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Garcia-Gonzalez Francisco F http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9515-9038 Doñana Biological Station, Spanish Research Council CSIC, c/Americo Vespucio, s/n, Isla de la Cartuja 41092, Sevilla, Spain Centre for Evolutionary Biology, University of Western Australia, School of Animal Biology M092, Nedlands 6009, Western Australia paco.garcia@ebd.csic.es - - 2015
Polyandry (female multiple mating) has profound evolutionary and ecological implications. Despite considerable work devoted to understanding why females mate multiply, we currently lack convincing empirical evidence to explain the adaptive value of polyandry. Here, we provide a direct test of the controversial idea that bet-hedging functions as a risk-spreading strategy ...
Parslew Ben B Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD, UK - - 2015
A theoretical model of avian flight is developed which simulates wing motion through a class of methods known as predictive simulation. This approach uses numerical optimization to predict power-optimal kinematics of avian wings in hover, cruise, climb and descent. The wing dynamics capture both aerodynamic and inertial loads. The model ...
Hirst Claire E CE EMBL Australia, Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute (ARMI), Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia, - - 2015
This review will focus on the use of the chicken and quail as model systems to analyze myogenesis and as such will emphasize the experimental approaches that are strongest in these systems-the amenability of the avian embryo to manipulation and in ovo observation. During somite differentiation, a wide spectrum of ...
Joyner Michele L ML Department of Mathematics and Statistics and Institute for Quantitative Biology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, 37659, United States. - - 2014
In this paper, we develop a stochastic differential equation model to simulate the movement of a social/subsocial spider species, Anelosimus studiosus, during prey capture using experimental data collected in a structured environment. In a subsocial species, females and their maturing offspring share a web and cooperate in web maintenance and ...
Anderson Thomas L TL Division of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA, - - 2014
Phenology often determines the outcome of interspecific interactions, where early-arriving species often dominate interactions over those arriving later. The effects of phenology on species interactions are especially pronounced in aquatic systems, but the evidence is largely derived from experimental studies. We examined whether differences in breeding phenology between two pond-breeding ...
Pelletier Tara A TA Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus OH, 43201 - - 2014
Allopatry is commonly used to predict boundaries in species delimitation investigations under the assumption that currently allopatric distributions are indicative of reproductive isolation, however, species ranges are known to change over time. Incorporating a temporal perspective of geographic distributions should improve species delimitation; to explore this, we investigate three species ...
Ulberg Randi - - 2014
BackgroundThe present paper is a manual for the Transference Work Scale (TWS). The inter-rater agreement on the 26 TWS items was good to excellent and previously published. TWS is a therapy process rating scale focusing on Transference Work (TW) (i.e. analysis of the patient-therapist relationship). TW is considered a core ...
Bahrami Mehdi - - 2014
The refractive index distribution of the geometry-invariant gradient refractive index lens (GIGL) model is derived as a function of Cartesian coordinates. The adjustable external geometry of the GIGL model aims to mimic the shape of the human and animal crystalline lens. The refractive index distribution is based on an adjustable ...
Brewer Michael S MS Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114; Department of Biology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC - - 2014
Particularly intriguing examples of adaptive radiation are those in which lineages show parallel or convergent evolution, suggesting utilization of similar genetic or developmental pathways. The current study focuses on an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian "spiny-leg" spiders in which diversification is associated with repeated convergent evolution leading to similar sets of ...
Schiegg Martin M University of Heidelberg, IWR/HCI, 69115 Heidelberg, - - 2014
To gain fundamental insight into the development of embryos, biologists seek to understand the fate of each and every embryonic cell. For the generation of cell tracks in embryogenesis, so-called tracking-by-assignment methods are flexible approaches. However, as every two-stage approach, they suffer from irrevocable errors propagated from the first stage ...
Lee Okhyun O Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter , Exeter, Devon , - - 2014
The use of transgenics in fish is a relatively recent development for advancing understanding of genetic mechanisms and developmental processes, improving aquaculture, and for pharmaceutical discovery. Transgenic fish have also been applied in ecotoxicology where they have the potential to provide more advanced and integrated systems for assessing health impacts ...
Zafrilla Jorge - - 2014
Spain faces the challenge of 80-95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050 (European Energy Roadmap). As a possible first step to fulfil this objective, this paper presents a two-level analysis. First, we estimate the carbon footprint of a hypothetical nuclear facility in Spain. Using a hybrid multi-regional input-output model, to ...
Fröbisch Nadia B NB Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany - - 2014
Salamanders are the only tetrapods capable of fully regenerating their limbs throughout their entire lives. Much data on the underlying molecular mechanisms of limb regeneration have been gathered in recent years allowing for new comparative studies between salamanders and other tetrapods that lack this unique regenerative potential. By contrast, the ...
Prabhakar Pranay P Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, McAllister Heart Institute, 6309 MBRB, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7545, - - 2014
The presence of a native collateral circulation in tissues lessens injury in occlusive vascular diseases. However, differences in genetic background cause wide variation in collateral number and diameter in mice, resulting in large variation in protection. Indirect estimates of collateral perfusion suggest that wide variation also exists in humans. Unfortunately, ...
Rhenman A A Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, S-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden - - 2014
Which embryo score variables are most powerful for predicting live birth after single embryo transfer (SET) at the early cleavage stage? This large prospective study of visual embryo scoring variables shows that blastomere number (BL), the proportion of mononucleated blastomeres (NU) and the degree of fragmentation (FR) have independent prognostic ...
Hjorth J J Johannes JJ Cambridge Computational Biology Institute, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0WA, - - 2014
Molecular and activity-based cues acting together are thought to guide retinal axons to their terminal sites in vertebrate optic tectum or superior colliculus to form an ordered map of connections. The details of mechanisms involved, and the degree to which they might interact, are still not well understood. We have ...
Mohr Rachel M RM Department of Forensic and Investigative Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA, - - 2014
Understanding the onset and duration of adult blow fly activity is critical to accurately estimating the period of insect activity or minimum postmortem interval (minPMI). Few, if any, reliable techniques have been developed and consequently validated for using adult fly activity to determine a minPMI. In this study, adult blow flies (Diptera: ...
Zienkiewicz Adam A Department of Engineering Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol, - - 2014
In this work, we develop a data-driven modelling framework to reproduce the locomotion of fish in a confined environment. Specifically, we highlight the primary characteristics of the motion of individual zebrafish (Danio rerio), and study how these can be suitably encapsulated within a mathematical framework utilising a limited number of ...
Perrard A A Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA; UMR 7205 ISYEB, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, - - 2014
Wing venation has long been used for insect identification. Lately, the characterization of venation shape using geometric morphometrics has further improved the potential of using the wing for insect identification. However, external factors inducing variation in wing shape could obscure specific differences, preventing accurate discrimination of species in heterogeneous samples. ...
Mimura Makiko - - 2014
BackgroundThe margins of a species¿ range might be located at the margins of a species¿ niche, and in such cases, can be highly vulnerable to climate changes. They, however, may also undergo significant evolutionary change due to drastic population dynamics; e.g., changes in population size and distribution, which may increase ...
Ciray H Nadir HN Division of Reproduction and Early Development, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, Clarendon Way, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK - - 2014
Can the approach to, and terminology for, time-lapse monitoring of preimplantation embryo development be uniformly defined in order to improve the utilization and impact of this novel technology? The adoption of the proposed guidelines for defining annotation practice and universal nomenclature would help unify time-lapse monitoring practice, allow validation of ...
Yildirim Ilker I Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA, - - 2014
If a person is trained to recognize or categorize objects or events using one sensory modality, the person can often recognize or categorize those same (or similar) objects and events via a novel modality. This phenomenon is an instance of cross-modal transfer of knowledge. Here, we study the Multisensory Hypothesis ...
Kraus Yulia Y Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, - - 2014
With the rapid increase of the quantity of molecular data, many animals joined the ranks of the so-called 'emerging models' of Evo-Devo. One of the necessary steps in converting an emerging model into an established one is gaining comprehensive knowledge of its normal embryonic development. The marine colonial hydrozoan Hydractinia ...
Gula Igor A IA The Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, 194021 Russia - - 2014
We propose the 3rd order model equation of the Jeffreys type for concentrations of gap gene proteins in order to take into account particle inertia. Gap genes are responsible for formation of body segments in D.melanogaster embryo during its early development. Usually the expression of the genes is described by ...
Huang Wei W Department of Statistics, Key Laboratory for Applied Statistics of the Ministry of Education, and School of Mathematics and Statistics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China; - - 2014
Both spatial characteristics and temporal features are often the subjects of concern in physical, social, and biological studies. This work tackles the clustering problems for time course data in which the cluster number and clustering structure change with respect to time, dubbed time-variant clustering. We developed a hierarchical model that ...
Buchholtz Emily A EA Department of Biological Sciences, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481, - - 2014
Meristic variation is often limited in serially homologous systems with high internal differentiation and high developmental modularity. The mammalian neck, an extreme example, has a fixed (at seven) count of diversely specialized segments. Imposition of the mammalian cervical constraint has been tentatively linked to the origin of the diaphragm, which ...
Reding Luke L Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA. - - 2014
Multiple mating by females is difficult to explain in primarily socially monogamous taxa like birds since mating outside the pair bond often provides no obvious benefit to females. Though indirect selection is often invoked to explain the evolution of polyandry, current evidence suggests that selection on indirect benefits of mating ...
Bocedi Greta G Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Zoology Building, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen, AB24 2TZ, UK. - - 2014
Explaining the evolution and maintenance of polyandry remains a key challenge in evolutionary ecology. One appealing explanation is the sexually-selected sperm (SSS) hypothesis, which proposes that polyandry evolves due to indirect selection stemming from positive genetic covariance with male fertilization efficiency, and hence with a male's success in post-copulatory competition ...
da Rocha Taranto Martinelle Ferreira MF Campus Centro-Oeste Dona Lindu, Universidade Federal de São João Del-Rei, Divinópolis, - - 2014
To entomologically monitor Aedes spp. and correlate the presence of these vectors with the recent epidemic of dengue in Divinopolis, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Ovitraps were installed at 44 points in the city, covering six urban areas, from May 2011 to May 2012. After collection, the eggs were incubated until ...
Benoit Joshua B JB Department of Biological Sciences, McMicken School of Arts and Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 and Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520; email: - - 2014
Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.), vectors of African trypanosomes, are distinguished by their specialized reproductive biology, defined by adenotrophic viviparity (maternal nourishment of progeny by glandular secretions and live birth). This trait has evolved infrequently among insects and requires unique reproductive mechanisms. A key event in Glossina reproduction involves the transition ...
Monteiro Antónia A Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, and Yale-NUS-College, Singapore; email: - - 2014
This article reviews the latest developments in our understanding of the origin, development, and evolution of nymphalid butterfly eyespots. Recent contributions to this field include insights into the evolutionary and developmental origin of eyespots and their ancestral deployment on the wing, the evolution of eyespot number and eyespot sexual dimorphism, ...
Munier Francis L FL Retinoblastoma Clinic, Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital , Lausanne , - - 2014
Abstract Retinoblastoma has the unique capacity to accelerate its own intra-ocular propagation by adopting semi-solid or even liquid growth properties through seeding. Until recently, the presence of any degree of seeding was mostly incompatible with successful conservative management, due to the multiresistant nature of the seeds. Surprisingly, this well-recognized retinoblastoma ...
Johnson Matthew G MG Department of Biology, Duke University, Box 90338, Durham, NC, 27708; Chicago Botanic Garden, 1000 Lake Cook Road Glencoe, IL 60022. - - 2014
Peat mosses (Sphagnum) are ecosystem engineers- species in boreal peatlands simultaneously create and inhabit narrow habitat preferences along two microhabitat gradients: an ionic gradient and a hydrological hummock-hollow gradient. In this paper we demonstrate the connections between microhabitat preference and phylogeny in Sphagnum. Using a dataset of 39 species of ...
Fournier Agnès A Université de Lorraine, UR Animal et Fonctionnalités des Produits Animaux, ENSAIA, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, France; INRA, UR Animal et Fonctionnalités des Produits Animaux, ENSAIA, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, - - 2014
Laying hens are likely to be exposed to a wide range of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). In order to improve the safety of poultry farming systems regarding POPs, our research has focused on assessing the impact of physiological characteristics of the hen on the transfer of ingested ...
Suárez M J MJ Advanta Semillas SAIC-Nutrisun Business Unit, Balcarce Biotechnology Center, Balcarce, - - 2014
Animals born by embryo transfer (ET) are usually not included in the genetic evaluation of beef cattle for preweaning growth if the recipient dam is unknown. This is primarily to avoid potential bias in the estimation of the unknown age of dam. We present a method that allows including records ...
Ten Brink Hanna H Ecology & Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, - - 2014
1.Coexistence of predators that share the same prey is common. This is still the case in size structured predator communities where predators consume prey species of different sizes (interspecific prey responses) or consume different size classes of the same species of prey (intraspecific prey responses). 2.A mechanism has recently been ...
Dorn Alexander - - 2014
BackgroundAnnual Nothobranchius fish are distributed in East and Southern Africa and inhabit ephemeral pools filled during the monsoon season. Nothobranchius show extreme life-history adaptations: embryos survive by entering diapause and they are the vertebrates with the fastest maturation and the shortest lifespan. The distribution area of Nothobranchius overlaps with the ...
Requena Gustavo S GS Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, 165 Prospect Street, 06520, New Haven, CT, USA. - - 2014
Sperm competition theory has traditionally focused on how male allocation responds to female promiscuity, when males compete to fertilize a single clutch of eggs. Here, we develop a model to ask how female sperm use and storage across consecutive reproductive events affects male ejaculate allocation and patterns of mating and ...
Mughini-Gras Lapo L National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIb). Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Salmonella source attribution is usually performed using frequency-matched models, such as the (modified) Dutch and Hald models, based on phenotyping data, i.e. serotyping, phage typing, and antimicrobial resistance profiling. However, for practical and economic reasons, genotyping methods such as Multi-locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA) are gradually replacing ...
Lambert Shea M SM Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, U.S.A. Electronic address: - - 2014
Simulation studies suggest that coalescent-based species-tree methods are generally more accurate than concatenated analyses. However, these species-tree methods remain impractical for many large datasets. Thus, a critical but unresolved issue is when and why concatenated and coalescent species-tree estimates will differ. We predict such differences for branches in concatenated trees ...
Dillman Casey B CB Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William & Mary, Gloucester Point, - - 2014
Acipenseriformes hold an important place in the evolutionary history of bony fishes. Given their phylogenetic position as extant basal Actinopterygii, it is generally held that a thorough understanding of their morphology will greatly contribute to the knowledge of the evolutionary history and the origin of diversity for the major osteichthyan ...
Rubel Franz - - 2014
BackgroundGeoreferenced locations of ixodid ticks are required to depict the observed distribution of species. Further, they are used as input data for species distribution models also known as niche models. The latter were applied to describe current and future (projected) tick distributions. Beside model assumptions and selected climate parameters, the ...
Hayakawa Yoshinori Y Theoretical Biology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako 351-0198, Japan; Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Inhomogeneous distribution of auxin is essential in various differentiation processes of plant development. Auxin transfer between cells by efflux carrier protein called PINFORMED (PIN) has been considered to be responsible for inhomogeneous distribution of auxin. Two major types of auxin distribution patterns are "spot" patterns and "passage" patterns, which are ...
Zhu Feng F School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, - - 2014
Biotests performed on small vertebrate model organisms provide significant investigative advantages as compared with bioassays that employ cell lines, isolated primary cells, or tissue samples. The main advantage offered by whole-organism approaches is that the effects under study occur in the context of intact physiological milieu, with all its intercellular ...
Colorado Gabriel J Z GJ Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Amazonia, km 2 vía Tarapaca, Leticia, Colombia; School Environment and Natural Resources, The Ohio State University, 2021 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH, 43210-1085, - - 2014
The relative contribution of deterministic and stochastic processes in the assembly of biotic communities is a central issue of controversy in community ecology. However, several studies have shown patterns of species segregation that are consistent with the hypothesis that deterministic factors such as competition and niche-partitioning structure species assemblages in ...
Martins Leonardo De Oliveira LD Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Immunology, University of Vigo, Vigo, 36310, Spain leomrtns@uvigo.es dmallo@uvigo.es - - 2014
Current phylogenomic data sets highlight the need for species tree methods able to deal with several sources of gene tree/species tree incongruence. At the same time, we need to make most use of all available data. Most species tree methods deal with single processes of phylogenetic discordance, namely, gene duplication ...
Wang Lu L Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2014
In many biomedical studies, identifying effects of covariate interactions on survival is a major goal. Important examples are treatment-subgroup interactions in clinical trials, and gene-gene or gene-environment interactions in genomic studies. A common problem when implementing a variable selection algorithm in such settings is the requirement that the model must ...
Yang Ziheng Z 1. Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China 2. Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London WC1E 6BT, UK - - 2014
A method was developed for simultaneous Bayesian inference of species delimitation and species phylogeny using the multi species coalescent model. The method eliminates the need for a user-specified guide tree in species delimitation and incorporates phylogenetic uncertainty in a Bayesian framework. The Nearest-Neighbor Interchange (NNI) algorithm was adapted to proposes ...
Charte Francisco - - 2014
Multilabel classification (MLC) has generated considerable research interest in recent years, as a technique that can be applied to many real-world scenarios. To process them with binary or multiclass classifiers, methods for transforming multilabel data sets (MLDs) have been proposed, as well as adapted algorithms able to work with this ...
Cieslak Alexandra A Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN, CSIC), Madrid, Spain Institute of Evolutionary Biology (CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra), Passeig Maritim de la Barceloneta 37-49, Barcelona 08003, Spain - - 2014
In insects, whilst variations in life cycles are common, the basic patterns typical for particular groups remain generally conserved. One of the more extreme modifications is found in some subterranean beetles of the tribe Leptodirini, in which the number of larval instars is reduced from the ancestral three to two ...
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