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Bruhn Christian A W CA aCentre for GeoGenetics and Section for Evolutionary Genomics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark bDepartment of Laboratory Medicine Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden cMicrobiological Diagnostics and Virology, Statens Serum Institut dDepartment of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet eFaculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen fDepartment of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark gNuffield Department of Medicine, NDM Research building, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK hDepartment of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell biology (MTC), Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden iREGA Institute, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, - - 2014
To describe, at patient-level detail, the determining events and factors involved in the development of a country's HIV-1 epidemic. Clinical information for all recorded Greenlandic HIV-1 patients was analysed and correlated with both novel and previously analysed pol sequences, representing more than half of the entire Greenlandic HIV-1 epidemic. Archival ...
Marsot Maud M Université Paris-Est, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (Anses), Laboratoire de Santé Animale, Epidemiology Unit, Maisons-Alfort, - - 2014
Comparison of control strategies against animal infectious diseases allows determining optimal strategies according to their epidemiological and/or economic impacts. However, in real life, the choice of a control strategy does not always obey a pure economic or epidemiological rationality. The objective of this study was to analyze the choice of ...
Carbonero Franck F School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom ; Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, United States of - - 2014
A better understand the ecology of microbes and their role in the global ecosystem could be achieved if traditional ecological theories can be applied to microbes. In ecology organisms are defined as specialists or generalists according to the breadth of their niche. Spatial distribution is often used as a proxy ...
Cavaleiro Francisca I FI Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Ciências, Departamento de Biologia, Rua do Campo Alegre, s/n, Edifício FC4, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal; CIIMAR/CIMAR - Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: - - 2014
Parasites produce from just a few to many eggs of variable size, but our understanding of the factors driving variation in these two life history traits at the intraspecific level is still very fragmentary. This study evaluates the importance of performing multilevel analyses on egg number and egg size, while ...
Sedghi M M a Department of Animal Science , Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad , Mashhad , Iran , - - 2014
Abstract 1. In poultry investigations, the main interest is often to study the effects of many factors simultaneously. Two or three level factorial designs are the most commonly used for this type of investigation. However, it is often too costly to perform when number of factors increase. So a fractional ...
Rock Kat K WIDER Centre, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK. Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, - - 2014
Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available ...
Daraktchieva Z Z Public Health England, CRCE, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ, - - 2014
It has been recognised for many years that the distributions of indoor radon concentrations in many countries conform more or less closely to a lognormal distribution. For homes situated over a single geological unit with a consistent source of radon in the ground, conformance with the lognormal distribution can be ...
Cun Yupeng Y Bonn-Aachen International Center for IT (B-IT), University of Bonn, Dahlmannstr. 2, 53113 Bonn, - - 2014
In the last years there has been a growing interest in methods that incorporate network information into classification algorithms for biomarker signature discovery in personalized medicine. The general hope is that this way the typical low reproducibility of signatures together with the difficulty to link them to biological knowledge can ...
Iezzoni Lisa I LI Mongan Institute for Health Policy, Massachusetts General Hospital Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School. Electronic address: - - 2014
Power wheelchair (PWC) users depend on their equipment to reliably transport them throughout their daily activities and allow them to participate fully in community life. However, as reported by Worobey and colleagues, PWCs frequently require repairs and cause users a range of problems, from annoying to catastrophic. These authors suggest ...
Brasileiro B P BP Departamento de Estatística, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, - - 2014
We evaluated the genetic diversity of 77 clones of sugarcane used in crosses made by the Brazilian interuniversity network for the development of the sugar/energy sector (RIDESA) breeding program. Characterization of the genotypes was carried out at the ratoon stage, based on eight morphological traits and seven agronomic traits. Diversity ...
Khan Asaduzzaman A School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, - - 2014
The Kessler six-item psychological distress (K6) scale is widely used to screen for mental disorders; however, information is lacking on the rating scale performance or dimensionality structure of the scale. This study used a population based sample (n = 7596) to evaluate the construct validity of the K6 scale using Rasch partial ...
Tang Yanlin Y Department of Mathematics, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, - - 2014
Risk factor selection is very important in the insurance industry, which helps precise rate making and studying the features of high-quality insureds. Zero-inflated data are common in insurance, such as the claim frequency data, and zero-inflation makes the selection of risk factors quite difficult. In this article, we propose a ...
Liem Marieke - - 2014
Homicide offenders are released to communities in large numbers. Little is known, however, about how these offenders fare after release. The aim of this study is threefold: to examine recidivism patterns among released homicide offenders, to assess to what extent predictors for recidivism are similar to those for other violent ...
Gullo Matthew J MJ Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research, The University of Queensland, K Floor, Mental Health Centre, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Queensland 4006, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Several impulsivity-related models have been applied to understanding the vulnerability to addiction. While there is a growing consensus that impulsivity is multifaceted, debate continues as to the precise number of facets and, more critically, which are most relevant to explaining the addiction-risk profile. In many ways, the current debate mirrors ...
Swannell Sarah V SV School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, - - 2014
Published prevalence estimates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among nonclinical samples are highly heterogeneous, raising concerns about their reliability and hindering attempts to explore the alleged increase in NSSI over time. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of methodological factors on heterogeneity in NSSI prevalence estimates, ...
Vinson C C CC Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, - - 2014
The impact of logging and subsequent recovery after logging is predicted to vary depending on specific life history traits of the logged species. The Eco-gene simulation model was used to evaluate the long-term impacts of selective logging over 300 years on two contrasting Brazilian Amazon tree species, Dipteryx odorata and ...
Mindell Jennifer S JS Research Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, - - 2014
Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for many chronic diseases and contributes to obesity and poor mental well-being. The present paper describes the main advantages and disadvantages, practical problems, suggested uses, and future developments regarding self-reported and objective data collection in the context of dietary surveys. In dietary surveys, ...
Boddhireddy P P Zoetis Inc., Kalamazoo, MI, 49007, - - 2014
Advances in genomics, molecular biology, and statistical genetics have created a paradigm shift in the way livestock producers pursue genetic improvement in their herds. The nexus of these technologies have resulted in combining genotypic and phenotypic information to compute genomically enhanced measures of genetic merit of individual animals. However, large ...
Wirsing Aaron J AJ School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195, - - 2014
Resource selection is often assumed to confer enhanced fitness, but this assumption is rarely examined. In a study involving woodland caribou subject to gray wolf predation, DeCesare et al. (2014) show that while patterns of selection by caribou did correspond with a fitness proxy (survival probability), individuals did not avoid wolf ...
van Walbeek Corné - - 2014
The tobacco industry claims that illicit trade in cigarettes has increased sharply since the 1990s and that government has lost substantial tax revenue. (1) To determine whether cigarette excise tax revenue has been below budget in recent years, compared with previous decades. (2) To determine trends in the size of ...
Mulatti Paolo - - 2014
The recent spread of West Nile Virus in temperate countries has raised concern. Predicting the likelihood of transmission is crucial to ascertain the threat to Public and Veterinary Health. However, accurate models of West Nile Virus (WNV) expansion in Europe may be hampered by limited understanding of the population dynamics ...
Carpenter Tim E TE EpiCentre, Institute for Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Electronic address: - - 2014
Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep ...
Ashby Ben B Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United - - 2014
Abstract The extent of population mixing is known to influence the coevolutionary outcomes of many host and parasite traits, including the evolution of generalism (the ability to resist or infect a broad range of genotypes). While the segregation of populations into interconnected demes has been shown to influence the evolution ...
Stewart Regan W - - 2014
Accurate assessment of cyberbullying is essential for intervention planning and evaluation. Limitations to many currently available self-report measures of cyberbullying victimization include a lack of psychometric information and a limited scope (i.e., not assessing multiple electronic mediums of cybervictimization). To address these limitations, we developed and investigated the psychometric properties ...
Burke James F JF Departments of - - 2014
Background-Recent proposals suggest that risk-stratified analyses of clinical trials be routinely performed to better enable tailoring of treatment decisions to individuals. Trial data can be stratified using externally developed risk models (eg, Framingham risk score), but such models are not always available. We sought to determine whether internally developed risk ...
Won Sungho S Department of Applied Statistics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, - - 2014
Various analytical approaches have been suggested for the characterization of rare variants. One main approach is to collapse the genetic information of rare variants in a region and to construct an overall test statistic. Here, we proposed a new approach based on collapsed genotype scores. By utilizing the information of ...
Walters Kimberly A KA Battelle Center for Mathematical Medicine, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, United States of - - 2014
Human geneticists are increasingly turning to study designs based on very large sample sizes to overcome difficulties in studying complex disorders. This in turn almost always requires multi-site data collection and processing of data through centralized repositories. While such repositories offer many advantages, including the ability to return to previously ...
Gooding R M RM Department of Animal and Poultry Science, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5A8 - - 2014
Wildlife causes extensive crop damage throughout much of North America and these shared feeds are a key risk factor in the transmission of diseases between wildlife and livestock, including bovine tuberculosis (TB). Predicting wildlife use of agricultural crops can provide insight directed toward targeted disease mitigation at areas of potential ...
Savietto D D Institute for Animal Science and Technology, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia, - - 2014
Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between observed and predicted feed intake. It is calculated as the residuals from a multiple regression model of DMI on the various energy expenditures (e.g., maintenance, growth, activity). Residual feed intake is often cited to be indicative of feed efficiency differences among animals. ...
Parisi A V AV University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, - - 2014
Minimising exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an essential component of skin cancer prevention. Providing and using natural and built shade is an effective protection measure against harmful UV. This article describes the factors that must be addressed to ensure quality, effective, well designed shade and recommends best practice approaches ...
Vidyarthi Prajya R - - 2014
In this study, we develop and test a model that extends leader-member exchange (LMX) theory to a dual leadership context. Drawing upon relative deprivation theory, we assert that when employees work for 2 leaders, each relationship exists within the context of the other relationship. Thus, the level of alignment or ...
Zhou Bin B Department of Modern Physics and Nonlinear Science Center, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China ; Suzhou Institute of Technology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Suzhou, - - 2014
Two-way selection is a common phenomenon in nature and society. It appears in the processes like choosing a mate between men and women, making contracts between job hunters and recruiters, and trading between buyers and sellers. In this paper, we propose a model of two-way selection system, and present its ...
Mendo Tania T Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, - - 2014
Habitat characteristics greatly influence the patterns of distribution and abundance in scallops, providing structure for the settlement of spat and influencing predation risk and rates of survival. Establishing scallop-habitat relationships is relevant to understanding the ecological processes that regulate scallop populations and to managing critical habitats. This information is particularly ...
Apolloni Andrea - - 2014
Determining the pandemic potential of an emerging infectious disease and how it depends on the various epidemic and population aspects is critical for the preparation of an adequate response aimed at its control. The complex interplay between population movements in space and non-homogeneous mixing patterns have so far hindered the ...
Fragoso Tiago M TM Department of Statistics, University of São Paulo, - - 2014
Many important complex diseases are composed of a series of phenotypes, which makes the disease diagnosis and its genetic dissection difficult. The standard procedures to determine heritability in such complex diseases are either applied for single phenotype analyses or to compare findings across phenotypes or multidimensional reduction procedures, such as ...
Zirk-Sadowski Jan J Centre for Neuroscience in Education, Department of Psychology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Cambridge, - - 2014
We studied whether the origins of math anxiety can be related to a biologically supported framework of stress induction: (un)controllability perception, here indicated by self-reported independent efforts in mathematics. Math anxiety was tested in 182 children (8- to 11-year-olds). Latent factor modeling was used to test hypotheses on plausible causal ...
Scalez D C B DC 1 Faculdade de Agronomia, Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Avenida Fernando Correa da Costa, 2367, CEP 78060-900, Cuiabá/MT, - - 2014
The use of polynomial functions to describe the average growth trajectory and covariance functions of Nellore and MA (21/32 Charolais+11/32 Nellore) young bulls in performance tests was studied. The average growth trajectories and additive genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were fit with Legendre (linear through quintic) and quadratic B-spline ...
Beniscelli Violeta V a Psicologia Basica, Evolutiva i de l'Educacio , Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona , Barcelona , - - 2014
Abstract In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, ...
Thygesen Lau Caspar LC National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Øster Farimagsgade 5 A, 1353, Copenhagen K, Denmark, - - 2014
Studies based on databases, medical records and registers are used extensively today in epidemiological research. Despite the increasing use, no developed methodological literature on use and evaluation of population-based registers is available, even though data collection in register-based studies differs from researcher-collected data, all persons in a population are available ...
Shin Ji-Hyung - - 2014
Abstract Complex traits result from an interplay between genes and environment. A better understanding of their joint effects can help refine understanding of the epidemiology of the trait. Various tests have been proposed to assess the statistical interaction between genes and the environment (G×E) in case-parent trio data. However, these ...
Wu Xinsen X Department of Biological Engineering and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, - - 2014
Gluconobacter oxydans is a Gram-negative bacterium with a number of biotechnological applications. Although the genome of G. oxydans has been reported in 2005, the systematical cellular metabolism in this high-value bacteria, however, remains unclear. In this study, a genome-scale metabolic network of G. oxydans 621H, iXW433, was reconstructed and validated ...
Prado Helbert Medeiros - - 2014
Local ecological knowledge (LEK) has been discussed in terms of its similarities to and its potential to complement normative scientific knowledge. In this study, we compared the knowledge of a Brazilian quilombola population regarding the habitat use and life habits of large mammals with in situ recordings of the species. ...
Shea Christopher M - - 2014
Organizational readiness for change in healthcare settings is an important factor in successful implementation of new policies, programs, and practices. However, research on the topic is hindered by the absence of a brief, reliable, and valid measure. Until such a measure is developed, we cannot advance scientific knowledge about readiness ...
Robinson Georgeanna F W B GF Institute for Clinical Research Education, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, - - 2014
The Work Preference Inventory (WPI) is a four-factor, 30-item measure that assesses work motivation. Used to help individuals choose appropriate career paths, its length contributes to response burden, especially when combined with other measures. We aimed to develop a shortened, valid, and reliable version of the WPI. Trainees at the ...
Li Hao-Sen HS Department of Entomology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, - - 2014
Traditional morphology-based taxonomy of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) has been challenged by molecular-based technologies in the detection of cryptic species. However, the implications of such cryptic diversity appear to differ when methods based on different types of data are used. Here, samples of a host-associated eriophyoid mite species, Tetra pinnatifidae, ...
Durbin Richard R Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, - - 2014
Over the last few years, methods based on suffix arrays using the Burrows-Wheeler Transform have been widely used for DNA sequence read matching and assembly. These provide very fast search algorithms, linear in the search pattern size, on a highly compressible representation of the data set being searched. Meanwhile, algorithmic ...
Ritchey Jamie J University of South Carolina, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 800 Sumter Street, Columbia, SC, 29208; Inter Tribal Council of Arizona, Tribal Epidemiology Center, 2214 N Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85004. Electronic address: - - 2014
It has been hypothesized that racial disparities among several diseases are explained by differences in testosterone (T), 17-β estradiol (E), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin (A) levels, yet epidemiologic results have been mixed. Statistical advice regarding appropriate adjustment methods for carrier proteins of sex steroid hormones in the ...
Bayar Belhassen B Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rowan University, 201 Mullica Hill Road, Glassboro, NJ 08028, - - 2014
Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has proven to be a useful decomposition technique for multivariate data, where the non-negativity constraint is necessary to have a meaningful physical interpretation. NMF reduces the dimensionality of non-negative data by decomposing it into two smaller non-negative factors with physical interpretation for class discovery. The NMF ...
Blair Lily M - - 2014
Phenotypic variation along environmental gradients has been documented among and within many species, and in some cases, genetic variation has been shown to be associated with these gradients. Bayenv is a relatively new method developed to detect patterns of polymorphisms associated with environmental gradients. Using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte ...
Demianczyk Abigail C AC a Department of Psychology , Temple - - 2014
The psychometric properties of the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales (Carver & White, 1994) were evaluated in a large, racially diverse sample of undergraduate students. Findings from this study indicate that the BIS/BAS scales work differently (i.e., are multidimensional and lack configural invariance) when assessing BIS ...
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