomeres are potentially of ...
Putnam Christopher D - - 2010
Cells devote a significant amount of metabolism to maintaining the stability of their genome and to preventing inappropriate chromosomal rearrangements that are characteristic of many cancers. A simple genetic assay using haploid derivatives of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a means to quantitatively measure the rate at which gross chromosomal ...
Palmer Jonathan M - - 2010
Gene-silencing mechanisms are being shown to be associated with an increasing number of fungal developmental processes. Telomere position effect (TPE) is a eukaryotic phenomenon resulting in gene repression in areas immediately adjacent to telomere caps. Here, TPE is shown to regulate expression of transgenes on the left arm of chromosome ...
Motwani Tina - - 2010
The Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomere-associated protein Ccq1p has previously been shown to participate in telomerase recruitment, heterochromatin formation, and suppression of checkpoint activation. Here we characterize a critical role for Ccq1p in mitotic transit. We show that mitotic cells lacking Ccq1p lose minichromosomes at high frequencies but that conditional knockdown of ...
Di Meo G P - - 2011
A 5-year-old river buffalo cow underwent cytogenetic investigation since it had only one male offspring, apparently with normal body constitution, which died one month after birth. The female carrier had normal body conformation and internal sex adducts, as revealed by rectal palpation performed by a specialist veterinary practitioner. The cow ...
Samassekou Oumar - - 2010
The ends of human chromosomes are constituted of telomeres, a nucleoprotein complex. They are mainly formed by the entanglement of repeat DNA and telomeric and non-telomeric proteins. Telomeric sequences are lost in each cell division and this loss happens in vitro as well as in vivo. The diminution of telomere ...
Lee Yong Woo - - 2010
Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes essential for the integrity of eukaryotic chromosomes. Cellular roles of single-stranded telomeric DNA binding proteins have been extensively described in yeast and animals, but our knowledge about plant single-strand telomeric factors is rudimentary. Here, we investigated Nicotiana tabacum G-strand-specific single-stranded telomere binding proteins (GTBPs), homologs of ...
Ramírez-Zavaleta Candy Y - - 2010
Candida glabrata is a haploid opportunistic fungal pathogen that is phylogenetically related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Even though C. glabrata has no known sexual cycle, it contains, like S. cerevisiae, three mating type-like loci (MTL) called MTL1, MTL2, and MTL3, as well as most of the genes required for mating, meiosis, ...
Berardinelli F - - 2010
It is well established that high-LET radiations efficiently induce chromosome aberrations. However, data on the effect of protons on telomere maintenance, as involved in genomic stability, are scarce and contradictory. Here we demonstrate that high-LET protons induce telomere lengthening in human primary fibroblasts and that this elongation does not involve ...
Feuerhahn Sascha S Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), School of Life Sciences, Frontiers in Genetics National Center of Competence in Research, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, - - 2010
Telomeres are heterochromatic structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. As other heterochromatin regions, telomeres are transcribed, from the subtelomeric region towards chromosome ends into the long non-coding RNA TERRA. Telomere transcription is a widespread phenomenon as it has been observed in species belonging to several kingdoms of the eukaryotic ...
Pitt Christopher W - - 2010
Removal of the conserved telomere protein, Pot1, confers the immediate loss of fission yeast telomeres. This drastic phenotype has established the centrality of Pot1 for telomere maintenance but prohibited elucidation of the intermediate steps leading to telomere loss. To circumvent this problem, we have generated a conditional allele, pot1-1. We ...
Wellinger Raymund J - - 2010
Telomeres protect the ends of linear chromosomes from activities that cause sequence losses or challenge chromosome integrity. Furthermore, these ends must be hidden from detection by the DNA damage recognition and response pathways. In particular, they must not fuse with each other. These fundamental and very first functions attributed to ...
Chan Suzanne S - - 2010
The linear nature of eukaryotic chromosomes leaves natural DNA ends susceptible to triggering DNA damage responses. Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein structures that comprise the "end zone" of chromosomes. Besides having specialized sequences and structures, there are six resident proteins at telomeres that play prominent roles in protecting chromosome ends. In ...
Kinsky Slavomir - - 2010
Comparative analysis of the telomeres of distantly related species has proven to be helpful for identifying novel components involved in telomere maintenance. We therefore initiated such a study in the nonconventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Its genome encodes only a small fraction of the proteins that are typically associated with telomeres ...
McCulley Jennifer L - - 2010
The human ATM and ATR proteins participate in the DNA damage and DNA replication checkpoint pathways and are critical to maintaining genome stability. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologs of ATM and ATR are Tel1p and Mec1p, respectively. Haploid tel1 mec1 strains have very short telomeres and very high rates of chromosomal ...
Kuhn Elisabetta - - 2010
Short telomeres are one of the main genetic manifestations in human cancer, as they have been shown to play an important role in inducing chromosomal instability and in contributing to tumor progression. The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in telomere length occur in serous tubal intraepithelial ...
Vrbsky Jan - - 2010
Chromosome termini form a specialized type of heterochromatin that is important for chromosome stability. The recent discovery of telomeric RNA transcripts in yeast and vertebrates raised the question of whether RNA-based mechanisms are involved in the formation of telomeric heterochromatin. In this study, we performed detailed analysis of chromatin structure ...
Gilson Eric - - 2010
In an article published in this issue of Developmental Cell, Maria Blasco's group shows that the telomere end-binding protein TPP1 is involved in both end protection and telomerase regulation in vivo. Importantly, they highlight the relevance of telomerase activity in highly proliferative tissues and in reprogramming of cells to induced ...
Murnane John P - - 2010
Cancer cells commonly have a high rate of telomere loss, even when expressing telomerase, contributing to chromosome instability and tumor cell progression. This review addresses the hypothesis that this high rate of telomere loss results from a combination of four factors. The first factor is an increase in the frequency ...
Tejera Agueda M - - 2010
The TPP1/ACD protein (hereafter TPP1) is a component of the shelterin complex at mammalian telomeres. Here we find that Tpp1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) show increased chromosomal instability including sister chromatid fusions and chromosomes with multitelomeric signals related to telomere fragility. Tpp1 deletion decreases both TERT (the telomerase catalytic subunit) ...
Brugat Thibaut - - 2010
In somatic cells, eroded telomeres can induce DNA double-strand break signaling, leading to a form of replicative senescence or apoptosis, both of which are barriers to tumorigenesis. However, cancer cells might display telomere dysfunctions which in conjunction with defects in DNA repair and apoptosis, enables them to circumvent these pathways. ...
Fakhoury Johans - - 2010
Telomerase synthesizes telomeric sequences and is minimally composed of a reverse transcriptase (RT) known as TERT and an RNA known as TR. We reconstituted heterologous mouse (m) and human (h) TERT-TR complexes and chimeric mTERT-hTERT-hTR complexes in vitro and in immortalized human alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) cells. Our data ...
Mai Sabine - - 2010
Telomeres are the ends of chromosomes and protect them from degradation and fusion. As such, their stability is required for normal cellular function. Telomere dysfunction is found often at the origin of cellular transformation and contributes to the onset of genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer cells. In this article, ...
Huang Junjiu - - 2010
Cigarette smoke is associated with high risk of lung, cardiovascular, and degenerative diseases, reduced fertility, and possibly the health of newborns. Cigarette smoke contains many components and exerts its genotoxicity in part by generating reactive oxidative stress. Telomeres consist of repeated 'G' rich sequences and associated proteins located at the ...
Fojtová Miloslava - - 2010
The organisation of dinoflagellate chromosomes is exceptional among eukaryotes. Their genomes are the largest in the Eukarya domain, chromosomes lack histones and may exist in liquid crystalline state. Therefore, the study of the structural and functional properties of dinoflagellate chromosomes is of high interest. In this work, we have analysed ...
Zielke Sandra - - 2010
Telomeres are the repetitive sequences of DNA and associated proteins that cap the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and play an essential role in maintaining chromosome stability. Compromised telomeres can lead to cell cycle arrest, senescence, apoptosis, or genetic instability, whereas maintenance of telomeres can endow cells with the capacity for ...
Uhl?rov? Radka - - 2010
Telomeres are specialized chromatin structures that are situated at the end of linear chromosomes and play an important role in cell senescence and immortalization. Here, we investigated whether changes in histone signature influence the nuclear arrangement and positioning of telomeres. Analysis of mouse embryonic fibroblasts revealed that telomeres were organized ...
Pampalona Judit - - 2010
Errors in chromosome segregation during mitosis result in aneuploidy, which in humans may play a role in the onset of neoplasia by changing gene dosage. Nearly all solid tumors exhibit genomic instability at the chromosomal level, showing both structural and numerical chromosome abnormalities. Chromosomal instability occurs early in the development ...
Amiel Tali - - 2010
Telomeres are TTAGGG repetitions at the ends of chromosomes. Functioning telomeres are essential for normal segregation and maintenance of chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic divisions. Dysfunctional telomeres support the survival of aneuploid cells, a characteristic of many human malignancies. In contrast to the non-overlapping nature of telomeres in normal nuclei, ...
Pobiega Sabrina - - 2010
Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) inhibition at telomeres ensures that native chromosome ends do not fuse together. But the occurrence and consequences of rare telomere fusions are not well understood. It is notably unclear whether a telomere fusion could be processed to restore telomere ends. Here we address the behavior of individual ...
Arnoult Nausica - - 2010
The mechanisms governing telomere replication in humans are still poorly understood. To fill this gap, we investigated the timing of replication of single telomeres in human cells. Using in situ hybridization techniques, we have found that specific telomeres have preferential time windows for replication during the S-phase and that these ...
Bendix Laila - - 2010
Short telomeres are thought to trigger senescence, most likely through a single - or a group of few - critically shortened telomeres. Such short telomeres are thought to result from a combination of gradual linear shortening resulting from the end replication problem, reflecting the division history of the cell, superimposed ...
McNees Carolyn J - - 2010
Telomere shortening caused by incomplete DNA replication is balanced by telomerase-mediated telomere extension, with evidence indicating that the shortest telomeres are preferred substrates in primary cells. Critically short telomeres are detected by the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) system. In budding yeast, the important DDR kinase Tel1 (homologue of ATM ...
Arbuckle Jesse H - - 2010
Previous research has suggested that human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) may integrate into host cell chromosomes and be vertically transmitted in the germ line, but the evidence--primarily fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)--is indirect. We sought, first, to definitively test these two hypotheses. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from families in ...
Lange Kathrin - - 2010
Telomere shortening and chromosomal instability are believed to play an important role in the development of myeloid neoplasia. So far, published data are only available on the average telomere length in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but not on the telomere length of individual chromosomes. We used ...
Traverse Karen L - - 2010
The non-LTR retrotransposons forming Drosophila telomeres constitute a robust mechanism for telomere maintenance, one which has persisted since before separation of the extant Drosophila species. These elements in D. melanogaster differ from nontelomeric retrotransposons in ways that give insight into general telomere biology. Here, we analyze telomere-specific retrotransposons from D. ...
Chavez Alejandro - - 2010
Telomeres are repetitive nucleoprotein structures that cap the ends of chromosomes. Without telomerase, telomeres shorten with replication and eventually signal cell cycle arrest (cell senescence). Homologous recombination (HR)-based mechanisms slow senescence, and distinct HR mechanisms support the growth of the rare survivors of senescence. Here, we report novel roles for ...
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