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Perkins T Alex TA Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA - - 2014
Individual-based models of infectious disease transmission depend on accurate quantification of fine-scale patterns of human movement. Existing models of movement either pertain to overly coarse scales, simulate some aspects of movement but not others, or were designed specifically for populations in developed countries. Here, we propose a generalizable framework for ...
McLeod E S ES Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G - - 2014
Approximately 84% of the energy in chicken eggs resides in the yolk. A robust model of ovarian follicle development is therefore valuable for estimating energy requirements of laying hens. The current experiment was designed to model the growth of ovarian follicles in 32-wk-old modern commercial line (CL) and unselected heritage ...
Kratsch Christina C Department for Algorithmic Bioinformatics, Heinrich Heine University, Universitätsstr. 1, 40225 Düsseldorf, - - 2014
Ancestral character state reconstruction describes a set of techniques for estimating phenotypic or genetic features of species or related individuals that are the predecessors of those present today. Such reconstructions can reach into the distant past and can provide insights into the history of a population or a set of ...
Harris Leona A LA Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628. Electronic address: - - 2014
This article reviews an effective mathematical procedure for modeling hormonal regulation of the menstrual cycle of adult women. The procedure captures the effects of hormones secreted by several glands over multiple time scales. The specific model described here consists of 13 nonlinear, delay, differential equations with 44 parameters and correctly ...
Fruth Florian F Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, Berlin, Germany; Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Even in the absence of external stimulation, the cochleas of most humans emit very faint sounds below the threshold of hearing, sounds that are known as spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. They are a signature of the active amplification mechanism in the cochlea. Emissions occur at frequencies that are unique for an ...
Lele Sanjiva K SK Aeronautics and Astronautics, Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA - - 2014
In 1992, Sir James Lighthill foresaw the dawn of a second golden age in aeroacoustics enabled by computer simulations (Hardin JC, Hussaini MY (eds) 1993 Computational aeroacoustics, New York, NY: Springer (doi:10.1007/978-1-4613-8342-0)). This review traces the progress in large-scale computations to resolve the noise-source processes and the methods devised to ...
Yadollahi A A University Health Network, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Room 12-106, 550 University Ave, Toronto, ON, M5G 2A2, Canada, - - 2014
Recently we showed that fluid accumulation in the neck can narrow the upper airway (UA) and increase its collapsibility, which may exacerbate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the available methods for measuring neck fluid volume (NFV) are inconvenient and expensive. Narrowing of the UA due to fluid accumulation could change ...
Pienkowski Martin - - 2014
Hyperacusis can be extremely debilitating, and at present there is no cure. This detailed review of the field consolidates present knowledge in the hope of facilitating future research. We review and reference the literature on hyperacusis and related areas. This is the second of a two-part review. Hyperacusis encompasses a ...
Collier Zachary A ZA US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, 696 Virginia Road, Concord, MA 01742, United - - 2014
Dredging and disposal issues often become controversial with local stakeholders because of their competing interests. These interests tend to manifest themselves in stakeholders holding onto entrenched positions, and deadlock can result without a methodology to move the stakeholder group past the status quo. However, these situations can be represented as ...
Baumgartner Robert R Acoustics Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Wohllebengasse 12-14, A-1040 Vienna, - - 2014
Monaural spectral features are important for human sound-source localization in sagittal planes, including front-back discrimination and elevation perception. These directional features result from the acoustic filtering of incoming sounds by the listener's morphology and are described by listener-specific head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). This article proposes a probabilistic, functional model of ...
Hesford Andrew J AJ Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York - - 2014
Accurate and efficient modeling of ultrasound propagation through realistic tissue models is important to many aspects of clinical ultrasound imaging. Simplified problems with known solutions are often used to study and validate numerical methods. Greater confidence in a time-domain k-space method and a frequency-domain fast multipole method is established in ...
Dalziell Anastasia H AH Division of Evolution, Ecology and Genetics, Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200, - - 2014
Mimicry is a classical example of adaptive signal design. Here, we review the current state of research into vocal mimicry in birds. Avian vocal mimicry is a conspicuous and often spectacular form of animal communication, occurring in many distantly related species. However, the proximate and ultimate causes of vocal mimicry ...
Shamsi Hamed H Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Atatürk University, 25240 Erzurum, - - 2014
This paper investigates the utility of a likelihood ratio test (LRT) combined with an efficient adaptation procedure for the purpose of detecting the heart sound (HS) with lung sound and the lung sound only (non-HS) segments in a respiratory signal. The proposed detection method has four main stages: feature extraction, ...
Trappe Kathrin K Department of Computer Science, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 9, 14195 Berlin, Germany Robert Koch-Institute, Research Group Bioinformatics (NG4), Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin, Germany - - 2014
The landscape of structural variation (SV) including complex duplication and translocation patterns is far from resolved. SV detection tools usually exhibit low agreement, are often geared towards certain types or size ranges of variation, and struggle to correctly classify the type and exact size of SVs. We present Gustaf (Generic ...
Gentil Fernanda F IDMEC, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Clínica ORL-Dr. Eurico Almeida, Widex, ESTSP, - - 2014
Hearing is a sequence of processes in which the ear translates sound waves into electrical signals, which are then sent to the brain where they are interpreted as sound. The ossicular chain of the middle ear is formed by three ossicles (malleus, incus and stapes), of which the last and ...
Peng Ying Y Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 842 W. Taylor St, 2039 ERF, Chicago, IL, 60607, USA, - - 2014
Chest physical examination often includes performing chest percussion, which involves introducing sound stimulus to the chest wall and detecting an audible change. This approach relies on observations that underlying acoustic transmission, coupling, and resonance patterns can be altered by chest structure changes due to pathologies. More accurate detection and quantification ...
Sen I I Ipek Sen, Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Bogazici University, 34342 Bebek-Istanbul, Turkey, E-mail: - - 2014
Introduction: This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Biosignal Interpretation: Advanced Methods for Studying Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems". Objectives: This work proposes an algorithm for diagnostic classification of multi-channel respiratory sounds. Methods: 14-channel respiratory sounds are modeled assuming a 250-point second order ...
Sauzet O O AG Epidemiologie & International Public Health, Universität Bielefeld, Postfach 10 01 31, 33501 Bielefeld, - - 2014
Dichotomisation in medical research is sometimes necessary for decision-making or communication purposes. This practice has been criticised in the case of continuous data, and it has been said that means should be compared instead. However when the two groups have unequal variances, comparing means might not show the whole picture ...
Xenaki Angeliki A Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California - - 2014
Sound source localization with sensor arrays involves the estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) from a limited number of observations. Compressive sensing (CS) solves such underdetermined problems achieving sparsity, thus improved resolution, and can be solved efficiently with convex optimization. The DOA estimation problem is formulated in the CS framework and ...
Iida Kazuhiro K Faculty of Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016, - - 2014
A listener's own head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are required for accurate three-dimensional sound image control. The HRTFs of other listeners often cause front-back confusion and errors in the perception of vertical angles. However, measuring the HRTFs of all listeners for all directions of a sound source is impractical because the ...
Auvray Roman R Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7190, Institut Jean le Rond d'Alembert, LAM, F-75005, Paris, - - 2014
This paper presents two models of sound production in flute-like instruments that allow time-domain simulations. The models are based on different descriptions of the jet flow within the window of the instrument. The jet-drive model depicts the jet by its transverse perturbation that interacts with the labium to produce sound. ...
Dinnsen Daniel A DA Department of Linguistics, Indiana University , Bloomington, IN , USA - - 2014
Abstract This paper focuses on three seemingly unrelated error patterns in the sound system of a child with a phonological delay, Child 218 (male, age 4 years 6 months) and ascribes those error patterns to a larger conspiracy to eliminate fricatives from the phonetic inventory. Employing Optimality Theory for its ...
Wilson-Barlow Lindsay L Department of Psychology, Texas Tech University, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Healthy eating and weight self-efficacy occurs when individuals believe they can obtain and maintain a healthy weight and eating pattern. The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate the Healthy Eating and Weight Self-Efficacy (HEWSE) Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the best fitting model is comprised of ...
Muñoz-Soriano Verónica V Departamento de Genética, Facultad CC Biológicas, Universidad de Valencia, 46100, Burjasot, - - 2014
Wound healing is an essential and complex biological process that allows tissue continuity and functioning to be restored after injury. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying wound repair is essential to develop new therapies that could be useful not only to accelerate the normal healing process but also to ...
Schroeder Dustin M DM Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78758 - - 2014
Heterogeneous hydrologic, lithologic, and geologic basal boundary conditions can exert strong control on the evolution, stability, and sea level contribution of marine ice sheets. Geothermal flux is one of the most dynamically critical ice sheet boundary conditions but is extremely difficult to constrain at the scale required to understand and ...
Lian Bo B College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, - - 2014
The knowledge of physicochemical properties of organic compounds becomes increasingly important in pharmaceutical sciences, chemical engineering, and other fields. In this study, we developed UPPER (Unified Physicochemical Property Estimation Relationships), a comprehensive model for the estimation of 20 physicochemical properties of organic compounds. UPPER is a system of thermodynamically sound ...
Bender Christopher M CM Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, P.O. Box 8029, Austin, Texas - - 2014
The overall goal of this work is to quantify the effects of environmental variability and spatial sampling on the accuracy and uncertainty of estimates of the three-dimensional ocean sound-speed field. In this work, ocean sound speed estimates are obtained with acoustic data measured by a sparse autonomous observing system using ...
Ballard Megan S MS Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas - - 2014
Estimates of the spatial and temporal variability of ocean sound speed on the New Jersey shelf were obtained using acoustic signals measured by a set of freely drifting buoys. The range- and time-dependent inversion problem is computationally intensive and a linearized perturbative algorithm was applied to obtain results in an ...
Peso Parada Pablo P Multimedia Technologies Group, Department of Signal Processing and Communications, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, - - 2014
In recent years, a number of automatic detection systems for free-ranging cetaceans have been proposed that aim to detect not just surfaced, but also submerged, individuals. These systems are typically based on pattern-recognition techniques applied to underwater acoustic recordings. Using a Gaussian mixture model, a classification system was developed that ...
Francart Tom T ExpORL, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49 bus 721, B-3000 Leuven, - - 2014
McKay, Henshall, Farrell, and McDermott [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2054-2063 (2003)] developed a practical method to estimate the loudness of periodic electrical signals presented through a cochlear implant. In the present work, this method was extended to time-varying sounds based on two models of time-varying loudness for normal listeners. ...
Katz Brian F G BF Audio Acoustique, LIMSI-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91403 Orsay, - - 2014
The Interaural Time Delay (ITD) is an important binaural cue for sound source localization. Calculations of ITD values are obtained either from measured time domain Head-Related Impulse Responses (HRIRs) or from their frequency transform Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs). Numerous methods exist in current literature, based on a variety of definitions ...
Sagers Jason D JD Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, P.O. Box 8029, Austin, Texas - - 2014
Addressed is the statistical inference of the sound-speed depth profile of a thick soft seabed from broadband sound propagation data recorded in the Gulf of Oman Basin in 1977. The acoustic data are in the form of time series signals recorded on a sparse vertical line array and generated by ...
Hüttner Björn B Department of Phoniatrics and Pediatric Audiology, Medical School, University Hospital Erlangen, Bohlenplatz 21, 91054 , Erlangen, Germany, - - 2014
Laryngeal cancer due to, e.g., extensive smoking and/or alcohol consumption can necessitate the excision of the entire larynx. After such a total laryngectomy, the voice generating structures are lost and with that the quality of life of the concerning patients is drastically reduced. However, the vibrations of the remaining tissue ...
LeBert Danny C DC Cellular and Molecular Pathology Graduate Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, United - - 2014
Wound repair requires the integration of complex cellular networks to restore tissue homeostasis. Defects in wound repair are associated with human disease including pyoderma gangrenosum, a heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by unhealed wounds and chronic inflammation of unclear etiology. Despite its clinical importance, there remain significant gaps in understanding ...
Hu Xiaozhong X Laboratory of Protozoology, Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity & College of Fisheries, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, - - 2014
As eukaryotic microbial life, ciliated protozoan may be found actively growing in some extreme condition where there is a sufficient energy source to sustain it because they are exceedingly adaptable and not notably less adaptable than the prokaryotes. However, a crucial problem in the study of ciliates in extreme environments ...
Rébillat Marc M PIMM, Arts et Métiers Paristech, Paris, - - 2014
Reliable animal head-related transfer function (HRTF) estimation procedures are needed for several practical applications, for example, to investigate the neuronal mechanisms of sound localization using virtual acoustic spaces or to have a quantitative description of the different localization cues available to a given animal species. Here, two established techniques are ...
Yu Xiang X Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative - - 2014
Modeling sound transmission among acoustic media through mixed separations, consisting of both rigid/flexible structures with apertures, is a challenging task. The coexistence of both structural and acoustic transmission paths through the same coupling surface adds system complexities, hampering the use of existing sub-structuring modeling techniques when the system configuration becomes ...
Tressler James F JF Acoustics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, D.C. - - 2014
Corprene has long been used in underwater projectors and receivers as an acoustic isolation material. Based on data initially reported by Higgs and Eriksson for type DC-100 Corprene [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 46, 1254-1258 (1969)], a simple set of empirical relations is formulated that allow its density, sound speed, and ...
Mennitt Daniel D Natural Sounds and Night Skies Division, National Park Service, 1201 Oakridge Drive, Suite 100, Fort Collins, Colorado - - 2014
This paper presents a model that predicts measured sound pressure levels using geospatial features such as topography, climate, hydrology, and anthropogenic activity. The model utilizes random forest, a tree-based machine learning algorithm, which does not incorporate a priori knowledge of source characteristics or propagation mechanics. The response data encompasses 270 000 h ...
Palaparthi Anil Kumar - - 2014
Morphological design and the relationship between form and function have great influence on the functionality of a biological organ. However, the simultaneous investigation of morphological diversity and function is difficult in complex natural systems. We have developed a multi-objective optimization (MOO) approach in association with cluster analysis to study the ...
Xu Yifan Y Center for Statistical Research, Computing and Collaboration, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, - - 2014
Stereophotogrammetric digital imaging enables rapid and accurate detailed 3D wound monitoring. This rich data source was used to develop a statistically validated model to provide personalized predictive healing information for chronic wounds. 147 valid wound images were obtained from a sample of 13 category III/IV pressure ulcers from 10 individuals ...
Schneider Jennifer N JN Department of Psychology, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York Park Hall, Room 204, Buffalo, New York, 14260, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The binaural cues used by terrestrial animals for sound localization in azimuth may not always suffice for accurate sound localization underwater. The purpose of this research was to examine the theoretical limits of interaural timing and level differences available underwater using computational and physical models. A paired-hydrophone system was used ...
Dietz Martin J MJ Centre for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark, Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom, Queensland Brain Institute and Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Integrative Brain Function and School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Brisbane, - - 2014
Detecting the location of salient sounds in the environment rests on the brain's ability to use differences in sounds arriving at both ears. Functional neuroimaging studies in humans indicate that the left and right auditory hemispaces are coded asymmetrically, with a rightward attentional bias that reflects spatial attention in vision. ...
Moorad Jacob A - - 2014
Powerful multiple regression-based approaches are commonly used to measure the strength of phenotypic selection, which is the statistical association between individual fitness and trait values. Age structure and overlapping generations complicate determinations of individual fitness, contributing to the popularity of alternative methods for measuring natural selection that do not depend ...
Bar-On Lynn L Clinical Motion Analysis Laboratory, University Hospital Leuven, Belgium; KU Leuven Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, - - 2014
The first aim of this study was to systematically review and critically assess manually controlled instrumented spasticity assessment methods that combine multidimensional signals. The second aim was to extract a set of quantified parameters that are psychometrically sound to assess spasticity in a clinical setting. Electronic databases were searched to ...
Caldwell Daniel J DJ Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Numerous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), approved prior to enactment of detailed environmental risk assessment (ERA) guidance in the EU in 2006, have been detected in surface waters as a result of advancements in analytical technologies. Without adequate knowledge of the potential hazards these APIs may pose, assessing their environmental risk ...
Borker Abraham L AL Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Center for Ocean Health, University of California Santa Cruz, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, - - 2014
Although wildlife conservation actions have increased globally in number and complexity, the lack of scalable, cost-effective monitoring methods limits adaptive management and the evaluation of conservation efficacy. Automated sensors and computer-aided analyses provide a scalable and increasingly cost-effective tool for conservation monitoring. A key assumption of automated acoustic monitoring of ...
Johnson Donald J DJ School of Criminal Justice and Criminalistics, California State University, 5151 State University Drive, Los Angeles, CA, 90032; California Forensic Science Institute, California State University, 5151 State University Drive, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2014
Bloodstain pattern analysis to determine the wound-of-origin of bloodstains is problematic with nonspecific patterns. In this proof-of-concept study, the authors examined a molecular approach to correlate bloodstains with injuries using the rat as a model. Specifically, investigations were conducted on the rat brain marker, rno-miR-124-3p, with the QIAGEN miScript System ...
Eardley Will G P WG Department of Orthopaedics, James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough, - - 2014
Wound infection is a key determinant of outcome in survivors of armed conflict. One factor having potential for promoting healing, decreasing bacterial burden and influencing prognosis is the dressing that covers the ballistic-injured extremity. Although antiseptic and silver dressings are applied to acute wounds, evidence to support their use is ...
Starrfelt Jostein J Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349 Oslo, Norway. - - 2014
Process-based models of nutrient transport are often used as tools for management of eutrophic waters, as decision makers need to judge the potential effects of alternative remediation measures, under current conditions and with future land use and climate change. All modelling exercises entail uncertainty arising from various sources, such as ...
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