Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 6461
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Fröbisch Nadia B NB Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany - - 2014
Salamanders are the only tetrapods capable of fully regenerating their limbs throughout their entire lives. Much data on the underlying molecular mechanisms of limb regeneration have been gathered in recent years allowing for new comparative studies between salamanders and other tetrapods that lack this unique regenerative potential. By contrast, the ...
Yildirim Ilker I Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA, - - 2014
If a person is trained to recognize or categorize objects or events using one sensory modality, the person can often recognize or categorize those same (or similar) objects and events via a novel modality. This phenomenon is an instance of cross-modal transfer of knowledge. Here, we study the Multisensory Hypothesis ...
Gula Igor A IA The Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, 194021 Russia - - 2014
We propose the 3rd order model equation of the Jeffreys type for concentrations of gap gene proteins in order to take into account particle inertia. Gap genes are responsible for formation of body segments in D.melanogaster embryo during its early development. Usually the expression of the genes is described by ...
Huang Wei W Department of Statistics, Key Laboratory for Applied Statistics of the Ministry of Education, and School of Mathematics and Statistics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China; - - 2014
Both spatial characteristics and temporal features are often the subjects of concern in physical, social, and biological studies. This work tackles the clustering problems for time course data in which the cluster number and clustering structure change with respect to time, dubbed time-variant clustering. We developed a hierarchical model that ...
Buchholtz Emily A EA Department of Biological Sciences, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481, - - 2014
Meristic variation is often limited in serially homologous systems with high internal differentiation and high developmental modularity. The mammalian neck, an extreme example, has a fixed (at seven) count of diversely specialized segments. Imposition of the mammalian cervical constraint has been tentatively linked to the origin of the diaphragm, which ...
Bocedi Greta G Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Zoology Building, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen, AB24 2TZ, UK. - - 2014
Explaining the evolution and maintenance of polyandry remains a key challenge in evolutionary ecology. One appealing explanation is the sexually-selected sperm (SSS) hypothesis, which proposes that polyandry evolves due to indirect selection stemming from positive genetic covariance with male fertilization efficiency, and hence with a male's success in post-copulatory competition ...
da Rocha Taranto Martinelle Ferreira MF Campus Centro-Oeste Dona Lindu, Universidade Federal de São João Del-Rei, Divinópolis, - - 2014
To entomologically monitor Aedes spp. and correlate the presence of these vectors with the recent epidemic of dengue in Divinopolis, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Ovitraps were installed at 44 points in the city, covering six urban areas, from May 2011 to May 2012. After collection, the eggs were incubated until ...
Benoit Joshua B JB Department of Biological Sciences, McMicken School of Arts and Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 and Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520; email: - - 2014
Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.), vectors of African trypanosomes, are distinguished by their specialized reproductive biology, defined by adenotrophic viviparity (maternal nourishment of progeny by glandular secretions and live birth). This trait has evolved infrequently among insects and requires unique reproductive mechanisms. A key event in Glossina reproduction involves the transition ...
Monteiro Antónia A Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, and Yale-NUS-College, Singapore; email: - - 2014
This article reviews the latest developments in our understanding of the origin, development, and evolution of nymphalid butterfly eyespots. Recent contributions to this field include insights into the evolutionary and developmental origin of eyespots and their ancestral deployment on the wing, the evolution of eyespot number and eyespot sexual dimorphism, ...
Munier Francis L FL Retinoblastoma Clinic, Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital , Lausanne , - - 2014
Abstract Retinoblastoma has the unique capacity to accelerate its own intra-ocular propagation by adopting semi-solid or even liquid growth properties through seeding. Until recently, the presence of any degree of seeding was mostly incompatible with successful conservative management, due to the multiresistant nature of the seeds. Surprisingly, this well-recognized retinoblastoma ...
Johnson Matthew G MG Department of Biology, Duke University, Box 90338, Durham, NC, 27708; Chicago Botanic Garden, 1000 Lake Cook Road Glencoe, IL 60022. - - 2014
Peat mosses (Sphagnum) are ecosystem engineers- species in boreal peatlands simultaneously create and inhabit narrow habitat preferences along two microhabitat gradients: an ionic gradient and a hydrological hummock-hollow gradient. In this paper we demonstrate the connections between microhabitat preference and phylogeny in Sphagnum. Using a dataset of 39 species of ...
Fournier Agnès A Université de Lorraine, UR Animal et Fonctionnalités des Produits Animaux, ENSAIA, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, France; INRA, UR Animal et Fonctionnalités des Produits Animaux, ENSAIA, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, - - 2014
Laying hens are likely to be exposed to a wide range of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). In order to improve the safety of poultry farming systems regarding POPs, our research has focused on assessing the impact of physiological characteristics of the hen on the transfer of ingested ...
Suárez M J MJ Advanta Semillas SAIC-Nutrisun Business Unit, Balcarce Biotechnology Center, Balcarce, - - 2014
Animals born by embryo transfer (ET) are usually not included in the genetic evaluation of beef cattle for preweaning growth if the recipient dam is unknown. This is primarily to avoid potential bias in the estimation of the unknown age of dam. We present a method that allows including records ...
Ten Brink Hanna H Ecology & Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, - - 2014
1.Coexistence of predators that share the same prey is common. This is still the case in size structured predator communities where predators consume prey species of different sizes (interspecific prey responses) or consume different size classes of the same species of prey (intraspecific prey responses). 2.A mechanism has recently been ...
Dorn Alexander - - 2014
BackgroundAnnual Nothobranchius fish are distributed in East and Southern Africa and inhabit ephemeral pools filled during the monsoon season. Nothobranchius show extreme life-history adaptations: embryos survive by entering diapause and they are the vertebrates with the fastest maturation and the shortest lifespan. The distribution area of Nothobranchius overlaps with the ...
Requena Gustavo S GS Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, 165 Prospect Street, 06520, New Haven, CT, USA. - - 2014
Sperm competition theory has traditionally focused on how male allocation responds to female promiscuity, when males compete to fertilize a single clutch of eggs. Here, we develop a model to ask how female sperm use and storage across consecutive reproductive events affects male ejaculate allocation and patterns of mating and ...
Mughini-Gras Lapo L National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIb). Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Salmonella source attribution is usually performed using frequency-matched models, such as the (modified) Dutch and Hald models, based on phenotyping data, i.e. serotyping, phage typing, and antimicrobial resistance profiling. However, for practical and economic reasons, genotyping methods such as Multi-locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA) are gradually replacing ...
Lambert Shea M SM Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, U.S.A. Electronic address: - - 2014
Simulation studies suggest that coalescent-based species-tree methods are generally more accurate than concatenated analyses. However, these species-tree methods remain impractical for many large datasets. Thus, a critical but unresolved issue is when and why concatenated and coalescent species-tree estimates will differ. We predict such differences for branches in concatenated trees ...
Dillman Casey B CB Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William & Mary, Gloucester Point, - - 2014
Acipenseriformes hold an important place in the evolutionary history of bony fishes. Given their phylogenetic position as extant basal Actinopterygii, it is generally held that a thorough understanding of their morphology will greatly contribute to the knowledge of the evolutionary history and the origin of diversity for the major osteichthyan ...
Rubel Franz - - 2014
BackgroundGeoreferenced locations of ixodid ticks are required to depict the observed distribution of species. Further, they are used as input data for species distribution models also known as niche models. The latter were applied to describe current and future (projected) tick distributions. Beside model assumptions and selected climate parameters, the ...
Hayakawa Yoshinori Y Theoretical Biology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako 351-0198, Japan; Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Inhomogeneous distribution of auxin is essential in various differentiation processes of plant development. Auxin transfer between cells by efflux carrier protein called PINFORMED (PIN) has been considered to be responsible for inhomogeneous distribution of auxin. Two major types of auxin distribution patterns are "spot" patterns and "passage" patterns, which are ...
Zhu Feng F School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, - - 2014
Biotests performed on small vertebrate model organisms provide significant investigative advantages as compared with bioassays that employ cell lines, isolated primary cells, or tissue samples. The main advantage offered by whole-organism approaches is that the effects under study occur in the context of intact physiological milieu, with all its intercellular ...
Colorado Gabriel J Z GJ Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Amazonia, km 2 vía Tarapaca, Leticia, Colombia; School Environment and Natural Resources, The Ohio State University, 2021 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH, 43210-1085, - - 2014
The relative contribution of deterministic and stochastic processes in the assembly of biotic communities is a central issue of controversy in community ecology. However, several studies have shown patterns of species segregation that are consistent with the hypothesis that deterministic factors such as competition and niche-partitioning structure species assemblages in ...
Martins Leonardo De Oliveira LD Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Immunology, University of Vigo, Vigo, 36310, Spain leomrtns@uvigo.es dmallo@uvigo.es - - 2014
Current phylogenomic data sets highlight the need for species tree methods able to deal with several sources of gene tree/species tree incongruence. At the same time, we need to make most use of all available data. Most species tree methods deal with single processes of phylogenetic discordance, namely, gene duplication ...
Wang Lu L Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2014
In many biomedical studies, identifying effects of covariate interactions on survival is a major goal. Important examples are treatment-subgroup interactions in clinical trials, and gene-gene or gene-environment interactions in genomic studies. A common problem when implementing a variable selection algorithm in such settings is the requirement that the model must ...
Yang Ziheng Z 1. Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China 2. Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London WC1E 6BT, UK - - 2014
A method was developed for simultaneous Bayesian inference of species delimitation and species phylogeny using the multi species coalescent model. The method eliminates the need for a user-specified guide tree in species delimitation and incorporates phylogenetic uncertainty in a Bayesian framework. The Nearest-Neighbor Interchange (NNI) algorithm was adapted to proposes ...
Charte Francisco - - 2014
Multilabel classification (MLC) has generated considerable research interest in recent years, as a technique that can be applied to many real-world scenarios. To process them with binary or multiclass classifiers, methods for transforming multilabel data sets (MLDs) have been proposed, as well as adapted algorithms able to work with this ...
Schlicht Lotte L Department of Behavioural Ecology & Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Seewiesen, - - 2014
Most studies on extra-pair paternity (EPP) focus either on a specific male's extra-pair gains or his extra-pair losses. For an individual bird however, mate choice or mate availability may underlie strong spatial restrictions. Disregarding this spatial aspect may underestimate or mask effects of parameters influencing observed EPP patterns. Here, we ...
Oufiero C E CE Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, Towson, MD, - - 2014
The shift from egg laying to live-bearing is one of the most well-studied transitions in evolutionary biology. Few studies, however, have assessed the effect of this transition on morphological evolution. Here, we evaluated the effect of reproductive mode on the morphological evolution of 10 traits, among 108 species of phrynosomatid ...
Tsang Ling Ming LM Institute of Marine Biology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, - - 2014
Shell structure is a crucial aspect of barnacle systematics. Within Tetraclitidae, the diametric and monometric growth patterns and number of rows of parietal tubes in the shells are key characteristics used to infer evolutionary trends. We used molecular analysis based on seven genes (mitochondrial COI, 16S and 12S rRNA, and ...
Gaski John F JF 1 University of Notre - - 2014
Summary.-Beyond calling attention to Lee, Cho, Seo, Lee, and Choi's (2014) worthy construct validation regimen, the purpose of this brief note is to extend the study's effect by interpreting the broader than usual empirical and theoretical connections in a way that may not be obvious.
Kramer Karen L KL Department of Anthropology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA; Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, - - 2014
Recent phylogenetic analyses suggest that monogamy precedes the evolution of cooperative breeding involving non-breeding helpers. The rationale: only through monogamy can helper-recipient relatedness coefficients match those of parent-offspring. Given that humans are cooperative breeders, these studies imply a monogamy bottleneck during hominin evolution. However, evidence from multiple sources is not ...
Trainor Anne M AM School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA; The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA, 22203, - - 2014
Community ecology involves studying the interdependence of species with each other and their environment to predict their geographical distribution and abundance. Modern species distribution analyses characterise species-environment dependency well, but offer only crude approximations of species interdependency. Typically, the dependency between focal species and other species is characterised using other ...
Parker Geoff A GA Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK - - 2014
Both gamete competition and gamete limitation can generate anisogamy from ancestral isogamy, and both sperm competition (SC) and sperm limitation (SL) can increase sperm numbers. Here, we compare the marginal benefits due to these two components at any given population level of sperm production using the risk and intensity models ...
Magalhaes Ivan L F IL Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas, Gerais, Brazil; División Aracnología, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires, - - 2014
The Brazilian Caatinga is part of the seasonally dry tropical forests, a vegetation type disjunctly distributed throughout the Neotropics. It has been suggested that during Pleistocene glacial periods these dry forests had a continuous distribution, so that these climatic shifts may have acted as important driving forces of the Caatinga ...
Becker J K JK National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), - - 2014
In safety assessments of repositories for radioactive wastes, large spatial and temporal scales have to be considered when developing an approach to risk calculations. A wide range of different types of information may be required. Local to the site of interest, temperature and precipitation data may be used to determine ...
Yoshida Makoto M Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of the retinal hemorrhage (RH) accompanied by shaken baby syndrome or abusive head trauma (SBS/AHT) by analyses using a computational model. We focused on a hypothesis that the vitreoretinal traction due to acceleration and deceleration caused by abusive shaking leads to retinal hemorrhage. A ...
Boynton Primrose J PJ Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, - - 2014
Yeast researchers need model systems for ecology and evolution, but the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not ideal because its evolution has been affected by domestication. Instead, ecologists and evolutionary biologists are focusing on close relatives of S. cerevisiae: the seven species in the genus Saccharomyces. The best-studied Saccharomyces yeast, ...
Todd Neil - - 2014
In this paper I give a brief summary of what is known about the acquisition, use and fate of the radium sources that were in the possession of Lord Rutherford during his lifetime. The account is written in two parts, corresponding to the periods from the discovery of radium in ...
Ngwa Gideon A GA Department of Mathematics, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea, Cameroon, - - 2014
A reproductive stage-structured deterministic differential equation model for the population dynamics of the human malaria vector is derived and analysed. The model captures the gonotrophic and behavioural life characteristics of the female Anopheles sp. mosquito and takes into consideration the fact that for the purposes of reproduction, the female Anopheles ...
Khadioli N N Icipe - African Insect Science for Food and Health,P.O. Box 30772-00100, - - 2014
Maize (Zea mays) is a major staple food in Africa. However, maize production is severely reduced by damage caused by feeding lepidopteran pests. In East and Southern Africa, Chilo partellus is one of the most damaging cereal stem borers mainly found in the warmer lowland areas. In this study, it ...
Azzurro Ernesto E ISPRA, Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, Piazzale dei Marmi 2, Livorno, 57123, - - 2014
Biological invasions have become major players in the current biodiversity crisis, but realistic tools to predict which species will establish successful populations are still unavailable. Here we present a novel approach that requires only a morphometric characterisation of the species. Using fish invasions of the Mediterranean, we show that the ...
Berv Jacob S JS Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, P.O. Box 208105, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The Neotropical cotingas (Cotingidae: Aves) are a group of passerine birds that are characterized by extreme diversity in morphology, ecology, breeding system, and behavior. Here, we present a comprehensive phylogeny of the Neotropical cotingas based on six nuclear and mitochondrial loci (∼7500bp) for a sample of 61 cotinga species in ...
Portugal Steven J SJ Structure and Motion Laboratory, The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, North Mymms, Hatfield, Herts AL9 7TA, UK - - 2014
Carefully controlled gas exchange across the eggshell is essential for the development of the avian embryo. Water vapour conductance (GH2O) across the shell, typically measured as mass loss during incubation, has been demonstrated to optimally ensure the healthy development of the embryo while avoiding desiccation. Accordingly, eggs exposed to sub-optimal ...
Gremillion Gregory G Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA, - - 2014
Two visual sensing modalities in insects, the ocelli and compound eyes, provide signals used for flight stabilization and navigation. In this article, a generalized model of the ocellar visual system is developed for a 3-D visual simulation environment based on behavioral, anatomical, and electrophysiological data from several species. A linear ...
Filin Ido I Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel. Electronic address: - - 2014
Variation in offspring size with female size and other aspects of the maternal phenotype is commonly observed and taxonomically widespread. However, life history theory predicts that optimal offspring size should not depend on maternal size or total reproductive effort. This incongruity persists despite various modifications to theory, that nonetheless, either ...
Luke Barbara B Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan. Electronic address: - - 2014
To model morphological assessments of embryo quality that are predictive of live birth. Longitudinal cohort using cycles reported in the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System (SART CORS) between 2007 and 2011. Clinic-based data. Fresh autologous assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles with ETs on day 3 or day ...
Valladares Fernando F LINCGlobal, Department of Biogeography and Global Change, National Museum of Natural History, MNCN, CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006, Madrid, Spain; Departamento de Biología y Geología, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipán s/n, 28933, Móstoles, - - 2014
Species are the unit of analysis in many global change and conservation biology studies; however, species are not uniform entities but are composed of different, sometimes locally adapted, populations differing in plasticity. We examined how intraspecific variation in thermal niches and phenotypic plasticity will affect species distributions in a warming ...
Hanley Daniel D Department of Zoology and Laboratory of Ornithology, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 50, 77146, Olomouc, Czech Republic, - - 2014
Avian brood parasitism is an exceptional reproductive strategy whereby parasites reduce their own costs associated with parental care and impose them on the host parents. Consequently, host species have evolved multiple defensive mechanisms to combat parasitism. The vast majority of research attention to date has examined host defenses to recognize ...
Schläpfer Markus M Senseable City Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM 87501, USA - - 2014
The size of cities is known to play a fundamental role in social and economic life. Yet, its relation to the structure of the underlying network of human interactions has not been investigated empirically in detail. In this paper, we map society-wide communication networks to the urban areas of two ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >