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Katzourakis Aris A Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United - - 2014
Retroviruses have been infecting mammals for at least 100 million years, leaving descendants in host genomes known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). The abundance of ERVs is partly determined by their mode of replication, but it has also been suggested that host life history traits could enhance or suppress their activity. ...
Eu-Ahsunthornwattana Jakris J Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom; Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Ratchathevi, Bangkok, - - 2014
Approaches based on linear mixed models (LMMs) have recently gained popularity for modelling population substructure and relatedness in genome-wide association studies. In the last few years, a bewildering variety of different LMM methods/software packages have been developed, but it is not always clear how (or indeed whether) any newly-proposed method ...
Daniulaityte Raminta R a Associate Professor and Associate Director, Center for Interventions, Treatment, and Addictions Research, Boonshoft School of Medicine , Wright State University , Dayton , - - 2014
Abstract The study uses qualitative and quantitative data to describe sources of pain pills for illicit use among young adult (18- to 23-year-old) users. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 383 individuals in the Columbus, Ohio, area. The sample was almost 50% Caucasian and about 55% male. Qualitative interview participants ...
Kruglanski Arie W AW Department of Psychology, University of - - 2014
The construct of motivational readiness is introduced and explored. Motivational readiness is the willingness or inclination, whether or not ultimately realized, to act in the service of a desire. Building on prior relevant conceptions that include, among others, animal learning models (Hull, 1943; Spence, 1956; Tolman, 1955) and personality approaches ...
Chen Youhua Y Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2H1, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
In this report, we quantitatively analyzed the essential ecological factors that were strongly correlated with the global outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. The ecological niche modeling (ENM) was used to reveal the potential outbreak hotspots of H5N1. A two-step modeling procedure has been proposed: we first used BioClim ...
Loveman G A M - - 2014
Actions to enhance survival in a distressed submarine (DISSUB) scenario may be guided in part by knowledge of the likely risk of decompression sickness (DCS) should the crew attempt tower escape. A mathematical model for DCS risk estimation has been calibrated against DCS outcome data from 3,738 exposures of either ...
Leaper Rebecca - - 2014
Understanding the way in which species are associated in communities is a fundamental question in ecology. Yet there remains a tension between communities as highly structured units or as coincidental collections of individualistic species. We explored these ideas using a new statistical approach that clusters species based on their environmental ...
Sepúlveda Nuno N London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; Centre of Statistics and Applications of University of Lisbon, Lisbon, - - 2014
Multiple imputation based on chained equations (MICE) is an alternative missing genotype method that can use genetic and nongenetic auxiliary data to inform the imputation process. Previously, MICE was successfully tested on strongly linked genetic data. We have now tested it on data of the HBA2 gene which, by the ...
Pleskac Timothy J - - 2014
In life, risk is reward and vice versa. Unfortunately, the big rewards people desire are relatively unlikely to occur. This relationship between risk and reward or probabilities and payoffs seems obvious to the financial community and to laypeople alike. Yet theories of decision making have largely ignored it. We conducted ...
Yong Hua-Hie - - 2014
Objective: To test and develop, using structural equation modeling, a robust model of the mediational pathways through which health warning labels exert their influence on smokers' subsequent quitting behavior. Method: Data come from the International Tobacco Control Four-Country Survey, a longitudinal cohort study conducted in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, ...
Robertson Samuel J SJ a Centre for Exercise and Sports Science, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences , Deakin University , Melbourne , - - 2014
Abstract In team sports, tactical periodisation refers to the planned manipulation of training loads with the aim of prioritising athlete readiness for matches of greatest importance. Although monitoring of athletes' physical condition is often used to inform this planning, the direct influence of external factors on match difficulty has not ...
Gonzalez-Mulé Erik - - 2014
Drawing on the group-norms theory of organizational citizenship behaviors and person-environment fit theory, we introduce and test a multilevel model of the effects of additive and dispersion composition models of team members' personality characteristics on group norms and individual helping behaviors. Our model was tested using regression and random coefficients ...
Lam Johnny J Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX, United - - 2014
The delivery of biologics is an important component in the treatment of osteoarthritis and the functional restoration of articular cartilage. Numerous factors have been implicated in the cartilage repair process, but the uncontrolled delivery of these factors may not only reduce their full reparative potential but can also cause unwanted ...
Raghavan Ram K RK 1 Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University , Manhattan, - - 2014
Abstract Background: Feline cytauxzoonosis is a highly fatal tick-borne disease caused by a hemoparasitic protozoan, Cytauxzoon felis. This disease is a leading cause of mortality for cats in the Midwestern United States, and no vaccine or effective treatment options exist. Prevention based on knowledge of risk factors is therefore vital. ...
Pardo-Seco Jacobo - - 2014
There is a growing interest among geneticists in developing panels of Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) aimed at measuring the biogeographical ancestry of individual genomes. The efficiency of these panels is commonly tested empirically by contrasting self-reported ancestry with the ancestry estimated from these panels. Using SNP data from HapMap we ...
Yu Chia-Yuan CY Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, - - 2014
The present study investigates the influence of income, ethnicity, and built environmental characteristics on the percentages of workers who walk/bike as well as on pedestrian/cyclist crash rates. Furthermore, income and ethnicity disparities are also explored. This study chose 162 census tracts in Austin as the unit of analysis. To explore ...
Malaspinas Anna-Sapfo AS Centre for Geogenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark - - 2014
We present bammds, a practical tool that allows visualization of samples sequenced by 2(nd) generation sequencing when compared to a reference panel of individuals (usually genotypes) using a multidimensional scaling (MDS) algorithm. Our tool is aimed at determining the ancestry of unknown samples - typical of ancient DNA (aDNA) data ...
Rintoul Jody L P JL Biology Department, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2, Canada, - - 2014
Unlike many othe r mammals, bats in temperate regions employ short bouts of torpor throughout the reproductive period to maintain a positive energy balance. In addition to decreasing energy expenditure during the day, they typically alter foraging patterns as well. It is well known that various environmental conditions influence both ...
Budy Phaedra P U.S. Geological Survey, Utah Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Watershed Sciences, and The Ecology Center, Utah State University, Logan, UT, 84322, USA, - - 2014
Size dimorphism in fish populations, both its causes and consequences, has been an area of considerable focus; however, uncertainty remains whether size dimorphism is dynamic or stabilizing and about the role of exogenous factors. Here, we explored patterns among empirical vital rates, population structure, abundance and trend, and predicted the ...
Eason Christianne M CM University of Connecticut, - - 2014
Context :  One of the greatest catalysts for turnover among female athletic trainers (ATs) is motherhood, especially if employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. The medical education literature regularly identifies the importance of role models in professional character formation. However, few researchers have examined the role ...
Nyaki Angela A Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1910 East West Road, Sherman Lab 101, Honolulu, HI 96822, - - 2014
Bushmeat management policies are often developed outside the communities in which they are to be implemented. These policies are also routinely designed to be applied uniformly across communities with little regard for variation in social or ecological conditions. We used fuzzy-logic cognitive mapping, a form of participatory modeling, to compare ...
Shahbazi Forooz F Fraunhofer Institute FOKUS, Kaiserin Augusta Allee. 31, 10589 Berlin, Germany; Technische Universität Berlin, Machine Learning Group, Marchstr.23, 10587 Berlin, Germany; Berlin Institute of Technology, Machine Learning Laboratory, Marchstr. 23, 10587 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Considering that many biological systems including the brain are complex non-linear systems, suitable methods capable of detecting these non-linearities are required to study the dynamical properties of these systems. One of these tools is the third order cummulant or cross-bispectrum, which is a measure of interfrequency interactions between three signals. ...
Dray S S Université de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, F-69622, Villeurbanne, - - 2014
The use of next-gen sequencing technologies is revolutionizing microbial ecology by allowing a deep phylogenetic coverage of tens to thousands of samples simultaneously. Double Principal Coordinates Analysis (DPCoA) is a multivariate method, developed in community ecology, able to integrate a distance matrix describing differences among species (e.g. phylogenetic distances) in ...
Ghanbari Yasser Y Center for Biomedical Image Computing and Analytics, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United - - 2014
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) offers rich insights into the physical characteristics of white matter (WM) fiber tracts and their development in the brain, facilitating a network representation of brain's traffic pathways. Such a network representation of brain connectivity has provided a novel means of investigating brain changes arising from pathology, ...
Pigott David M DM Spatial Ecology and Epidemiology Group, Department of Zoology , University of Oxford , Oxford , United Kingdom - - 2014
The leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases that have a broad global distribution throughout much of the Americas, Africa and Asia. Despite representing a significant public health burden, our understanding of the global distribution of the leishmaniases remains vague, reliant upon expert opinion and limited to poor spatial resolution. A global assessment ...
Kim Hyun-Duck HD Department of Preventive and Social Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, - - 2014
Aim: This study aims to evaluate and validate a periodontitis screening model that includes socio-demographic, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and molecular information including gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and blood cytokines. Materials and Methods: We selected 506 participants from the Shiwa-Banwol Cohort: 322 participants from the 2005 cohort for ...
Durband Arthur C AC Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX; Department of Anthropology, Science Centre, South Australian Museum, Adelaide, Australia; Department of Archaeology, Flinders University, Adelaide, - - 2014
The crania from Kow Swamp and Cohuna have been important for a number of debates in Australian paleoanthropology. These crania typically have long, flat foreheads that many workers have cited as evidence of genetic continuity with archaic Indonesian populations, particularly the Ngandong sample. Other scientists have alleged that at least ...
Peters Cheryl E CE School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada CAREX Canada, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, - - 2014
To estimate the numbers of workers exposed to known and suspected occupational carcinogens in Canada, building on the methods of CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) projects in the European Union (EU). CAREX Canada consists of estimates of the prevalence and level of exposure to occupational carcinogens. CAREX Canada includes occupational agents evaluated ...
Pouillot Régis R - - 2014
Evaluations of Listeria monocytogenes dose-response relationships are crucially important for risk assessment and risk management, but are complicated by considerable variability across population subgroups and L. monocytogenes strains. Despite difficulties associated with the collection of adequate data from outbreak investigations or sporadic cases, the limitations of currently available animal models, ...
Tavassoli Hojati Ahmad A School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Traffic incidents are key contributors to non-recurrent congestion, potentially generating significant delay. Factors that influence the duration of incidents are important to understand so that effective mitigation strategies can be implemented. To identify and quantify the effects of influential factors, a methodology for studying total incident duration based on historical ...
Connor Kevin K ARCADIS U.S., Inc., One Executive Drive, Suite 303, Chelmsford, MA 01824, - - 2014
This paper presents a risk assessment of exposure to metal residues in laundered shop towels by workers. The concentrations of 27 metals measured in a synthetic sweat leachate were used to estimate the releasable quantity of metals which could be transferred to workers' skin. Worker exposure was evaluated quantitatively with ...
Earl Julia E JE National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA, - - 2014
Amphibian declines and extinction have been attributed to many causes, including disease such as chytridiomycosis. Other pathogens may also contribute to declines, with ranavirus as the most likely candidate given reoccurring die-offs observed in the wild. We were interested in whether it is possible for ranavirus to cause extinction of ...
Foster Charles C The Ethox Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, - - 2014
We examine the likely reception in the courtroom of the 'joint account' model of genetic confidentiality. We conclude that the model, as modified by Gilbar and others, is workable and reflects, better than more conventional legal approaches, both the biological and psychological realities and the obligations owed under Articles 8 ...
Leaché Adam D AD Department of Biology & Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1800, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Africa is renowned for its biodiversity and endemicity, yet little is known about the factors shaping them across the continent. African Agama lizards (45 species) have a pan-continental distribution, making them an ideal model for investigating biogeography. Many species have evolved conspicuous sexually dimorphic traits, including extravagant breeding coloration in ...
Hof Michel H - - 2014
In population-based observational studies, non-participation and delayed response to the invitation toparticipate are complications that often arise during the recruitment of a sample. When both are notproperly dealt with, the composition of the sample can be different from the desired composition.Inviting too many individuals or too few individuals from a ...
Mitrophanov Alexander Y AY DoD Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute, Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, ATTN: MCMR-TT, 504 Scott Street, Ft. Detrick, MD 21702, USA. alex@bhsai.org - - 2014
Current mechanistic knowledge of protein interactions driving blood coagulation has come largely from experiments with simple synthetic systems, which only partially represent the molecular composition of human blood plasma. Here, we investigate the ability of the suggested molecular mechanisms to account for fibrin generation and degradation kinetics in diverse, physiologically ...
Harding Richard R Department of Palliative Care, Policy & Rehabilitation, King's College London, Cicely Saunders Institute, Bessemer Road, London, SE5 9PJ, UK, - - 2014
Palliative care-related problems have not been measured in Africa in line with the WHO definition. This study aimed to measure the three-day period intensity of multidimensional problems (physical, psychological, social, and spiritual) among advanced cancer patients in Kenya and Uganda. Adults with advanced malignant disease gave self-report data to the ...
Weintraub Sandra S 1Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer's Disease Center;Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology,Northwestern Feinberg School of - - 2014
This study introduces a special series on validity studies of the Cognition Battery (CB) from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIHTB) (Gershon, Wagster et al., 2013) in an adult sample. This first study in the series describes the sample, each ...
Aurbach Robert R Uncommon Approach, Inc, Albuquerque, AZ, - - 2014
It is well established that environmental factors can have impact upon an injured person's recovery and return-to-work outcomes. To date, there has been no cohesive model to provide theoretical understanding of the way in which these divergent factors combine to create disability behaviours. Development of a conceptual model for understanding ...
Silvetti Alessio A INAIL - Department of Occupational Medicine, Rome, - - 2014
There are few epidemiological data regarding musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in retail industry. Biomechanical risk assessment in ergonomics is commonly performed in retail sector using standardized protocols. However, such protocols have numerous limitations, such as the lack of objectivity or applicability and restrictive conditions. The aim of this study was to ...
Ertl Johann - - 2014
Estimates of dominance variance in dairy cattle based on pedigree data vary considerably across traits and amount to up to 50% of the total genetic variance for conformation traits and up to 43% for milk production traits. Using bovine SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotypes, dominance variance can be estimated both ...
Lin Hui-Wen - - 2014
Bias caused by missing or incomplete information on confounding factors constitutes an important challenge in observational studies. The incorporation of external data on more detailed confounding information into the main study data may help remove confounding bias. This work was motivated by a study of the association between chronic obstructive ...
Pejtersen Jan Hyld JH *The Danish National Centre for Social Research, Copenhagen, Denmark †Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), Berlin, Germany ‡National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark #Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, - - 2014
The present review deals with the relationship between occupational psychosocial factors and the incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) with special regard to the statistical power of the findings. This review with 4 inclusion criteria is an update of a 2009 review of which the first three criteria were included ...
Shin Hwashin H HH Population Studies Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada; Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Queen's University, Kingston, - - 2014
Develop statistical methods for survival models to indirectly adjust hazard ratios of environmental exposures for missing risk factors. A partitioned regression approach for linear models is applied to time to event survival analyses of cohort study data. Information on the correlation between observed and missing risk factors is obtained from ...
Luciana Monica M Department of Psychology and Center for Neurobehavioral Development, University of Minnesota, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Within this special issue, Ernst has provided a comprehensive overview of the triadic neural systems model and its explanatory power for the conceptualization of adolescent development. Within this commentary, we encourage further consideration of several issues as this valuable model is expanded and articulated. These issues include the extent of ...
Verdier Bruno - - 2014
Grand challenges in global change research and environmental science raise the need for replicated experiments on ecosystems subject to controlled changes in multiple environmental factors. We designed and developed the Ecolab as a variable climate and atmosphere simulator for multi-factor experimentation on natural or artificial ecosystems. The Ecolab integrates atmosphere ...
Kusner Katherine G - - 2014
We examined whether 164 heterosexual, married couples' reports of the sanctification of their marriage and their spiritual intimacy predicted their observed behavior across the transition to parenthood, using highly conservative statistical strategies to control for time-invariant factors and time-varying factors (marital love, collaborative communication skills) that could explain away these ...
Crego Cristina C University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA - - 2014
The Five Factor Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (FFOCI) was developed in part to facilitate a shift from the categorical classification of personality disorder to a dimensional trait model, more specifically, the five-factor model (FFM). Questions though have been raised as to whether obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) can be understood as a ...
Eastin Matthew D MD Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, North Carolina; Department of Social Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, Louisiana - - 2014
Dengue fever transmission results from complex interactions between the virus, human hosts, and mosquito vectors-all of which are influenced by environmental factors. Predictive models of dengue incidence rate, based on local weather and regional climate parameters, could benefit disease mitigation efforts. Time series of epidemiological and meteorological data for the ...
Ornelas Juan Francisco JF Departamento de biología evolutiva, instituto de ecología, ac, carretera antigua a coatepec no. 351, el haya, xalapa, veracruz, 91070, - - 2014
Recent empirical work on cloud forest-adapted species supports the role of both old divergences across major geographic areas and more recent divergences attributed to pleistocene climate changes. The shrub moussonia deppeana is distributed in northern mesoamerica, with geographically disjunct populations. Based on sampling throughout the species range and employing plastid ...
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