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Fröbisch Nadia B NB Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany - - 2014
Salamanders are the only tetrapods capable of fully regenerating their limbs throughout their entire lives. Much data on the underlying molecular mechanisms of limb regeneration have been gathered in recent years allowing for new comparative studies between salamanders and other tetrapods that lack this unique regenerative potential. By contrast, the ...
Wang Lu L Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2014
In many biomedical studies, identifying effects of covariate interactions on survival is a major goal. Important examples are treatment-subgroup interactions in clinical trials, and gene-gene or gene-environment interactions in genomic studies. A common problem when implementing a variable selection algorithm in such settings is the requirement that the model must ...
Gaski John F JF 1 University of Notre - - 2014
Summary.-Beyond calling attention to Lee, Cho, Seo, Lee, and Choi's (2014) worthy construct validation regimen, the purpose of this brief note is to extend the study's effect by interpreting the broader than usual empirical and theoretical connections in a way that may not be obvious.
Trainor Anne M AM School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA; The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA, 22203, - - 2014
Community ecology involves studying the interdependence of species with each other and their environment to predict their geographical distribution and abundance. Modern species distribution analyses characterise species-environment dependency well, but offer only crude approximations of species interdependency. Typically, the dependency between focal species and other species is characterised using other ...
Parker Geoff A GA Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK - - 2014
Both gamete competition and gamete limitation can generate anisogamy from ancestral isogamy, and both sperm competition (SC) and sperm limitation (SL) can increase sperm numbers. Here, we compare the marginal benefits due to these two components at any given population level of sperm production using the risk and intensity models ...
Magalhaes Ivan L F IL Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas, Gerais, Brazil; División Aracnología, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires, - - 2014
The Brazilian Caatinga is part of the seasonally dry tropical forests, a vegetation type disjunctly distributed throughout the Neotropics. It has been suggested that during Pleistocene glacial periods these dry forests had a continuous distribution, so that these climatic shifts may have acted as important driving forces of the Caatinga ...
Becker J K JK National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), - - 2014
In safety assessments of repositories for radioactive wastes, large spatial and temporal scales have to be considered when developing an approach to risk calculations. A wide range of different types of information may be required. Local to the site of interest, temperature and precipitation data may be used to determine ...
Boynton Primrose J PJ Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, - - 2014
Yeast researchers need model systems for ecology and evolution, but the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not ideal because its evolution has been affected by domestication. Instead, ecologists and evolutionary biologists are focusing on close relatives of S. cerevisiae: the seven species in the genus Saccharomyces. The best-studied Saccharomyces yeast, ...
Todd Neil - - 2014
In this paper I give a brief summary of what is known about the acquisition, use and fate of the radium sources that were in the possession of Lord Rutherford during his lifetime. The account is written in two parts, corresponding to the periods from the discovery of radium in ...
Ngwa Gideon A GA Department of Mathematics, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea, Cameroon, - - 2014
A reproductive stage-structured deterministic differential equation model for the population dynamics of the human malaria vector is derived and analysed. The model captures the gonotrophic and behavioural life characteristics of the female Anopheles sp. mosquito and takes into consideration the fact that for the purposes of reproduction, the female Anopheles ...
Khadioli N N Icipe - African Insect Science for Food and Health,P.O. Box 30772-00100, - - 2014
Maize (Zea mays) is a major staple food in Africa. However, maize production is severely reduced by damage caused by feeding lepidopteran pests. In East and Southern Africa, Chilo partellus is one of the most damaging cereal stem borers mainly found in the warmer lowland areas. In this study, it ...
Azzurro Ernesto E ISPRA, Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, Piazzale dei Marmi 2, Livorno, 57123, - - 2014
Biological invasions have become major players in the current biodiversity crisis, but realistic tools to predict which species will establish successful populations are still unavailable. Here we present a novel approach that requires only a morphometric characterisation of the species. Using fish invasions of the Mediterranean, we show that the ...
Berv Jacob S JS Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, P.O. Box 208105, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The Neotropical cotingas (Cotingidae: Aves) are a group of passerine birds that are characterized by extreme diversity in morphology, ecology, breeding system, and behavior. Here, we present a comprehensive phylogeny of the Neotropical cotingas based on six nuclear and mitochondrial loci (∼7500bp) for a sample of 61 cotinga species in ...
Portugal Steven J SJ Structure and Motion Laboratory, The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, North Mymms, Hatfield, Herts AL9 7TA, UK - - 2014
Carefully controlled gas exchange across the eggshell is essential for the development of the avian embryo. Water vapour conductance (GH2O) across the shell, typically measured as mass loss during incubation, has been demonstrated to optimally ensure the healthy development of the embryo while avoiding desiccation. Accordingly, eggs exposed to sub-optimal ...
Gremillion Gregory G Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA, - - 2014
Two visual sensing modalities in insects, the ocelli and compound eyes, provide signals used for flight stabilization and navigation. In this article, a generalized model of the ocellar visual system is developed for a 3-D visual simulation environment based on behavioral, anatomical, and electrophysiological data from several species. A linear ...
Filin Ido I Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel. Electronic address: - - 2014
Variation in offspring size with female size and other aspects of the maternal phenotype is commonly observed and taxonomically widespread. However, life history theory predicts that optimal offspring size should not depend on maternal size or total reproductive effort. This incongruity persists despite various modifications to theory, that nonetheless, either ...
Luke Barbara B Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan. Electronic address: - - 2014
To model morphological assessments of embryo quality that are predictive of live birth. Longitudinal cohort using cycles reported in the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System (SART CORS) between 2007 and 2011. Clinic-based data. Fresh autologous assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles with ETs on day 3 or day ...
Valladares Fernando F LINCGlobal, Department of Biogeography and Global Change, National Museum of Natural History, MNCN, CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006, Madrid, Spain; Departamento de Biología y Geología, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipán s/n, 28933, Móstoles, - - 2014
Species are the unit of analysis in many global change and conservation biology studies; however, species are not uniform entities but are composed of different, sometimes locally adapted, populations differing in plasticity. We examined how intraspecific variation in thermal niches and phenotypic plasticity will affect species distributions in a warming ...
Hanley Daniel D Department of Zoology and Laboratory of Ornithology, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 50, 77146, Olomouc, Czech Republic, - - 2014
Avian brood parasitism is an exceptional reproductive strategy whereby parasites reduce their own costs associated with parental care and impose them on the host parents. Consequently, host species have evolved multiple defensive mechanisms to combat parasitism. The vast majority of research attention to date has examined host defenses to recognize ...
Schläpfer Markus M Senseable City Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM 87501, USA - - 2014
The size of cities is known to play a fundamental role in social and economic life. Yet, its relation to the structure of the underlying network of human interactions has not been investigated empirically in detail. In this paper, we map society-wide communication networks to the urban areas of two ...
Weston Matthew M Sport and Exercise Subject Group, School of Social Sciences and Law, Teesside University, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
To investigate the application of differential ratings of perceived exertion for the examination of internal load during Australian Football League (AFL) matches. Single cohort, observational study. Using the centiMax rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale, 26 professional AFL players provided ratings for match exertion (RPE-M), along with differential ratings for ...
Tyson John J JJ Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA, - - 2014
Mathematical modeling is a powerful tool for unraveling the complexities of the molecular regulatory networks underlying all aspects of cell physiology. To support this claim, we review our experiences modeling the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) network that controls events of the eukaryotic cell cycle. The model was derived from classic experiments ...
Stewart Peter S PS School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Glasgow, 15 University Gardens, Glasgow, G12 8QW, United - - 2014
Purpose: There is no easy way to estimate the intracranial pressure (ICP) non-invasively. The retinal vein can exhibit large amplitude oscillations at the level of the lamina cribrosa under certain circumstances. The aim of this study was to develop a theoretical understanding of the conditions required to establish this vigorous ...
Iquebal M A MA Centre for Agricultural Bioinformatics, Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, Library Avenue, PUSA, New Delhi, 110012, - - 2014
Molecular markers, viz. microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms, have revolutionized breed identification through the use of small samples of biological tissue or germplasm, such as blood, carcass samples, embryos, ova and semen, that show no evident phenotype. Classical tools of molecular data analysis for breed identification have limitations, such as ...
Desnitskiy Alexey G AG Department of Embryology,St. Petersburg State University,Universitetskaya nab. 7/9,199034,St. - - 2014
Summary The order Caudata includes about 660 species and displays a variety of important developmental traits such as cleavage pattern and egg size. However, the cleavage process of tailed amphibians has never been analyzed within a phylogenetic framework. We use published data on the embryos of 36 species concerning the ...
Alexander Pyron R R Dept. of Biological Sciences, The George Washington University, 2023 G St. NW, Washington, DC 20052. Electronic address: - - 2014
Next-generation genomic sequencing promises to quickly and cheaply resolve remaining contentious nodes in the Tree of Life, and facilitates species-tree estimation while taking into account stochastic genealogical discordance among loci. Recent methods for estimating species trees bypass full likelihood-based estimates of the multi-species coalescent, and approximate the true species-tree using ...
Blue Elizabeth M EM Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of - - 2014
When analyzing family data, we dream of perfectly informative data, even whole-genome sequences (WGSs) for all family members. Reality intervenes, and we find that next-generation sequencing (NGS) data have errors and are often too expensive or impossible to collect on everyone. The Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 working groups on quality ...
Ziegler Andreas A Institut für Medizinische Biometrie und Statistik, Universität zu Lübeck, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; Center for Clinical Trials, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, - - 2014
High-throughput sequencing data can be used to predict phenotypes from genotypes, and this corresponds to establishing a prognostic model. In extended pedigrees the relatedness of subjects provides additional information so that genetic values, fixed or random genetic components, and heritability can be estimated. At the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18, the ...
Ghosh Saurabh S Human Genetics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, - - 2014
Our working group studied methods for joint analyses of multiple phenotypes using the data provided by Genetic Analysis Workshop 18. Two data sets were available: one containing genotypes obtained from a real human whole-genome sequencing study along with longitudinal measurements on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, age, sex, medication use, ...
Wu Zheyang Z Department of Mathematical Sciences, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of - - 2014
The analysis of whole-genome sequence (WGS) data using longitudinal phenotypes offers a potentially rich resource for the examination of the genetic variants and their covariates that affect complex phenotypes over time. We summarize eight contributions to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18, which applied a diverse array of statistical genetic methods ...
Lu Ake Tzu-Hui AT Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of - - 2014
Machine learning methods (MLMs), designed to develop models using high-dimensional predictors, have been used to analyze genome-wide genetic and genomic data to predict risks for complex traits. We summarize the results from six contributions to our Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 working group; these investigators applied MLMs and data mining to ...
Marin Pricila - - 2014
Reactive blue 5G dye removal in a fixed-bed column packed with Dowex Optipore SD-2 adsorbent was modelled. Three mathematical models were tested in order to determine the limiting step of the mass transfer of the dye adsorption process onto the adsorbent. The mass transfer resistance was considered to be a ...
Sigel Erin M EM Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 - - 2014
• Many polyploid species are composed of distinct lineages originating from multiple, independent polyploidization events. In the case of allopolyploids, reciprocal crosses between the same progenitor species can yield lineages with different uniparentally inherited plastid genomes. While likely common, there are few well-documented examples of such reciprocal origins. Here we ...
Hu Yujing - - 2014
{}An important approach in multiagent reinforcement learning (MARL) is equilibrium-based MARL, which adopts equilibrium solution concepts in game theory and requires agents to play equilibrium strategies at each state. However, most existing equilibrium-based MARL algorithms cannot scale due to a large number of computationally expensive equilibrium computations (e.g., computing Nash ...
Lebedev Andrey A AA CCP4, Research Complex at Harwell, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0FA, - - 2014
The presence of pseudo-symmetry in a macromolecular crystal and its interplay with twinning may lead to an incorrect space-group (SG) assignment. Moreover, if the pseudo-symmetry is very close to an exact crystallographic symmetry, the structure can be solved and partially refined in the wrong SG. Typically, in such incorrectly determined ...
Sessa Clarimma C Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028, Barcelona, - - 2014
Mid-infrared fiberoptics reflectance spectroscopy (mid-IR FORS) is a very interesting technique for artwork characterization purposes. However, the fact that the spectra obtained are a mixture of surface (specular) and volume (diffuse) reflection is a significant drawback. The physical and chemical features of the artwork surface may produce distortions in the ...
Villalobos Fabricio F Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Ciências Biolôgicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, CP 131, Goiânia, Goiás, 74001-970, Brazil, - - 2014
The morphology of species can be used to represent their ecological position and infer potential processes determining the structure of species assemblages. This ecomorphological approach has been widely applied to the study of bat assemblages which mainly focuses on a single spatial scale and particular guilds. We extended such an ...
Larson Danelle M DM Division of Biology, Kansas State University, 104 Ackert Hall, Manhattan, KS, 66506, USA, - - 2014
Fire and grazing are common management schemes of grasslands globally and are potential drivers of reptilian and amphibian (herpetofauna) metacommunity dynamics. Few studies have assessed the impacts of fire and cattle grazing on herpetofauna assemblages in grasslands. A patch-burn grazing study at Osage Prairie, MO, USA in 2011-2012 created landscape ...
Liu Changlu C Biomathematics and Biostatistics Program, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston and The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77030, - - 2014
We propose a Bayesian hierarchical mixture model framework that allows us to investigate the genetic and environmental effects, gene by gene interactions and gene by environment interactions in the same model. Our approach incorporates the natural hierarchical structure between the main effects and interaction effects into a mixture model, such ...
Dias Brian G BG Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, GA, - - 2014
Environmental factors routinely influence an organism's biology. The inheritance or transmission of such influences to descendant generations would be an efficient mode of information transfer across generations. The developmental stage at which a specific environment is encountered by the ancestral generation, and the number of generations over which information about ...
van Heijster Peter P Mathematical Sciences School, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld, - - 2014
Bone morphogen proteins (BMPs) are distributed along a dorsal-ventral (DV) gradient in many developing embryos. The spatial distribution of this signaling ligand is critical for correct DV axis specification. In various species, BMP expression is spatially localized, and BMP gradient formation relies on BMP transport, which in turn requires interactions ...
Collette Florimond - - 2014
Photoexcitation with blue light of the flavin chromophore in BLUF photoreceptors induces a switch into a metastable signaling state that is characterized by a redshifted absorption maximum. The redshift is due to a rearrangement in the hydrogen bond pattern around Gln63 located in the immediate proximity of the isoalloxazine ring ...
Green Jonathan P JP School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, John Maynard Smith Building, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK - - 2014
Remarkable variation exists in the distribution of reproduction (skew) among members of cooperatively breeding groups, both within and between species. Reproductive skew theory has provided an important framework for understanding this variation. In the primitively eusocial Hymenoptera, two models have been routinely tested: concessions models, which assume complete control of ...
Kaplan Ryan R Brown - - 2014
Abstract We investigate the utility of a mathematical framework based on discrete geometry to model biological and synthetic self-assembly. Our primary biological example is the self-assembly of icosahedral viruses; our synthetic example is surface-tension-driven self-folding polyhedra. In both instances, the process of self-assembly is modeled by decomposing the polyhedron into ...
Gillies James M JM a New Mexico VA Healthcare System , Albuquerque , - - 2014
Although increasing numbers of grief theorists, researchers and therapists have begun to focus on the quest for meaning in lives disrupted by loss, no convenient and psychometrically validated measure of meanings made specifically in bereavement has been available to guide their efforts. To construct such a measure, we began with ...
Hopkins Robin R Department of Integrative Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Reinforcement, the process of increased reproductive isolation due to selection against hybrids, is an important mechanism by which natural selection contributes to speciation [1]. Empirical studies suggest that reinforcement has generated reproductive isolation in many taxa (reviewed in [2-4]), and theoretical work shows it can act under broad selective conditions ...
Karl Stephan - - 2014
The World Health Organization estimates that the global number of dengue infections range between 80-100 million per year, with some studies estimating approximately three times higher numbers. Furthermore, the geographic range of dengue virus transmission is extending with the disease now occurring more frequently in areas such as southern Europe. ...
Willems Matthieu M Département d'informatique, Université du Québec à Montréal, Case postale 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal (Québec) H3C 3P8, - - 2014
Several algorithms and software have been developed for inferring phylogenetic trees. However, there exist some biological phenomena such as hybridization, recombination, or horizontal gene transfer which cannot be represented by a tree topology. We need to use phylogenetic networks to adequately represent these important evolutionary mechanisms. In this article, we ...
Bonandin L L Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali, Università di Bologna, Bologna, - - 2014
Theoretical and empirical studies have shown differential management of transposable elements in organisms with different reproductive strategies. To investigate this issue, we analysed the R2 retroelement structure and variability in parthenogenetic and bisexual populations of Bacillus rossius stick insects, as well as insertions inheritance in the offspring of parthenogenetic isolates ...
Alcaraz Nicolas - - 2014
BackgroundOver the last decade network enrichment analysis has become popular in computational systems biology to elucidate aberrant network modules. Traditionally, these approaches focus on combining gene expression data with protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Nowadays, the so-called omics technologies allow for inclusion of many more data sets, e.g. protein phosphorylation or ...
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