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Bateson Melissa M http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0861-0191 Centre for Behaviour and Evolution, Institute of Neuroscience and Newcastle University Institute of Ageing, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK - - 2015
Animals in a poor biological state face reduced life expectancy, and as a consequence should make decisions that prioritize immediate survival and reproduction over long-term benefits. We tested the prediction that if, as has been suggested, developmental telomere attrition is a biomarker of state and future life expectancy, then individuals ...
Nicolaus Marion M Evolutionary Ecology of Variation Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Eberhard-Gwinner-Straße 7, Seewiesen (Starnberg) 82319, Germany Department of Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Eberhard-Gwinner-Straße 7, Seewiesen (Starnberg) 82319, Germany - - 2015
A number of studies have suggested that avian brood size is individually optimized. Yet, optimal reproductive decisions likely vary owing to among-individual differences in environmental sensitivity. Specifically, 'proactive' individuals who do not track environmental changes may be less able to produce optimal brood sizes than 'reactive' individuals who have more ...
Garcia-Gonzalez Francisco F http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9515-9038 Doñana Biological Station, Spanish Research Council CSIC, c/Americo Vespucio, s/n, Isla de la Cartuja 41092, Sevilla, Spain Centre for Evolutionary Biology, University of Western Australia, School of Animal Biology M092, Nedlands 6009, Western Australia paco.garcia@ebd.csic.es - - 2015
Polyandry (female multiple mating) has profound evolutionary and ecological implications. Despite considerable work devoted to understanding why females mate multiply, we currently lack convincing empirical evidence to explain the adaptive value of polyandry. Here, we provide a direct test of the controversial idea that bet-hedging functions as a risk-spreading strategy ...
Parslew Ben B Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD, UK - - 2015
A theoretical model of avian flight is developed which simulates wing motion through a class of methods known as predictive simulation. This approach uses numerical optimization to predict power-optimal kinematics of avian wings in hover, cruise, climb and descent. The wing dynamics capture both aerodynamic and inertial loads. The model ...
Hirst Claire E CE EMBL Australia, Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute (ARMI), Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia, - - 2015
This review will focus on the use of the chicken and quail as model systems to analyze myogenesis and as such will emphasize the experimental approaches that are strongest in these systems-the amenability of the avian embryo to manipulation and in ovo observation. During somite differentiation, a wide spectrum of ...
Plein Alice A UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, - - 2015
Angiogenesis, defined as the sprouting of new blood vessels from preexisting ones, is a biological process of great clinical relevance due to its involvement in disease as well as its therapeutic potential for revascularizing ischemic tissues. The embryonic mouse hindbrain provides an excellent model to study the molecular and cellular ...
Bressan Michael M Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, 555 Mission Bay Blvd South, MC3120, San Francisco, CA, 94143-3120, USA, - - 2015
For more than 2,000 years, philosophers and scientists have turned to the avian embryo with questions of how life begins (Aristotle and Peck Generations of Animals. Loeb Classics, vol. XIII. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1943; Needham, A history of embryology. Abelard-Schuman, New York, 1959). Then, as now, the unique accessibility ...
Irie Naoki N Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan irie@bs.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp - - 2014
The hourglass model of embryonic evolution predicts an hourglass-like divergence during animal embryogenesis - with embryos being more divergent at the earliest and latest stages but conserved during a mid-embryonic (phylotypic) period that serves as a source of the basic body plan for animals within a phylum. Morphological observations have ...
Hedin Marshal M Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, - - 2014
A remarkable radiation of completely eyeless, cave-obligate spider species (Cicurina) has been described from limestone caves of Texas. This radiation includes over 50 described species, with a large number of hypothesized single-cave endemics, and four species listed as US Federally Endangered. Because of this conservation importance, species delimitation in the ...
Kita Elizabeth M - - 2014
The zebrafish retinotectal projection provides an attractive model system for studying many aspects of topographic map formation and maintenance. Visual connections initially start to form between three and five days post fertilization, and remain plastic throughout the life of the fish. Zebrafish are easily manipulated surgically, genetically and chemically, and ...
Guven Mustafa - - 2014
The extraction of overlapping cell nuclei is a critical issue in automated diagnosis systems. Due tothe similarities between overlapping and malignant nuclei, misclassification of the overlapped regionscan affect the automated systems¿ final decision. In this paper, we present a method for detectingoverlapping cell nuclei in Pap smear samples. Judgement about ...
Przeslawski Rachel R National Earth and Marine Observations Group, Geoscience Australia, GPO Box 378, Canberra, ACT, 2601, - - 2014
Marine organisms are simultaneously exposed to anthropogenic stressors with likely interactive effects, including synergisms in which the combined effects of multiple stressors are greater than the sum of individual effects. Early life stages of marine organisms are potentially vulnerable to the stressors associated with global change, but identifying general patterns ...
Pradines Bartélémy - - 2014
The intermediate effective Hamiltonians are designed to provide M exact energies and the components of the corresponding eigenvectors in the N-dimensional model space with N>M. The effective Hamiltonian is not entirely defined by these N×M conditions, and several dressings of the Hamiltonian matrix in the model space are possible. Some ...
Aránguiz-Acuña Adriana A Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química, Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta, Chile, - - 2014
Facultative diapause should be favoured by natural selection in temporary variable habitats. Diapause patterns are evolutionary constrained because producing diapause is resource demanding, which might have implications for competitive dynamics and competitor coexistence through mechanisms such as the storage effect. Besides these implications, competition intensity might affect the quality of ...
Kang Seong Hyuk SH Majors in Plant Resource Sciences & Environment, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, SARI, Jeju National University, Jeju, 690-756, Republic of - - 2014
A population model can be a useful tool to understand population dynamics under various environmental factors, and can be useful for evaluating the efficacy of new management practices. This study was conducted to construct an oviposition model of overwintered Scirtothrips dorsalis as a part of its whole population model. Adult ...
Joyner Michele L ML Department of Mathematics and Statistics and Institute for Quantitative Biology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, 37659, United States. - - 2014
In this paper, we develop a stochastic differential equation model to simulate the movement of a social/subsocial spider species, Anelosimus studiosus, during prey capture using experimental data collected in a structured environment. In a subsocial species, females and their maturing offspring share a web and cooperate in web maintenance and ...
Bernabò Nicola N Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo , Teramo, Italy - - 2014
Abstract The rapid growth of published literature makes biomedical text mining increasingly invaluable for unpacking implicit knowledge hidden in unstructured text. We employed biomedical text mining and biological networks analyses to research the process of sperm egg recognition and binding (SERB). We selected from the literature the molecules expressed either ...
Hejnol Andreas A Sars International Centre of Marine Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Norway; Hopkins Marine Station, Department of Biology, Stanford University, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The notochord is considered an evolutionary novelty and one of the defining characters of chordates. A new study of an annelid challenges this view and proposes an earlier evolutionary origin in the most recent common ancestor of chordates and annelids.
Johnsson J I JI University of Gothenburg, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Box 463, SE 405 30 Gothenburg, - - 2014
Why do captive-reared fishes generally have lower fitness in natural environments than wild conspecifics, even when the hatchery fishes are derived from wild parents from the local population? A thorough understanding of this question is the key to design artificial rearing environments that optimize post-release performance, as well as to ...
Rubessa M M Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, - - 2014
Wide-spread use of IVF has significantly increased the number of multiple births (Janvier et al. 2011 J. Pediatr. 159, 409-413). A potential solution to this problem is to develop improved methods for embryo selection to permit single-embryo transfer. Identification of a noninvasive technique to assess embryo implantation potential in assisted ...
Matos F D FD São Paulo State University - UNESP, Assis, SP, - - 2014
Embryonic morphological classification has great importance for numerous laboratory techniques (from basic to applied research in assisted reproduction). However, the method used to perform the classification of embryos in varying degrees of quality has always been based on the subjectivity of the evaluator. Although quality standards and descriptions of morphological ...
Erfani Amir A Department of Sociology, Nipissing University, North Bay, Ontario, - - 2014
Studies investigating fertility decline in developing countries often adopt measures of determinants of fertility behavior developed based on observations from developed countries, without adapting them to the realities of the study setting. As a result, their findings are usually invalid, anomalous or statistically non-significant. This commentary draws on the research ...
Krtinić B B Ciklonizacija,Primorska 76,21000 Novi - - 2014
Culex (Culex) pipiens s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) comprises two distinct biotypes, pipiens ('rural') and molestus ('urban'), both of which are thought to have differing capacities due to different host preferences. To better understand West Nile encephalitis epidemiology and improve risk assessment, local distinction between these forms is essential. This study assesses ...
Neumeyer Courtney H CH Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Stevens Point, Wisconsin, 54481; Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, Wilmington, North Carolina, - - 2014
The brine shrimp, Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca), is a zooplankton that is commonly used in both basic and applied research. Unfortunately, Artemia embryos are often cultured under conditions that alter early development, and reports based on these cultures oversimplify or fail to describe morphological phenotypes. This is due in part to ...
Gaspar Helena Alexandra - - 2014
This paper is devoted to the analysis and visualization in 2-dimensional space of large datasets of millions of compounds using the incremental version of Generative Topographic Mapping (iGTM). The iGTM algorithm implemented in the in-house ISIDA-GTM program has been applied to a database of more than 2 million compounds combining ...
Green Alison L AL The Nature Conservancy, 245 Riverside Drive, West End, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 4101; Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia, - - 2014
Well-designed and effectively managed networks of marine reserves can be effective tools for both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation. Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals as larvae, juveniles or adults, is a key ecological factor to consider in marine reserve design, since it has ...
Anderson Thomas L TL Division of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA, - - 2014
Phenology often determines the outcome of interspecific interactions, where early-arriving species often dominate interactions over those arriving later. The effects of phenology on species interactions are especially pronounced in aquatic systems, but the evidence is largely derived from experimental studies. We examined whether differences in breeding phenology between two pond-breeding ...
Pelletier Tara A TA Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus OH, 43201 - - 2014
Allopatry is commonly used to predict boundaries in species delimitation investigations under the assumption that currently allopatric distributions are indicative of reproductive isolation, however, species ranges are known to change over time. Incorporating a temporal perspective of geographic distributions should improve species delimitation; to explore this, we investigate three species ...
Ulberg Randi - - 2014
BackgroundThe present paper is a manual for the Transference Work Scale (TWS). The inter-rater agreement on the 26 TWS items was good to excellent and previously published. TWS is a therapy process rating scale focusing on Transference Work (TW) (i.e. analysis of the patient-therapist relationship). TW is considered a core ...
Bahrami Mehdi - - 2014
The refractive index distribution of the geometry-invariant gradient refractive index lens (GIGL) model is derived as a function of Cartesian coordinates. The adjustable external geometry of the GIGL model aims to mimic the shape of the human and animal crystalline lens. The refractive index distribution is based on an adjustable ...
Brewer Michael S MS Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114; Department of Biology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC - - 2014
Particularly intriguing examples of adaptive radiation are those in which lineages show parallel or convergent evolution, suggesting utilization of similar genetic or developmental pathways. The current study focuses on an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian "spiny-leg" spiders in which diversification is associated with repeated convergent evolution leading to similar sets of ...
Schiegg Martin M University of Heidelberg, IWR/HCI, 69115 Heidelberg, - - 2014
To gain fundamental insight into the development of embryos, biologists seek to understand the fate of each and every embryonic cell. For the generation of cell tracks in embryogenesis, so-called tracking-by-assignment methods are flexible approaches. However, as every two-stage approach, they suffer from irrevocable errors propagated from the first stage ...
Lee Okhyun O Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter , Exeter, Devon , - - 2014
The use of transgenics in fish is a relatively recent development for advancing understanding of genetic mechanisms and developmental processes, improving aquaculture, and for pharmaceutical discovery. Transgenic fish have also been applied in ecotoxicology where they have the potential to provide more advanced and integrated systems for assessing health impacts ...
Parks Daniel D Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Southern California, 3641 Watt Way, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Previous studies have shown that gaze direction of actors in a scene influences eye movements of passive observers during free-viewing (Castelhano, Wieth, & Henderson, 2007; Borji, Parks, & Itti, 2014). However, no computational model has been proposed to combine bottom-up saliency with actor's head pose and gaze direction for predicting ...
Zafrilla Jorge - - 2014
Spain faces the challenge of 80-95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050 (European Energy Roadmap). As a possible first step to fulfil this objective, this paper presents a two-level analysis. First, we estimate the carbon footprint of a hypothetical nuclear facility in Spain. Using a hybrid multi-regional input-output model, to ...
Jordan Crispin Y CY Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 2370-6270 University Blvd. Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1Z4, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Floral displays are functionally and genetically integrated structures, so modifications to display will likely affect multiple fitness components (pleiotropy), including pollen export and self-pollination, and therefore selfing rate. Consequently, the great diversities of floral displays and of mating systems found among angiosperms have likely co-evolved. I extend previous models of ...
Fröbisch Nadia B NB Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany - - 2014
Salamanders are the only tetrapods capable of fully regenerating their limbs throughout their entire lives. Much data on the underlying molecular mechanisms of limb regeneration have been gathered in recent years allowing for new comparative studies between salamanders and other tetrapods that lack this unique regenerative potential. By contrast, the ...
Prabhakar Pranay P Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, McAllister Heart Institute, 6309 MBRB, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7545, - - 2014
The presence of a native collateral circulation in tissues lessens injury in occlusive vascular diseases. However, differences in genetic background cause wide variation in collateral number and diameter in mice, resulting in large variation in protection. Indirect estimates of collateral perfusion suggest that wide variation also exists in humans. Unfortunately, ...
Rhenman A A Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, S-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden - - 2014
Which embryo score variables are most powerful for predicting live birth after single embryo transfer (SET) at the early cleavage stage? This large prospective study of visual embryo scoring variables shows that blastomere number (BL), the proportion of mononucleated blastomeres (NU) and the degree of fragmentation (FR) have independent prognostic ...
Hjorth J J Johannes JJ Cambridge Computational Biology Institute, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0WA, - - 2014
Molecular and activity-based cues acting together are thought to guide retinal axons to their terminal sites in vertebrate optic tectum or superior colliculus to form an ordered map of connections. The details of mechanisms involved, and the degree to which they might interact, are still not well understood. We have ...
Molina Manuel M Department of Mathematics, University of Extremadura, 06006 Badajoz, - - 2014
The motivation behind this research is to develop appropriate mathematical models to describe the demographic dynamics of animal populations with sexual reproduction. We introduce a new class of two-sex branching models where several mating strategies between females and males and a variety of possibilities for the process of reproduction are ...
Lanier Hayley C HC Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1079, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Coalescent-based methods for species-tree estimation are becoming a dominant approach for reconstructing species histories from multi-locus data, with most of the studies examining these methodologies focused on recently diverged species. However, deeper phylogenies, such as the datasets that comprise many Tree of Life (ToL) studies, also exhibit gene-tree discordance. This ...
Lyklema Johannes J Department of Physical Chemistry and Colloid Science, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 6, 6703 HB Wageningen, - - 2014
This paper offers an anthology on developments in colloid and interface science emphasizing themes that may be of direct or indirect interest to Interfaces Against Pollution. Topics include the determination of Avogadro's number, development in the insight into driving forces for double layer formation, colloid stability, thin films, and thermodynamic ...
Mohr Rachel M RM Department of Forensic and Investigative Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA, - - 2014
Understanding the onset and duration of adult blow fly activity is critical to accurately estimating the period of insect activity or minimum postmortem interval (minPMI). Few, if any, reliable techniques have been developed and consequently validated for using adult fly activity to determine a minPMI. In this study, adult blow flies (Diptera: ...
Zuha Raja Muhammad RM Forensic Science Program, School of Diagnostic & Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Scuttle flies of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) are recorded for the first time in Malaysia from rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments. They consist of Puliciphora borinquenensis Wheeler ♂♀, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Puliciphora beckeri Meijere ♀. All species were obtained from rabbit carcasses in used luggage and ...
Zienkiewicz Adam A Department of Engineering Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol, - - 2014
In this work, we develop a data-driven modelling framework to reproduce the locomotion of fish in a confined environment. Specifically, we highlight the primary characteristics of the motion of individual zebrafish (Danio rerio), and study how these can be suitably encapsulated within a mathematical framework utilising a limited number of ...
Perrard A A Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA; UMR 7205 ISYEB, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, - - 2014
Wing venation has long been used for insect identification. Lately, the characterization of venation shape using geometric morphometrics has further improved the potential of using the wing for insect identification. However, external factors inducing variation in wing shape could obscure specific differences, preventing accurate discrimination of species in heterogeneous samples. ...
Mimura Makiko - - 2014
BackgroundThe margins of a species¿ range might be located at the margins of a species¿ niche, and in such cases, can be highly vulnerable to climate changes. They, however, may also undergo significant evolutionary change due to drastic population dynamics; e.g., changes in population size and distribution, which may increase ...
Ciray H Nadir HN Division of Reproduction and Early Development, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, Clarendon Way, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK - - 2014
Can the approach to, and terminology for, time-lapse monitoring of preimplantation embryo development be uniformly defined in order to improve the utilization and impact of this novel technology? The adoption of the proposed guidelines for defining annotation practice and universal nomenclature would help unify time-lapse monitoring practice, allow validation of ...
Yildirim Ilker I Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA, - - 2014
If a person is trained to recognize or categorize objects or events using one sensory modality, the person can often recognize or categorize those same (or similar) objects and events via a novel modality. This phenomenon is an instance of cross-modal transfer of knowledge. Here, we study the Multisensory Hypothesis ...
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