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Cantrell Jennifer J Jennifer Cantrell, Jennifer Kreslake, Ollie Ganz, Donna M. Vallone, and Haijun Xiao are with the Research and Evaluation Department, Legacy Foundation, Washington, DC. Jennifer L. Pearson, Andrew Anesetti-Rothermel, and Thomas R. Kirchner are with the Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies, Legacy - - 2014
We thank Sheehan for her comments. We are aware of the known correlation between racial segregation and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES). However, the high correlation between these two measures can make it challenging to implement the analyses strategies recommended. A strong relationship between the two potential predictors can make their ...
Simmons Mark P MP Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Empirical and simulated examples were used to demonstrate the following five points in the context of sparse supermatrices. First, locally sampled characters, when analyzed with low quality heuristic parsimony, likelihood, or Bayesian searches, can create high resolution and resampling values for clades that are properly unsupported because there is no ...
Magal Pierre P Institut de Mathématiques de Bordeaux, UMR CNRS 5251 -Case 36, Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 3ter place de la Victoire, 33000 Bordeaux Cedex, - - 2014
The classical susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model, originated from the seminal papers of Ross [51] and Ross and Hudson [52,53] in 1916-1917 and the fundamental contributions of Kermack and McKendrick [36-38] in 1927-1932, describes the transmission of infectious diseases between susceptible and infective individuals and provides the basic framework for almost all ...
Pilatti Angelina A Laboratorio de Psicologia, Facultad de Psicologia, National University of Cordoba, Enrique Barros y Enfermera Gordillo s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba CP 5000, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET, Argentina). Electronic address: - - 2014
The present work was aimed at analyzing the psychometric properties of the Spanish Brief YAACQ in a sample of Argentinean college students applying the Item Response Theory. Participants were 302 college students (59.9% females) who reported drinking alcohol within the last month. The B-YAACQ was translated into Spanish and the ...
Steinsland Ingelin I Department of Mathematical Sciences, NTNU, 7491 Trondheim, Norway. - - 2014
Natural selection is typically exerted at some specific life stages. If natural selection takes place before a trait can be measured, using conventional models can cause wrong inference about population parameters. When the missing data process relates to the trait of interest a valid inference requires explicit modeling of the ...
Grange Zoë L ZL Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand; mEpiLab, Infectious Disease Research Centre, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand; Wildbase, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand. - - 2014
Social network analysis is being increasingly used in epidemiology and disease modeling in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. We investigated this tool in describing a translocation network (area that allows movement of animals between geographically isolated locations) used for the conservation of an endangered flightless rail, the Takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri). ...
Vassy Jason L JL Harvard Medical School, Boston, - - 2014
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may have reached their limit of detecting common type 2 diabetes (T2D)-associated genetic variation. We evaluated the performance of current polygenic T2D prediction. Using data from the Framingham Offspring (FOS) and the Coronary Artery Risk in Young Adults (CARDIA) studies, we tested three hypotheses: 1) a ...
Lewis Penny J PJ School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, MASHC, University of Manchester, Oxford Rd. Manchester, M13 - - 2014
Prescribing errors are common and can be detrimental to patient care and costly. Junior doctors are more likely than consultants to make a prescribing error, yet there is only limited research into the causes of errors. The aim of this study was to explore the causes of prescribing mistakes made ...
Masuda Naoki N Department of Mathematical Informatics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
In social situations with which evolutionary game is concerned, individuals are considered to be heterogeneous in various aspects. In particular, they may differently perceive the same outcome of the game owing to heterogeneity in idiosyncratic preferences, fighting abilities, and positions in a social network. In such a population, an individual ...
Wang Charles Cn - - 2014
Several dynamic models of a gene regulatory network of the light-induced floral transition process in Arabidopsis have been developed to capture the behavior of gene transcription and infer predictions based on experimental observations. It has been proven that the models can make accurate and novel predictions, which generate testable hypotheses.Two ...
Rush Jonathan - - 2014
The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a widely used measure of emotional experience. The factor structure of the PANAS has been examined predominantly with cross-sectional designs, which fails to disaggregate within-person variation from between-person differences. There is still uncertainty as to the factor structure of positive and negative ...
Haroz Emily E EE Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Mental Health, Baltimore, MD, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
There is a need for brief instruments to screen for depression in adolescents that are valid, reliable and freely available. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a 10-item version of the CESD-R (CESDR-10) in two national adolescent samples. Sample 1 consisted of N=3777 youths ...
Taylor D D Forensic Science South Australia, 21 Divett Place, SA 5000, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
A typical assessment of the strength of forensic DNA evidence is based on a population genetic model and estimated allele frequencies determined from a population database. Some experts provide a confidence or credible interval which takes into account the sampling variation inherent in deriving these estimates from only a sample ...
Park Sangshin S Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX - - 2014
The National Resources Information (NRI) databases provide underutilized information on the local farm conditions that may predict microbial contamination of leafy-greens at preharvest. Our objectives were to identify NRI weather and landscape factors affecting spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli individually, and jointly, with farm management and environmental factors. For ...
Hagen Tarah G TG University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, UK; ToxConsult Pty Ltd, Melbourne, Victoria, - - 2014
The lack of Australian species data has pragmatically led to the use of toxicological data from the Northern hemisphere to develop water quality guidelines. However it is unknown whether Australian species and ecosystems are equally as sensitive, and if an 'uncertainty factor' is warranted for Australian guideline setting. In the ...
Schott Ryan K RK Departments of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, 2 Cell & Systems Biology, and 3 Centre for the Analysis of Genome Evolution & Function; University of Toronto, - - 2014
Studies of cichlid evolution have highlighted the importance of visual pigment genes in the spectacular radiation of the African rift lake cichlids. Recent work, however, has also provided strong evidence for adaptive diversification of riverine cichlids in the Neotropics, which inhabit environments of markedly different spectral properties from the African ...
Hagger Martin S MS 1Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine Research Group, School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, - - 2014
We present the Integrated Behavior-Change Model; a comprehensive multi-theory model outlining the psychological factors and processes that impact physical activity behavior. The model integrates hypotheses from social-cognitive, motivational, dual-phase, and dual-systems theories. We provide the theoretical basis for the model and demonstrate its utility in driving future research and developing ...
Yu Fei F Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The protection of privacy of individual-level information in genome-wide association study (GWAS) databases has been a major concern of researchers following the publication of "an attack" on GWAS data by Homer et al. [1]. Traditional statistical methods for confidentiality and privacy protection of statistical databases do not scale well to ...
Chen Shih-Fang SF Energy Biosciences Institute, University of Illinois, 1206 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA; Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Illinois, 1304 West Pennsylvania Avenue, Urbana, IL, 61801, - - 2014
Sorghum is an advanced biomass feedstock from which grain, sugar and stover can be used for biofuel production. Determinations of specific sugar contents in sorghum stalks help to make strategic decisions during plant breeding, processing, storage and optimization of fermentation conditions. In this study, Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy ...
Cleary Sean D SD The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Washington, DC, - - 2014
Little research has focused on item analysis and factor structure of the most commonly used measures of insight. We examined the factorial structure of the Birchwood Insight Scale (BIS), a brief, easy-to-administer, self-report measure. We studied the BIS in 327 first-episode psychosis patients, including a test sample (n=163) and a ...
Kessler David C DC SAS Institute Inc., Advanced Analytics - - 2014
Estimating a phenotype distribution conditional on a set of discrete-valued predictors is a commonly encountered task. For example, interest may be in how the density of a quantitative trait varies with single nucleotide polymorphisms and patient characteristics. The subset of important predictors are not usually known in advance. This becomes ...
Busse Michelle M a Washington School of Professional Psychology , Seattle, WA , - - 2014
The current study was designed to advance general research investigating the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), by examining whether the psychometric properties of the PAI would generalize to a sample differing from the original standardization sample. Specifically, the reliability and factor structure of the PAI were examined in a mixed neuropsychological ...
Evangelista C C CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, ENFA, UMR 5174 EDB (Laboratoire Évolution & Diversité Biologique), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062, Toulouse, France; Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, CNRS, UMR5174 EDB, F-31062, Toulouse, - - 2014
Many generalist populations are composed of specialized individuals that use a narrow part of the population's niche. Ecological theories predict that individual specialization and population trophic niche are determined by biotic interactions and resource diversity emerging from environmental variations (i.e., ecological opportunities). However, due to the paucity of empirical and ...
Bateson Thomas F TF National Center for Environmental Assessment, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, District of Columbia, - - 2014
Recent meta-analyses of occupational epidemiology studies identified two important exposure data quality factors in predicting summary effect measures for asbestos-associated lung cancer mortality risk: sufficiency of job history data and percent coverage of work history by measured exposures. The objective was to evaluate different exposure parameterizations suggested in the asbestos ...
Smith Watts Ashley K AK University of - - 2014
Studies have reported an inverse association between language development and behavioral inhibition or shyness across childhood, but the direction of this association remains unclear. This study tested alternative hypotheses regarding this association in a large sample of toddlers. Data on behavioral inhibition and expressive and receptive language abilities were collected ...
Geelen Anouk A Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The - - 2014
To illustrate the impact of intake-related bias in FFQ and 24 h recall (24hR), and correlated errors between these methods, on intake-health associations. Dietary intake was assessed by a 180-item semi-quantitative FFQ and two 24hR. Urinary N and urinary K were estimated from two 24 h urine samples. We compared ...
Urbanczik Robert R Department of Physiology, and Center for Learning, Cognition and Memory, University of Bern, Bühlplatz 5, CH-3012 Bern, - - 2014
Recent modeling of spike-timing-dependent plasticity indicates that plasticity involves as a third factor a local dendritic potential, besides pre- and postsynaptic firing times. We present a simple compartmental neuron model together with a non-Hebbian, biologically plausible learning rule for dendritic synapses where plasticity is modulated by these three factors. In ...
Pattnaik Swetansu - - 2014
The rapid advancements in the field of genome sequencing are aiding our understanding on many biological systems. In the last five years, computational biologists and bioinformatics specialists have come up with newer, better and more efficient tools towards the discovery, analysis and interpretation of different genomic variants from high-throughput sequencing ...
Lee Wen-Chung - - 2014
The randomized controlled study is the gold-standard research method in biomedicine. In contrast, the validity of a (nonrandomized) observational study is often questioned because of unknown/unmeasured factors, which may have confounding and/or effect-modifying potential. In this paper, the author proposes a perturbation test to detect the bias of unmeasured factors ...
Preti Antonio A Center of Liaison Psychiatry and Psychosomatics, University Hospital, University of Cagliari, Italy; Section on Clinical Psychology, Department of Education, Psychology, Philosophy, University of Cagliari, Italy; Genneruxi Medical Center, Cagliari, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The study of hallucination-like experiences (HLEs) in non-clinical populations is increasingly used to corroborate etiological models of psychosis. This method capitalizes on the absence of confounding factors that typically affect the study of hallucinations in clinical subjects. To estimate the prevalence of HLEs in young adults; validate the mutidimensionality and ...
Zhang Guangjian G Psychology Department, Haggar Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, 46556, USA, - - 2014
Exploratory process factor analysis (EPFA) is a data-driven latent variable model for multivariate time series. This article presents analytic standard errors for EPFA. Unlike standard errors for exploratory factor analysis with independent data, the analytic standard errors for EPFA take into account the time dependency in time series data. In ...
Wintle Bonnie C BC Environmental Science, School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, 3010, - - 2014
Bayesian networks (BNs) are graphical modeling tools that are generally recommended for exploring what-if scenarios, visualizing systems and problems, and for communication between stakeholders during decision making. In this article, we investigate their potential for exploring different perspectives in trade disputes. To do so, we draw on a specific case ...
Andrews Kimberly R KR School of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, DH1 3LE, Durham, - - 2014
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology is revolutionizing the fields of population genetics, molecular ecology, and conservation biology. But it can be challenging for researchers to learn the new and rapidly evolving techniques required to use NGS data. A recent workshop entitled "Population Genomic Data Analysis" was held to provide training ...
Aandahl R Zachariah RZ University of New South - - 2014
Exact computational methods for inference in population genetics are intuitively preferable to approximate analyses. We reconcile two starkly different estimates of the reproductive number of tuberculosis from previous studies that used the same genotyping data and underlying model. This demonstrates the value of approximate analyses in validating exact methods.
Vig Dhruv K DK Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, - - 2014
To elucidate pathogen-host interactions during early Lyme disease, we developed a mathematical model that explains the spatiotemporal dynamics of the characteristic first sign of the disease, a large (≥5-cm diameter) rash, known as an erythema migrans. The model predicts that the bacterial replication and dissemination rates are the primary factors ...
Burton Rob J F RJ Bygdeforskning (Centre for Rural Research), Universitetssenteret, Dragvoll, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address: - - 2014
Many agricultural studies have observed a relationship between farmer demographic characteristics and environmental behaviours. These relationships are frequently employed in the construction of models, the identification of farmer types, or as part of more descriptive analyses aimed at understanding farmers' environmental behaviour. However, they have also often been found to ...
Schrooten Chris - - 2014
Imputation of genotypes from low-density to higher density chips is a cost-effective method to obtain high-density genotypes for many animals, based on genotypes of only a relatively small subset of animals (reference population) on the high-density chip. Several factors influence the accuracy of imputation and our objective was to investigate ...
Pérez-Rodríguez Antón A Departamento de Zoología y Antropología Física, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid, - - 2014
The importance of parasitism for host populations depends on local parasite richness and prevalence: usually host individuals face higher infection risk in areas where parasites are most diverse, and host dispersal to or from these areas may have fitness consequences. Knowing how parasites are and will be distributed in space ...
Silva F F FF Departamento de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 36570-000, Viçosa, - - 2014
In the era of genome-wide selection (GWS), genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions can be studied using genomic information, thus enabling the estimation of SNP marker effects and the prediction of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) for young candidates for selection in different environments. Although G×E studies in pigs are scarce, the use ...
Chang Song - - 2014
This study uses 3-level, 2-wave time-lagged data from a random sample of 55 high-technology firms, 238 teams, and 1,059 individuals in China to investigate a multilevel combinational model of employee creativity. First, we hypothesize that firm (macrolevel) high-commitment work systems are conducive to individual (microlevel) creativity. Furthermore, we hypothesize that ...
Peart Claire R CR Department of Genetics, Evolution & Environment, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK; Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, South Kensington, London, SW7 5BD, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Lake Tanganyika (LT) is a biodiversity hotspot supporting many endemic radiations that provide comparative systems in which to investigate if there are common factors leading to the build-up of its considerable diversity. Despite LT containing the highest diversity of lacustrine catfishes on Earth, the evolutionary relationships of nocturnal catfishes within ...
Sjödin Per P Department of Evolutionary Biology and SciLife Lab Uppsala, Uppsala - - 2014
Ancestral relationships between populations separated by time represent an often neglected dimension in population genetics, a field which historically has focused on analysis of spatially distributed samples from the same point in time. Models are usually straightforward when two time-separated populations are assumed to be completely isolated from all other ...
Caminade Cyril C Institute of Infection and Global Health, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health and School of Environmental Sciences, Department of Geography and Planning, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZT, United - - 2014
Malaria is an important disease that has a global distribution and significant health burden. The spatial limits of its distribution and seasonal activity are sensitive to climate factors, as well as the local capacity to control the disease. Malaria is also one of the few health outcomes that has been ...
Szöke A A AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier "Mondor", Pôle de Psychiatrie, Créteil, 94000, France, - - 2014
Despite significant progresses in our knowledge of the risk factors for schizophrenia, we still are several steps short of implementing effective prevention strategies. Universal prevention strategies have several theoretical advantages but their implementation has been limited to date by their costs and lack of methods to assess their efficiency. To ...
Ewings Sean M SM 1Southampton Statistical Sciences Research Institute, University of Southampton, Southampton, - - 2014
This article presents a new statistical approach to analysing the effects of everyday physical activity on blood glucose concentration in people with type 1 diabetes. A physiologically based model of blood glucose dynamics is developed to cope with frequently sampled data on food, insulin and habitual physical activity; the model ...
Tyrcha Joanna - - 2014
We derive learning rules for finding the connections between units in stochastic dynamical networks from the recorded history of a "visible'' subset of the units. We consider two models. In both of them, the visible units are binary and stochastic. In one model the "hidden'' units are continuous-valued, with sigmoidal ...
Rajdl Kamil - - 2014
Fano factor is one of the most widely used measures of variability of spike trains. Its standard estimator is the ratio of sample variance to sample mean of spike counts observed in a time window and the quality of the estimator strongly depends on the length of the window. We ...
Goldade Mary Patricia MP a Office of Technical and Management Services , United States Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 , Denver , - - 2014
At asbestos-contaminated sites, exposure assessment requires measurement of airborne asbestos concentrations; however, the choice of preparation steps employed in the analysis has been debated vigorously among members of the asbestos exposure and risk assessment communities for many years. This study finds that the choice of preparation technique used in estimating ...
Xiao Canhua C Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, 1520 Clifton Road NE, Room 225, Atlanta, GA, - - 2014
In this article, we address statistical techniques appropriate for examining longitudinal changes in cancer symptom clusters. When the cluster structure is not pre-determined, researchers may examine symptom clusters either at each time point or use composite scores to examine the symptom clusters across time points. When the cluster structures are ...
Suarez-Kurtz Guilherme G Programa de Farmacologia, Instituto Nacional do Câncer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 20231-050, Brazil. - - 2014
The heterogeneous Brazilian population, with European, African and Amerindian ancestral roots is a model case for exploring the impact of population admixture on the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes, and the design and interpretation of pharmacogenomics trials. Examples drawn from studies carried out by researchers of the Brazilian pharmacogenomics ...
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