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Schläpfer Markus M Senseable City Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM 87501, USA - - 2014
The size of cities is known to play a fundamental role in social and economic life. Yet, its relation to the structure of the underlying network of human interactions has not been investigated empirically in detail. In this paper, we map society-wide communication networks to the urban areas of two ...
Green Jonathan P JP School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, John Maynard Smith Building, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK - - 2014
Remarkable variation exists in the distribution of reproduction (skew) among members of cooperatively breeding groups, both within and between species. Reproductive skew theory has provided an important framework for understanding this variation. In the primitively eusocial Hymenoptera, two models have been routinely tested: concessions models, which assume complete control of ...
Baar Johanna J a Faculty of Architecture and Social Sciences , Leipzig University of Applied Sciences , Leipzig , - - 2014
Residential self-selection is supposed to bias the relation between residential environments and physical activity, but empirical analyses are still rare. This study examines the association while simultaneously considering the effect of residential self-selection criteria. One thousand two hundred and forty-five German students were asked to report their physical activity, their ...
Wang Jinjun J Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, - - 2014
Within the last decade, several mouse models that manifest characteristic features of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) with antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and immune-mediated biliary duct pathology have been reported. Here, the authors discuss the current findings on two spontaneous (nonobese diabetic autoimmune biliary disease [NOD.ABD] and dominant negative transforming growth factor-β ...
Lahey Benjamin B BB University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, - - 2014
The best-fitting model of the structure of common psychopathology often includes a general factor on which all dimensions of psychopathology load. Such a general factor would be important if it reflects etiologies and mechanisms shared by all dimensions of psychopathology. Nonetheless, a viable alternative explanation is that the general factor ...
Oliver Jeffrey C JC Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA - - 2014
Serial homologues are repeated traits that share similar development but occur in different parts of the body. Variation in number of repeats accounts for substantial diversity in animal form and considerable work has focused on identifying the factors accounting for this variation. Little is known, however, about how serial homologues ...
Thrasher James F JF University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, - - 2014
Health warning labels (HWLs) on tobacco packaging can be used to provide smoking cessation information, but the impact of this information is not well understood. Online consumer panels of adult smokers from Canada, Australia and Mexico were surveyed in September 2012, January 2013 and May 2013; replenishment was used to ...
Biscarini Filippo - - 2014
Genomic information can be used to predict not only continuous but also categorical (e.g. binomial)traits. Several traits of interest in human medicine and agriculture present a discrete distribution ofphenotypes (e.g. disease status). Root vigor in sugar beet (B. vulgaris) is an example of binomialtrait of agronomic importance. In this paper, ...
Wang Xuefeng - - 2014
Machine learning, particularly kernel methods, has been demonstrated as a promising new tool to tackle the challenges imposed by today's explosive data growth in genomics. They provide a practical and principled approach to learning how a large number of genetic variants are associated with complex phenotypes, to help reveal the ...
Zouré Honorat Gm - - 2014
The original aim of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was to control onchocerciasis as a public health problem in 20 African countries. In order to identify all high risk areas where ivermectin treatment was needed to achieve control, APOC used Rapid Epidemiological Mapping of Onchocerciasis (REMO). REMO involved ...
Schlage Walter K WK Philip Morris International R&D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, 2000 Neuchâtel, - - 2014
Abstract Smoking has been associated with diseases of the lung, pulmonary airways, and oral cavity. Cytologic, genomic, and transcriptomic changes in oral mucosa correlate with oral preneoplasia, cancer, and inflammation (e.g. periodontitis). Alteration of smoking-related gene expression changes in oral epithelial cells is similar to that in bronchial and nasal ...
Gu Xin - - 2014
Bayesian evaluation of inequality constrained hypotheses enables researchers to investigate their expectations with respect to the structure among model parameters. This article proposes an approximate Bayes procedure that can be used for the selection of the best of a set of inequality constrained hypotheses based on the Bayes factor in ...
Weyand Angela C AC Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, - - 2014
Although the zebrafish has been established as a research tool over the past two to three decades, in hematology it has primarily been used to investigate areas distinct from coagulation. The advantages of this vertebrate model include high fecundity, rapid and external development, and conservation of virtually all clotting factors ...
Bellot Sidonie S Systematic Botany and Mycology, University of Munich (LMU), Menzinger Str. 67, 80638 Munich, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Gene trees of holoparasitic plants usually show distinctly longer branch lengths than seen in photosynthetic closest relatives. Such substitution rate jumps have made it difficult to infer the absolute divergence times of parasites. An additional problem is that parasite clades often lack a fossil record. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA ...
Chivers W J WJ Faculty of Science and IT, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Models of near-exclusive predator-prey systems such as that of the Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare have included factors such as a second prey species, a Holling Type II predator response and climatic or seasonal effects to reproduce sub-sets of six signature patterns in the empirical data. We present an agent-based ...
Yildirim Suleyman S The Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, - - 2014
Bacterial communities colonizing the reproductive tracts of primates (including humans) impact the health, survival and fitness of the host, and thereby the evolution of the host species. Despite their importance, we currently have a poor understanding of primate microbiomes. The composition and structure of microbial communities vary considerably depending on ...
Grove J Morgan JM USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station, Baltimore Field Station, UMBC, 5522 Research Park Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21228, USA, - - 2014
Several social theories have been proposed to explain the uneven distribution of vegetation in urban residential areas: population density, social stratification, luxury effect, and ecology of prestige. We evaluate these theories using a combination of demographic and socio-economic predictors of vegetative cover on all residential lands in New York City. ...
Liu Hong H China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing, - - 2014
This paper examines how Chinese smokers respond to tax-driven cigarette price increases by estimating a discrete choice model of demand for differentiated products, using annual nationwide brand-level cigarette sales data in China from 2005 to 2010. We allow for substitution between different cigarette brands and also incorporate key features of ...
Chang Fi-John FJ Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address: - - 2014
We propose a systematical approach to assessing arsenic concentration in a river through: important factor extraction by a nonlinear factor analysis; arsenic concentration estimation by the neuro-fuzzy network; and impact assessment of important factors on arsenic concentration by the membership degrees of the constructed neuro-fuzzy network. The arsenic-contaminated Huang Gang ...
Gondro Cedric C The Centre for Genetic Analyses and Applications, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, - - 2014
In genome-wide association studies, quality control (QC) of genotypes is important to avoid spurious results. It is also important to maintain long-term data integrity, particularly in settings with ongoing genotyping (e.g. estimation of genomic breeding values). Here we discuss snpqc, a fully automated pipeline to perform QC analyses of Illumina ...
Mahoney Joseph M JM Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Past efforts have been made to design single-user workstations to accommodate users' anthropometric and preference distributions. However, there is a lack of methods for designing workstations for group interaction. This paper introduces a method for sizing workstations to allow for a personal work area for each user and a shared ...
Chan Kitty S KS All of the authors are with the Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, - - 2014
Objectives. We compared the strength of association between average 5-year county-level mortality rates and area-level measures, including air quality, sociodemographic characteristics, violence, and economic distress. Methods. We obtained mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System and linked it to socioeconomic and demographic data from the Census Bureau, air quality ...
Antón Assumpció - - 2014
This paper presents the inclusion of new, relevant impact categories for agriculture life cycle assessments. We performed a specific case study with a focus on the applicability of spatially explicit characterization factors. The main goals were to provide a detailed evaluation of these new impact category methods, compare the results ...
Yang Lan-Yan LY a Biostatistics and Informatics Unit, Clinical Trial Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital , Taoyuan , - - 2014
Abstract In recent years, quantitative evaluation for biosimilarity has been taken seriously due to the development of biosimilar products. The concept for assessment of biological products is very different form that of small molecule drug products since the variability in respect to the manufacturing process and environmental factors of the ...
Wong William W L - - 2014
Abstract As genomic sequencing technologies continue to advance, researchers are furthering their understanding of the relationships between genetic variants and expressed traits. However, missing data can significantly limit the power of a genetic study. Here, the use of a regularized generalized linear model, denoted by GLMNET, is proposed to impute ...
Ferraro Maria Brigida MB 1 Department of Statistical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome , Rome, Italy - - 2014
Abstract Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a new approach for biomedical research, useful for the diagnosis of genetic diseases in extremely heterogeneous conditions. In this work, we describe how data generated by high-throughput NGS experiments can be analyzed to find single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA samples of patients affected by ...
Hoffman Gabriel E GE Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA Department of Biological Statistics and Computational Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA and Department of Genetic Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA - - 2014
The linear mixed model is the state-of-the-art method to account for the confounding effects of kinship and population structure in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Current implementations test the effect of one or more genetic markers while including prespecified covariates such as sex. Here we develop an efficient implementation of the ...
Xie Yiran Y Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Mo., - - 2014
Genotype imputation is a powerful approach in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) because it can provide higher resolution for associated regions and facilitate meta-analysis. However, bias can exist if different genotyping arrays are used and are unbalanced for case versus control subjects. The intersection imputation strategy [imputation based on single nucleotide ...
Wojdacz Tomasz K TK Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SE - 171 77, Sweden. - - 2014
The 450k Chip Analysis Methylation Pipeline (ChAMP) is a novel Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip data processing algorithm that allows the analysis of copy number alterations (CNAs). With this pipeline we evaluated the prevalence of CNAs in peripheral blood leukocyte samples from healthy Argentinean Andean women with varying exposure to inorganic ...
Tran Duong T DT School of Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, - - 2014
To evaluate bias associated with nine identified partial-mouth periodontal examination (PMPE) protocols in estimating periodontitis prevalence using the periodontitis case definition given by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and American Academy of Periodontology (CDC/AAP). Prevalence from full-mouth examination was determined in a sample of 3667 adults ≥30 years old ...
Gilbert Kimberly J KJ Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd., Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, - - 2014
QST , a measure of quantitative genetic differentiation among populations, is an index that can suggest local adaptation if QST for a trait is sufficiently larger than the mean FST of neutral genetic markers. A previous method by Whitlock and Guillaume derived a simulation resampling approach to statistically test for ...
MacNamara Shev S Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139. Electronic address: - - 2014
The role of mathematical models of signaling networks is showcased by examples from Drosophila development. Three models of consecutive stages in dorsoventral patterning are presented. We begin with a compartmental model of intracellular reactions that generates a gradient of nuclear-localized Dorsal, exhibiting constant shape and dynamic amplitude. A simple thermodynamic ...
Shevlin Mark M University of Ulster at Magee, L'Derry, Northern Ireland - - 2014
This study assessed the dimensional structure of the UCLA Loneliness Scale ([UCLA-LS], UCLA-3). Data from the Northern Ireland Young Life and Times Survey (2011), a survey of 1,434 16-year-olds, was used to examine the underlying factor structure of the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to compare alternative factor analytical ...
Xu Chang - - 2014
The purpose of the present study was to examine factors that influence strategic flexibility in computational estimation for Chinese- and Canadian-educated adults. Strategic flexibility was operationalized as the percentage of trials on which participants chose the problem-based procedure that best balanced proximity to the correct answer with simplification of the ...
Panda Suchita - - 2014
Over the last decade our understanding of human gut microbiology underwent a tremendous transformation. The limitations of culture-based methods have given way to Next Generation Sequencing techniques, allowing us to understand the microbial gut community in greater depth. The human GI-tract harbours one of the most complex and abundant ecosystems ...
Song Minsun M Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20850, - - 2014
Risk-prediction models need careful calibration to ensure they produce unbiased estimates of risk for subjects in the underlying population given their risk-factor profiles. As subjects with extreme high or low risk may be the most affected by knowledge of their risk estimates, checking the adequacy of risk models at the ...
Al-Hebshi N N NN Department of Preventive Dentistry-Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi - - 2014
A number of species/phylotypes have been newly implicated as putative periopathogens. The objective of this study was to explore associations among classical and new pathogens in subgingival biofilm and to assess their relative importance to chronic periodontitis. Pooled subgingival biofilm samples were obtained from 40 patients with chronic periodontitis and ...
Rimmer Andy A 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. - - 2014
High-throughput DNA sequencing technology has transformed genetic research and is starting to make an impact on clinical practice. However, analyzing high-throughput sequencing data remains challenging, particularly in clinical settings where accuracy and turnaround times are critical. We present a new approach to this problem, implemented in a software package called ...
Acar Evrim - - 2014
Analysis of data from multiple sources has the potential to enhance knowledge discovery by capturing underlying structures, which are, otherwise, difficult to extract. Fusing data from multiple sources has already proved useful in many applications in social network analysis, signal processing and bioinformatics. However, data fusion is challenging since data ...
Chen Wenan W Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of - - 2014
Recently, Wen and Stephens (Wen and Stephens [2010] Ann Appl Stat 4(3):1158-1182) proposed a linear predictor, called BLIMP, that uses conditional multivariate normal moments to impute genotypes with accuracy similar to current state-of-the-art methods. One novelty is that it regularized the estimated covariance matrix based on a model from population ...
Gonçalves Caroline M - - 2014
In Brazil, dengue epidemics erupt sporadically throughout the country and it is unclear if outbreaks may initiate a sustainable transmission cycle. There are few studies evaluating the ability of Brazilian Aedes aegypti populations to transmit dengue virus (DENV). The aim of this study was to compare DENV susceptibility of field-captured ...
Ramayah T T School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, - - 2014
There is a belief that academics tend to hold on tightly to their knowledge and intellectual resources. However, not much effort has been put into the creation of a valid and reliable instrument to measure knowledge sharing behavior among the academics. To apply and validate the Knowledge Sharing Behavior Scale ...
Leblois Raphaël R INRA, UMR 1062 CBGP (INRA-IRD-CIRAD-Montpellier Supagro), Montpellier, FranceMuséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, UMR OSEB, Paris, FranceInstitut de Biologie Computationnelle, Montpellier, France - - 2014
Understanding the demographic history of populations and species is a central issue in evolutionary biology and molecular ecology. In the present work, we develop a maximum likelihood method for the inference of past changes in population size from microsatellite allelic data. Our method is based on importance sampling of gene ...
Alver Y Y Department of Civil Engineering, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Electronic address: - - 2014
Young drivers' high traffic violation involvement rate and significant contribution to traffic crashes compared to older drivers creates the need for detailed analyses of factors affecting young drivers' behaviors. This study is based on survey data collected from 2,057 18-29 year old young adults. Data were collected via face-to-face questionnaire ...
Liu Z Z Vereinigte Informationssysteme Tierhaltung w.V. (VIT), Heideweg 1, D-27283 Verden, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Compared with the currently widely used multi-step genomic models for genomic evaluation, single-step genomic models can provide more accurate genomic evaluation by jointly analyzing phenotypes and genotypes of all animals and can properly correct for the effect of genomic preselection on genetic evaluations. The objectives of this study were to ...
Hermann Robert R Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Leoben, Austria - - 2014
For the first time, basic technical and economic studies for landfill mining are being carried out in Austria on the basis of a pilot project. An important goal of these studies is the collection of elementary data as the basis for an integrated ecological and economic assessment of landfill mining ...
Khansefid M M Department of Environment and Primary Industries, AgriBio, 5 Ring Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia Dairy Futures Cooperative Research Centre (CRC), AgriBio, 5 Ring Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia Department of Agriculture and Food Systems, Melbourne School of Land and Environment, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia - - 2014
Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of the efficiency of animals in feed utilization. The accuracies of genomic EBVs (GEBVs) for RFI could be improved by increasing the size of the reference population. Combining RFI records of different breeds is a way to do that. The aims of this ...
Szpiech Zachary A ZA Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA - - 2014
Haplotype-based scans to detect natural selection are useful to identify recent or ongoing positive selection in genomes. As both real and simulated genomic datasets grow larger, spanning thousands of samples and millions of markers, there is a need for a fast and efficient implementation of these scans for general use. ...
Duangjit Sureewan S Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn - - 2014
A nonlinear response surface method incorporating multivariate spline interpolation (RSM-S) is a useful technique for the optimization of pharmaceutical formulations, although the direct reliability of the optimal formulation must be evaluated. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using the bootstrap (BS) resampling technique to evaluate the direct reliability ...
Rañola John Michael JM Department of Statistics, University of Washington - - 2014
Unique modeling and computational challenges arise in locating the geographic origin of individuals based on their genetic backgrounds. SNPs vary widely in informativeness, allele frequencies change nonlinearly with geography, and reliable localization requires evidence to be integrated across a multitude of SNPs. These problems become even more acute for individuals ...
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