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Xu Yihuan Y ImClone LLC, A Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Eli Lilly and Company, 440 Route 22, Bridgewater, NJ - - 2014
The g - and - h distributional family is generated from a relatively simple transformation of the standard normal and can approximate a broad spectrum of distributions. Consequently, it is easy to use in simulation studies and has been applied in multiple areas, including risk management, stock return analysis and ...
Yoon Jeong-Mi JM Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Houston - Downtown, Houston, TX 77002, United States. - - 2014
Pierce's disease (PD) is a fatal disease of grapevines which results from an infection by the plant pathogen Xyllela fastidiosa. This bacterium grows in the xylem (water-conducting) vessels of the plant blocking movement of water. PD can kill vines in one year and poses a serious threat to both the ...
Castro-Costa Erico E René Rachou Research Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, - - 2014
The study aims to investigate whether longitudinal data on the structure of the mini mental state examination (MMSE) collected in an older Brazilian cohort support factorial invariance over time. Analysis of 10-year data from a community-based cohort study was performed. The study took place in Bambuí, Brazil. The study sample ...
Mattos Inês Echenique - - 2014
The increase of the elderly population and the high prevalence of chronic diseases have contributed to the increasing importance of functional ability as a global public health problem. This study aimed to assess functional capacity in institutionalized elders, as well as undertake an exploratory analysis of its associated factors. This ...
Revell Ad A The HIV Resistance Response Database Initiative (RDI), London, - - 2014
We compared the use of computational models developed with and without HIV genotype vs. genotyping itself to predict effective regimens for patients experiencing first-line virological failure. Two sets of models predicted virological response for 99 three-drug regimens for patients on a failing regimen of two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors and ...
Stålsby Lundborg Cecilia C Global Health, IHCAR, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , - - 2014
Abstract This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to ...
Derkach A A 1) Program in Child Health Evaluative Sciences, the Hospital Sick Children, Toronto, ON, - - 2014
Sufficiently powered case-control studies with next generation sequence (NGS) data remain prohibitively expensive for many investigators. If feasible, a more efficient strategy would be to include publicly available sequenced controls. However, these studies can be confounded by differences in sequencing platform; alignment, SNP and variant calling algorithms; read depth and ...
Stokes Matthew E - - 2014
Ranking and identifying biomarkers that are associated with disease from genome-wide measurements holds significant promise for understanding the genetic basis of common diseases. The large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genome-wide studies, however, makes this task computationally challenging when the ranking is to be done in a multivariate ...
Bo Yan-Chen - - 2014
There have been large-scale outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Mainland China over the last decade. These events varied greatly across the country. It is necessary to identify the spatial risk factors and spatial distribution patterns of HFMD for public health control and prevention. Climate risk factors ...
Rintamaki Lance S LS a Department of Communication and Department of Community Health and Health Behavior , University at Buffalo, The State University of New York , Buffalo , New York , - - 2014
This study advances the Extended Parallel Process Model through the inclusion of response cost measures, which are drawbacks associated with a proposed response to a health threat. A sample of 502 college students completed a questionnaire on perceptions regarding sexually transmitted infections and condom use after reading information from the ...
López Leonardo - - 2014
The spread of an infectious disease is determined by biological and social factors. Models based oncellular automata are adequate to describe such natural systems consisting of a massive collection ofsimple interacting objects. They characterize the time evolution of the global system as the emergentbehaviour resulting from the interaction of the ...
Levy Jonathan I JI Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, - - 2014
For many policy analyses, including but not limited to cumulative risk assessments, it is important to characterize the individual and joint health effects of multiple stressors. With an increasing focus on psychosocial and other nonchemical stressors, this often includes epidemiological meta-analysis. Meta-analysis has limitations if epidemiological studies do not include ...
Kurt Zeyneb Z Department of Computer Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa, Esenler, Istanbul, - - 2014
Gene Network Inference (GNI) algorithms enable the researchers to explore the interactions among the genes and gene products by revealing these interactions. The principal process of the GNI algorithms is to obtain the association scores among genes. Although there are several association estimators utilized in different applications, there is no ...
Berry D P DP Animal & Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Teagasc, Moorepark, Co. Cork, Ireland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information from which to make selection decisions. However, individual cow feed intake data are available in different ...
Kondo Michelle C - - 2014
Nonrandom sampling of populations in developing nations has limitations and can inaccurately estimate health phenomena, especially among hard-to-reach populations such as rural residents. However, random sampling of rural populations in developing nations can be challenged by incomplete enumeration of the base population. We describe a stratified random sampling method using ...
Guo Xuan - - 2014
Backgroud: Taking the advantage of high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping technology, large genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been considered to hold promise for unravelling complex relationships between genotype and phenotype. At present, traditional single-locus-based methods are insufficient to detect interactions consisting of multiple-locus, which are broadly existing in complex ...
van Deurssen Erik E Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80178, 3508 TD Utrecht, The - - 2014
Quartz exposure can cause several respiratory health effects. Although quartz exposure has been described in several observational workplace studies, well-designed intervention studies that investigate the effect of control strategies are lacking. This article describes a baseline exposure study that is part of a multidimensional intervention program aiming to reduce quartz ...
Da Silva David D INRA, UMR 1334 Plant Genetic Improvement and Adaption (AGAP), Montpellier, - - 2014
Background and AimsThe impact of a fruit tree's architecture on its performance is still under debate, especially with regard to the definition of varietal ideotypes and the selection of architectural traits in breeding programmes. This study aimed at providing proof that a modelling approach can contribute to this debate, by ...
Taylor Jonathon J Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, UCL, - - 2014
A number of studies have estimated population exposure to PM2.5 by examining modelled or measured outdoor PM2.5 levels. However, few have taken into account the mediating effects of building characteristics on the ingress of PM2.5 from outdoor sources and its impact on population exposure in the indoor domestic environment. This ...
He Liang L Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, - - 2014
By analyzing more next-generation sequencing data, researchers have affirmed that rare genetic variants are widespread among populations and likely play an important role in complex phenotypes. Recently, a handful of statistical models have been developed to analyze rare variant (RV) association in different study designs. However, due to the scarce ...
Sung Yun Ju YJ Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of - - 2014
For analysis of the main effects of SNPs, meta-analysis of summary results from individual studies has been shown to provide comparable results as "mega-analysis" that jointly analyzes the pooled participant data from the available studies. This fact revolutionized the genetic analysis of complex traits through large GWAS consortia. Investigations of ...
Cheung Charles Y K CY Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America; Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of - - 2014
Detection of genotyping errors is a necessary step to minimize false results in genetic analysis. This is especially important when the rate of genotyping errors is high, as has been reported for high-throughput sequence data. To detect genotyping errors in pedigrees, Mendelian inconsistent (MI) error checks exist, as do multi-point ...
Tapsoba Jean de Dieu - - 2014
Secondary trait genetic association provides insight into the genetic architecture of disease etiology but requires caution in estimation. Ignoring case-control sampling may introduce bias into secondary trait association. In this paper, we compare the efficiency and robustness of various inverse probability weighted (IPW) estimators and maximum likelihood (ML) estimators. ML ...
Dixit Vinayak V School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, UNSW, Gate 11, Botany Street, H20 CVEN, L1, Room 113, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Carshare systems are considered a promising solution for sustainable development of cities. To promote carsharing it is imperative to make them cost effective, which includes reduction in costs associated to crashes and insurance. To achieve this goal, it is important to characterize carshare users involved in crashes and understand factors ...
Waples Robin S RS National Marine Fisheries - - 2014
Use of single-sample genetic methods to estimate effective population size has skyrocketed in recent years. Although the underlying models assume discrete generations, they are widely applied to age-structured species. We simulated genetic data for 21 iteroparous animal and plant species to evaluate two untested hypotheses regarding performance of the single-sample ...
Chen Yongsheng Y Office of Traffic Safety, City of Edmonton, Suite 200, 9304-41 Avenue NW, Edmonton, Alberta T6E 6G8, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are developed as multiplicative factors that are used to reflect the expected changes in safety performance associated with changes in highway design and/or the traffic control features. However, current CMFs have methodological drawbacks. For example, variability with application circumstance is not well ...
Parry Matthew M Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New - - 2014
The spread of Huanglongbing through citrus groves is used as a case study for modeling an emerging epidemic in the presence of a control. Specifically, the spread of the disease is modeled as a susceptible-exposed-infectious-detected-removed epidemic, where the exposure and infectious times are not observed, detection times are censored, removal ...
Shen Yun Y Technical University, 10587 Berlin, Germany - - 2014
We derive a family of risk-sensitive reinforcement learning methods for agents, who face sequential decision-making tasks in uncertain environments. By applying a utility function to the temporal difference (TD) error, nonlinear transformations are effectively applied not only to the received rewards but also to the true transition probabilities of the ...
Rey Juan J - - 2014
Previous research has suggested multiple factor structures for the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), with contradictory evidence arising across different studies on the validity of these models. In the present research, it was hypothesized that these inconsistent findings were due to the interaction of 3 main methodological factors: ambiguous response ...
Khan Adnan - - 2014
Dengue, an infectious tropical disease, has recently emerged as one of the most important mosquitoborneviral diseases in the world. We perform a retrospective analysis of the 2011 dengue feverepidemic in Pakistan in order to assess the transmissibility of the disease. We obtain estimates of thebasic reproduction number R0 from epidemic ...
Molina J Gabriel - - 2014
The 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has become a popular screening instrument with which to measure general psychological health in different settings. Previous studies into the factorial structure of the GHQ-12 have mainly supported multifactor solutions, and only a few recent works have shown that the GHQ-12 ...
Tsiliyannis Christos Aristeides CA ANION Environmental Ltd., 26 Lykoudi Str., Athens GR 11141, Greece. Electronic address: - - 2014
Planning of end-of-life (EoL) product take-back systems and sizing of dismantling and recycling centers, entails the EoL flow (EoLF) that originates from the product dynamic stock (DS). Several uncertain factors (economic, technological, health, social and environmental) render both the EoLF and the remaining stock uncertain. Early losses of products during ...
Mehta Sanjay R SR Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Rapid growth in the genetic sequencing of pathogens in recent years has led to the creation of large sequence databases. This aggregated sequence data can be very useful for tracking and predicting epidemics of infectious diseases. However, the balance between the potential public health benefit and the risk to personal ...
Ricotta Carlo C Department of Environmental Biology, University of Rome 'La Sapienza', Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy, - - 2014
Although recurrent fire events with very short return periods have the most dangerous effects on landscape degradation, only a few papers have explored the landscape ecological factors that drive the probability of fire recurrence. In this paper we apply a habitat suitability model for analyzing the spatial relationship between a ...
Yeung Jian Sheng JS Centre for Infrastructure Systems, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue N1-B1b-09, Singapore 639798, Singapore. Electronic address: - - 2014
In order to overcome urban space constraints, underground road systems are becoming popular options for cities. Existing literature suggests that accident rates in road tunnels are lower than those in open roads. However, there is a lack of understanding in how the road tunnel environment affects inter-vehicle interactions. In this ...
De Cao Elisabetta E Department of Economics, Econometrics and Finance, University of Groningen, Nettelbosje 2, 9747 AE Groningen, The - - 2014
The recent availability of survey data on social contact patterns has made possible important advances in the understanding of the social determinants of the spread of close-contact infections, and of the importance of long-lasting contacts for effective transmission to occur. Still, little is known about the relationship between two of ...
Huang Yen-Tsung YT Department of Epidemiology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, - - 2014
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and expression-/methylation-quantitative trait loci (eQTL/mQTL) studies constitute popular approaches for investigating the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with disease and expression/methylation, respectively. Here, we propose to integrate QTL studies to more powerfully test the SNP effect on disease in GWASs when they are conducted among ...
McLaren A A 1 SRUC, Hill & Mountain Research Centre, Kirkton Farm, Crianlarich, FK20 8RU, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to define different terminal sire flock environments, based on a range of environmental factors, and then investigate the presence of genotype by environment interactions (G×E) between the environments identified. Data from 79 different terminal sire flocks (40 Texel, 21 Charollais and 18 Suffolk), were ...
Wang Jixian J a Novartis Pharma , - - 2014
Abstract Determining causal effects in exposure-response relationships is an important but also a challenging task since confounding factors that affect both drug exposure and response often exist and lead to confounding biases in causal effect estimation. Randomized concentration control (RCC) trials are designed to eliminate or to reduce the confounding ...
Xu Chengcheng C a Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Urban ITS, Southeast University Jiangsu Province Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Urban Traffic Technologies Si Pai Lou #2 , Nanjing , China , 210096 Tel: +86-13801580045 Email: iamxcc1@gmail.com E-mail: wangwei@seu.edu.cn Email: - - 2014
ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to identify the traffic flow variables contributing to crash risks under different traffic states, and to develop a real-time crash risk model incorporating the varying crash mechanisms across different traffic states. Methods: The crash, traffic and geometric data were collected on the I-880N freeway in ...
Chen Liddy M LM a Global Research Operation, Biostatistics PAREXEL International 2520 Meridian Parkway, Durham , North Carolina 27713 , - - 2014
Abstract It has been widely recognized that interim analyses of accumulating data in a clinical trial can inflate type I error. Different methods, from group sequential boundaries to flexible alpha spending functions, have been developed to control the overall type I error at pre-specified level. These methods mainly apply to ...
Fu Bo B a Centre for Biostatistics, School of Medicine , The University of Manchester , Manchester , M13 9PL , - - 2014
Abstract In non-designed longitudinal observational studies, irregularly spaced measurements are commonly present over a period of follow-up time. We propose a smoothing dynamic model, based on the idea of varying coefficients, to analyze this highly unbalanced longitudinal data. The estimate of model parameters can be obtained by implementing a well-developed ...
Briggs A D M AD Thames Valley Public Health England Centre, Chilton, - - 2014
SUMMARY Water supply-associated cryptosporidiosis outbreaks have decreased in England since the application of risk reduction measures to public water supplies. We hypothesized that smaller outbreaks were occurring which could be better detected by enhanced surveillance. Rolling analysis of detailed questionnaire data was applied prospectively in a population of 2·2 million ...
Kosciw Joseph G JG GLSEN, New York, NY, - - 2014
For lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, coming out (i.e., disclosure of LGBT identity to others) can be a key developmental milestone, one that is associated with better psychological well-being. However, this greater visibility may come with increased risk of peer victimization. Being out, therefore, may reflect resilience and ...
Lucena Eudes Euler de Souza EE Department of Dentistry, Rio Grande do Norte State University, Caicó/RN, Brazil; Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal/RN, - - 2014
Workers from various occupational groups stand out as being more susceptible to photodamage. Behaviors that can reduce the risk of onset of these disorders include the limitation or reduction of sun exposure, use of photoprotective clothing, and correct use of sunscreen. The present study aimed to verify the use of ...
Spinks Phillip Q PQ Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, La Kretz Center for California Conservation Science, Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
A goal of modern taxonomy is to develop classifications that reflect current phylogenetic relationships and are as stable as possible given the inherent uncertainties in much of the tree of life. Here, we provide an in-depth phylogenetic analysis, based on 14 nuclear loci comprising 10,305 base pairs of aligned sequence ...
McGuire Jimmy A JA Museum of Vertebrate Zoology and Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The tempo of species diversification in large clades can reveal fundamental evolutionary mechanisms that operate on large temporal and spatial scales [1-4]. Hummingbirds have radiated into a diverse assemblage of specialized nectarivores comprising 338 species, but their evolutionary history has not, until now, been comprehensively explored. We studied hummingbird diversification ...
Dijkstra Hildebrand H *University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen Department of Radiology, Groningen, The - - 2014
The aim of this study was to compare the summing method (A) with the complement method (B) for calculating the cumulative lifetime-attributable-risk (LARtot) of tumor incidence and mortality of multiple CT exposures. Method A defines LARtot as the summation of the risk of each separate exposure. Method B was defined ...
Major Jason T JT Department of - - 2014
Research on the relations of personality traits to intelligence has primarily been concerned with linear associations. Yet, there are no a priori reasons why linear relations should be expected over nonlinear ones, which represent a much larger set of all possible associations. Using 2 techniques, quadratic and generalized additive models, ...
Tomás Inés I Department of Methodology of Behavioral Sciences, University of Valencia, Valencia, - - 2014
Test of measurement invariance across translated versions of questionnaires is a critical prerequisite to comparing scores on the different versions. In this study, we used exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) as an alternative approach to evaluate the measurement invariance of the Spanish version of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ). The ...
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