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Ranjbar Mani M Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Dr., Burnaby, BC V5A1S6, Canada. - - 2013
We develop an algorithm for structured prediction with nondecomposable performance measures. The algorithm learns parameters of Markov Random Fields (MRFs) and can be applied to multivariate performance measures. Examples include performance measures such as Fβ score (natural language processing), intersection over union (object category segmentation), Precision/Recall at k (search engines), ...
Takeuchi Masato M Department of Genomic Drug Discovery Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto, - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The free fatty acid FFA1 receptor and GPR120 are GPCRs whose endogenous ligands are medium- and long-chain FFAs, and they are important in regulating insulin and GLP-1 secretion respectively. Given that the ligands of FFA1 receptor and GPR120 have similar properties, selective pharmacological tools are required to ...
Shah Rashmi R RR Rashmi Shah Consultancy Ltd, Gerrards Cross, UK. - - 2013
The International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidance ICH E14 provides recommendations, focusing on a clinical 'thorough QT/QTc (TQT) study', to evaluate the QT liability of a drug during its development. An Implementation Working Group (IWG) was also established to assist the sponsors with any uncertainties and clarify any ambiguities. In ...
Friche Amélia Augusta de Lima AA Graduate Program of Public Health, School of Medicina, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. - - 2013
Although specific measurement instruments are necessary to better understand the relationship between features of neighborhoods and health, very few studies have developed instruments to measure neighborhood features in developing countries. The objective of the study was to develop valid and reliable measures of neighborhood context useful in a Latin American ...
Crespi Catherine M CM Division of Cancer Prevention and Control Research, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. - - 2013
Psychometric scales often change over time, complicating comparison of scores across different versions. The Impact of Cancer (IOC) scale was developed to measure quality of life of long-term cancer survivors. We sought to develop a method for scoring the earlier version, IOCv1, to obtain scores comparable to IOCv2, which is ...
Pluta Ryszard M - - 2013
Background and purpose: For many years survival and neurological functionality of patients were the main outcome measures after treatment of intracranial aneurysms. But, the variable outcomes of patients operated on in a delayed fashion or before the aneurysm rupture indicate that more precise measures are needed for assessment of not ...
Sato Masakaze - - 2013
Several distinctive activity patterns have been observed in the brain at rest. The aim of this study was to determine whether the STAI index can be predicted from changes in the oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations by using two-channel prefrontal cortex (PFC) NIRS data for the resting state. The study ...
Liu Honghu - - 2013
The integration of original data from multiple antiretroviral (ARV) adherence studies offers a promising, but little used method to generate evidence to advance the field. This paper provides an overview of the design and implementation of MACH14, a collaborative, multi-site study in which a large data system has been created ...
Manolopoulou Ioanna - - 2012
A primary challenge in unsupervised clustering using mixture models is the selection of a family of basis distributions flexible enough to succinctly represent the distributions of the target subpopulations. In this paper we introduce a new family of Gaussian Well distributions (GWDs) for clustering applications where the target subpopulations are ...
Rampersaud N N Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Life Sciences, The School of Pharmacy, University College London, London, UK. - - 2012
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopaminergic cell loss; however, the noradrenergic system exhibits degeneration as well. Noradrenergic deficit in PD may be responsible for certain non-motor symptoms of the pathology, including psychiatric disorders and cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to generate a ...
Zaslavsky Elena E Department of Neurology and Center for Translational Systems Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029-6574, - - 2012
The evolution of immunology research from measurements of single entities to large-scale data-intensive assays necessitates the integration of experimental work with bioinformatics and computational approaches. The introduction of physics into immunology has led to the study of new phenomena, such as cellular noise, which is likely to prove increasingly important ...
Dellinger E Patchen EP Department of Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, - - 2012
To develop a new international classification of acute pancreatitis severity on the basis of a sound conceptual framework, comprehensive review of published evidence, and worldwide consultation. The Atlanta definitions of acute pancreatitis severity are ingrained in the lexicon of pancreatologists but suboptimal because these definitions are based on empiric description ...
Liu Meizhu M Department of CISE, University of Florida, E324, CSE Building, PO Box 11612, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. - - 2012
In this paper, we consider the family of total Bregman divergences (tBDs) as an efficient and robust "distance" measure to quantify the dissimilarity between shapes. We use the tBD-based ℓ₁-norm center as the representative of a set of shapes, and call it the t-center. First, we briefly present and analyze ...
Yang Zhen Z Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Science, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2012
Genistein, one of the most active natural flavonoids, exerts various biological effects including chemoprevention, antioxidation, antiproliferation and anticancer. More than 30 clinical trials of genistein with various disease indications have been conducted to evaluate its clinical efficacy. Based on many animals and human pharmacokinetic studies, it is well known that ...
Dewaard Jack J Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA. - - 2012
Empirical tests of migration systems theory require consistent and complete data on international migration flows. Publicly available data, however, represent an inconsistent and incomplete set of measurements obtained from a variety of national data collection systems. We overcome these obstacles by standardizing the available migration reports of sending and receiving ...
Durham Elizabeth - - 2012
Record linkage is the task of identifying records from disparate data sources that refer to the same entity. It is an integral component of data processing in distributed settings, where the integration of information from multiple sources can prevent duplication and enrich overall data quality, thus enabling more detailed and ...
Healey Christopher G - - 2012
This paper describes a new method to explore and discover within a large data set. We apply techniques from preference elicitation to automatically identify data elements that are of potential interest to the viewer. These "elements of interest (EOI)" are bundled into spatially local clusters, and connected together to form ...
Boskidis Ioannis - - 2012
A groundwater monitoring and modeling program in two aquifers within the lower Nestos river basin in Northern Greece is presented. A monitoring network of 54 wells was developed in the two study areas, and groundwater level measurements and water quality sample analyses were conducted for a period of 2.5 years, from ...
Amin Leila - - 2012
Traditionally, measures have been developed using classical test theory (CTT). This study examines the psychometrics of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales (parent report) using a modern psychometric approach (i.e., Rasch analysis) to determine if further insight regarding the behavior of the measure can be gained using a modern approach. ...
McCullagh Laura - - 2012
The National Centre for Pharmacoeconomics, in collaboration with the Health Services Executive, considers the cost effectiveness of all new medicines introduced into Ireland. Health Technology Assessments (HTAs) are conducted in accordance with the existing agreed Irish HTA guidelines. These guidelines do not specify a formal analysis of value of information ...
Hillhouse Joel - - 2012
The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of self-reported skin cancer risk outcome measures proposed as standards by prevention experts to aggregated estimates of behavior from weekly diaries. Weekly electronic diaries of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) behaviors, initially validated by comparison with daily electronic diaries, were used to ...
Leach R - - 2012
The severity and location of injuries resulting from vehicular collisions are normally recorded in Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) code; we propose a system to link AIS code to a description of acute aortic syndrome (AAS), thus allowing the hypothesis that aortic injury is progressive with collision kinematics to be tested. ...
Salimi Nima - - 2012
As the amount of biomedical information available in the literature continues to increase, databases that aggregate this information continue to grow in importance and scope. The population of databases can occur either through fully automated text mining approaches or through manual curation by human subject experts. We here report our ...
Tully Mary P - - 2012
Prescribing errors that occur in hospitals have been a source of concern for decades. This narrative review describes some of the recent work in this field. There is considerable heterogeneity in definitions and methods used in research on prescribing errors. There are three definitions that are used most frequently (one ...
Bate Louise - - 2012
There is much variation in the implementation of the best available evidence into clinical practice. These gaps between evidence and practice are often a result of multiple individual decisions. When making a decision, there is so much potentially relevant information available, it is impossible to know or process it all ...
Hanrahan Kirsten - - 2012
This secondary data analysis used data mining methods to develop predictive models of child risk for distress during a healthcare procedure. Data used came from a study that predicted factors associated with children's responses to an intravenous catheter insertion while parents provided distraction coaching. From the 255 items used in ...
Burt S Alexandra - - 2012
A recent meta-analysis of 103 studies Burt (Clinical Psychology Review, 29:163-178, 2009a) highlighted the presence of etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior, such that AGG was more heritable than was RB, whereas RB was more influenced by the shared environment. Unfortunately, behavioral genetic ...
Stamp P C E - - 2012
We review the difference between standard environmental decoherence and 'intrinsic decoherence', which is taken to be an ineluctable process of Nature. Environmental decoherence is typically modelled by spin bath or oscillator modes-we review some of the unanswered questions not captured by these models, and also the application of them to ...
Hall Kevin D - - 2012
Dynamic interrelationships between food intake, energy expenditure, energy partitioning, and metabolic fuel selection underlie changes in body weight and composition. A quantitative understanding of these interrelationships is becoming increasingly important given the rise of the worldwide obesity epidemic and the widespread interest in weight management. This review describes how mathematical ...
Coussens Nathan P - - 2012
Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a traditional and powerful method for studying the linkage of ligand binding to proton uptake or release. The theoretical framework has been developed for more than two decades and numerous applications have appeared. In the current work, we explored strategic aspects of experimental design. To ...
Jayakaran Prasath - - 2012
Measurement of balance and postural performance that underpins activities of daily living is important in the rehabilitation of individuals with a lower limb amputation (LLA), and there are a number of methods and strategies available for this purpose. To provide an evidence-based choice of approach, this review aims to critically ...
Pau James W L - - 2012
Assistive devices aim to mitigate the effects of physical disability by aiding users to move their limbs or by rehabilitating through therapy. These devices are commonly embodied by robotic or exoskeletal systems that are still in development and use the electromyographic (EMG) signal to determine user intent. Not much focus ...
Nørum Ulrik - - 2012
Echolocating bats emit ultrasonic calls and listen for the returning echoes to orient and localize prey in darkness. The emitted source level, SL (estimated signal intensity 10 cm from the mouth), is adjusted dynamically from call to call in response to sensory feedback as bats approach objects. A logarithmic relationship ...
Joshi R Malatesha - - 2012
The three current models of identifying learning disabilities: discrepancy model, RtI, and Componential Model of reading are discussed in terms of their utility.
Krumbiegel Peter - - 2012
In order to achieve better mutual understanding, a uniform and unambiguous language concerning certain terms, symbols, units, and nomenclature in stable isotope - especially in (15)N tracer technique has been recommended. In particular, some definitions of fundamental terms, some nomenclature rules for stable isotopically labelled compounds and some symbols and ...
Pszczola M - - 2012
Compared with traditional selection, the use of genomic information tends to increase the accuracy of estimated breeding values (EBV). The cause of this increase is, however, unknown. To explore this phenomenon, this study investigated whether the increase in accuracy when moving from traditional (AA) to genomic selection (GG) was mainly ...
Curran Sarah A - - 2012
A biomechanical analysis of sports performance provides an objective method of determining performance of a particular sporting technique. In particular, it aims to add to the understanding of the mechanisms influencing performance, characterization of athletes and provide insights into injury predisposition. While the performance in sport of able-bodied athletes is ...
Khataee H R - - 2012
Kinesin is a protein-based natural nanomotor that transports molecular cargoes within cells by walking along microtubules. Kinesin nanomotor is considered as a bio-nanoagent which is able to sense the cell through its sensors (i.e. its heads and tail), make the decision internally and perform actions on the cell through its ...
Cochrane N J - - 2012
During the ICNARA 2 conference, a workshop was held on remineralization models. The group considered the role of remineralization models, whether there was one ideal in situ model design, what essential features should be incorporated into an in situ model, other alternative models, and what new methods for measuring remineralization ...
Sorg John C - - 2012
A previous study determined that multiple questions on a 360-degree evaluation instrument were highly correlated, suggesting possible redundancy in what was being measured, and that some questions may be eliminated. The current study uses factor analysis and examines a larger data set to further explore this question. To evaluate the ...
Adediran S A - - 2012
Fourteen lactation models were fitted to average and individual cow lactation data from pasture-based dairy systems in the Australian states of Victoria and Tasmania. The models included a new "log-quadratic" model, and a major objective was to evaluate and compare the performance of this model with the other models. Nine ...
Sangwal Keshra - - 2012
A general expression based on the concepts of the progressive nucleation mechanism is proposed in the form [Formula: see text] to describe the growth behavior of items in an individual system and a collective of systems. In the above relation, α(t) is the ratio of items N(t) at time t ...
Geller Karly S - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Physical activity (PA) research applying the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to examine group differences and/or change over time requires preliminary evidence of factorial validity and invariance. The current study examined the factorial validity and longitudinal invariance of TTM constructs recently revised for PA. METHOD: Participants from an ethnically diverse sample ...
Pesti G M - - 2012
Persons conducting research trials often want to be able to declare that treatments, or particularly products, are equivalent (will provide indistinguishable results). However, all research trials can ever provide is the probability that the observed differences in an experiment were due to chance. Also, in trials in which variances are ...
Frisell Thomas - - 2012
Twins, full siblings, and half-siblings are increasingly used as comparison groups in matched cohort and matched case-control studies. The "within-pair" estimates acquired through these comparisons are free from confounding from all factors that are shared by the siblings. This has made sibling comparisons popular in studying associations thought likely to ...
Chan Derwin King-Chung - - 2012
Integrating different theories of motivation to facilitate or predict behaviour change has received an increasing amount of attention within the health, sport and exercise science literature. A recent review article in Sports Medicine, by Keats, Emery and Finch presented an integrated model using two prominent theories in social psychology, self-determination ...
Semeere Aggrey S - - 2012
Given the recent availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings and the significant burden exacted by Kaposi's sarcoma in these areas, we reviewed data regarding the impact of ART on Kaposi's sarcoma incidence. We summarized the sizeable literature in resource-rich settings as well as emerging data from resource-limited regions. ...
Barau Caroline - - 2012
The aims were to estimate the mycophenolic acid (MPA) population pharmacokinetic parameters in paediatric liver transplant recipients, to identify the factors affecting MPA pharmacokinetics and to develop a limited sampling strategy to estimate individual MPA AUC(0,12 h). Twenty-eight children, 1.1 to 18.0 years old, received oral mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) therapy ...
Svensson Elin - - 2012
To propose a modelling strategy to efficiently integrate data from different sources in one simultaneous analysis, using nevirapine population pharmacokinetic data as an example. Data from three studies including 115 human immunodeficiency virus-infected South African adults were used. Patients were on antiretroviral therapy regimens including 200 mg nevirapine twice daily ...
Cella Massimo - - 2012
The objective of this investigation was to assess the performance of an allometric model as the basis for interpolating drug exposure in the context of pharmacokinetic bridging across paediatric subpopulations. Midazolam was selected as a paradigm compound. Two nonlinear mixed effects models were developed to describe midazolam pharmacokinetics in infants, ...
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