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Results 201 - 250 of 6111
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Edelson Micah G MG Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel, Rehovot 7610001, - - 2014
Humans are strongly influenced by their environment, a dependence that can lead to errors in judgment. Although a rich literature describes how people are influenced by others, little is known regarding the factors that predict subsequent rectification of misleading influence. Using a mediation model in combination with brain imaging, we ...
Sahoo Anoop J AJ System Engineer, Infosys Technologies, Chennai, - - 2014
Now - a-days, some new classes of diseases have come into existences which are known as lifestyle diseases. The main reasons behind these diseases are changes in the lifestyle of people such as alcohol drinking, smoking, food habits etc. After going through the various lifestyle diseases, it has been found ...
Pearson John M JM Department of Neurobiology, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, and Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, - - 2014
Neuroeconomics applies models from economics and psychology to inform neurobiological studies of choice. This approach has revealed neural signatures of concepts like value, risk, and ambiguity, which are known to influence decision making. Such observations have led theorists to hypothesize a single, unified decision process that mediates choice behavior via ...
Duan Han-Chen HC Key Laboratory of Desert and Desertification, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 320, West Donggang Road, 730000, Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China, - - 2014
Aeolian desertification is one of the most serious environmental and socioeconomic problems in arid, semi-arid, and dry subhumid zones. Understanding desertification processes and causes is important to provide reasonable and effective control measures for preventing desertification. With satellite remote sensing images as data source to assess the temporal and spatial ...
Raulf M M Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Ruhr-University Bochum (IPA), Bochum, - - 2014
Exposure to high molecular weight sensitizers of biologic origin is an important risk factor for the development of asthma and rhinitis. Most of causal allergens have been defined based on their reactivity with IgE antibodies and in many cases the molecular structure and function of the allergens have been established. ...
Usher-Smith Juliet A JA The Primary Care Unit, University of Cambridge - - 2014
Melanoma incidence is rising rapidly worldwide among white skinned populations. Earlier diagnosis is the principal factor that can improve prognosis. Defining high-risk populations using risk prediction models may help targeted screening and early detection approaches. In this systematic review we searched Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for primary research ...
Duforet-Frebourg Nicolas N Université Joseph Fourier, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire TIMC-IMAG, UMR 5525, Grenoble, - - 2014
There is a considerable impetus in population genomics to pinpoint loci involved in local adaptation. A powerful approach to find genomic regions subject to local adaptation is to genotype numerous molecular markers and look for outlier loci. One of the most common approaches for selection scans is based on statistics ...
Vecino-Ortiz Andres I AI International Injury Research Unit, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2014
In settings with low seatbelt use prevalence, self-reported seatbelt use estimates often lack validity, and routine observational studies are scarce. In this paper, we aim to describe the prevalence of seatbelt use and associated factors in drivers and front-seat passengers across eight sites in four countries (Egypt, Mexico, Russia, Turkey) ...
Griffin Sarah A - - 2014
The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was developed as a measure of the maladaptive personality trait model included within Section III of the DSM-5. Although preliminary findings have suggested the PID-5 has a five-factor structure that overlaps considerably with the Five-Factor Model (FFM) at the higher order level, there has ...
Mikolajewski Amy J - - 2014
Prosociality is one construct included in the developmental propensity model proposed by Lahey and Waldman (2003, 2005) to explain the development of conduct problems in childhood and adolescence. Findings from previous literature on 2 facets of prosociality, dispositional sympathy and respect for rules, suggest that both may have genetic and ...
Morean Meghan E - - 2014
Self-reported impulsivity confers risk factor for substance abuse. However, the psychometric properties of many self-report impulsivity measures have been questioned, thereby undermining the interpretability of study findings using these measures. To better understand these measurement limitations and to suggest a path to assessing self-reported impulsivity with greater psychometric stability, we ...
Lattanzio Matthew S MS Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, 107 Irvine Hall, Athens, Ohio, 45701, - - 2014
Differences in individual behaviour affect social interactions and contribute to the spatial structuring of animal populations. However, disturbance should also affect spatial networks by altering habitat heterogeneity and resource availability. Variation in resource availability should perturb the frequency and nature of social and ecological interactions within a population by affecting ...
Ruiz Daniel D Grupo Investigación en Gestión Ambiental, Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia, Envigado, Antioquia, Colombia; International Research Institute for Climate and Society, and Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University, New York, City of New York; Subdirección de Vigilancia y Control en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, Colombia; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Bogotá, Bogotá, Colombia; Instituto Colombiano de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Compromiso con la Excelencia, Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia; School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool United Kingdom - - 2014
As part of the Integrated National Adaptation Pilot project and the Integrated Surveillance and Control System, the Colombian National Institutes of Health is working on the design and implementation of a Malaria Early Warning System framework, supported by seasonal climate forecasting capabilities, weather and environmental monitoring, and malaria statistical and ...
Samuel Douglas B DB Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA - - 2014
The Five-Factor Model Rating Form (FFMRF) provides a brief, one-page assessment of the Five-Factor Model. An important and unique aspect of the FFMRF is that it is the only brief measure that includes scales for the 30 facets proposed by Costa and McCrae. The current study builds on existing validity ...
Lagona Francesco F University of Roma Tre, Rome, Italy; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, - - 2014
Longitudinal data are often segmented by unobserved time-varying factors, which introduce latent heterogeneity at the observation level, in addition to heterogeneity across subjects. We account for this latent structure by a linear mixed hidden Markov model. It integrates subject-specific random effects and Markovian sequences of time-varying effects in the linear ...
Bodey Thomas W TW Centre for Ecology & Conservation, Penryn Campus, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Exploitation of the seas is currently unsustainable, with increasing demand for marine resources placing intense pressure on the Earth's largest ecosystem [1]. The scale of anthropogenic effects varies from local to entire ocean basins [1-3]. For example, discards of commercial capture fisheries can have both positive and negative impacts on ...
Hu Wenrong W Applied Statistics, Department of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, U.S.A.; Department of Biostatistics, CSL Behring, King of Prussia, PA, - - 2014
The case-cohort (CC) study design usually has been used for risk factor assessment in epidemiologic studies or disease prevention trials for rare diseases. The sample size/power calculation for a stratified CC (SCC) design has not been addressed before. This article derives such result based on a stratified test statistic. Simulation ...
Gross Alexander A University of Maine, United - - 2014
This paper explores a variety of methods for applying the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) automated topic modeling algorithm to the modeling of the structure and behavior of virtual organizations found within modern social media and social networking environments. As the field of Big Data reveals, an increase in the scale ...
Wu Zhenyu Z School of Computer Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
An increasing number of users interact, collaborate, and share information through social networks. Unprecedented growth in social networks is generating a significant amount of unstructured social data. From such data, distilling communities where users have common interests and tracking variations of users' interests over time are important research tracks in ...
Chen Xiao X Systems Engineering Institute, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, - - 2014
The haplotype assembly problem has been proven to be complex. Heuristic algorithms are the main methods that are used to solve the problem. These algorithms perform well when the SNP fragments are error-free, but they are less accurate when the error rate increases. The complex relationships caused by fragment errors ...
Rho Mi Jung MJ Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea Songeui Campus, 222, Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701, Republic of - - 2014
Despite the proliferation of telemedicine technology, telemedicine service acceptance has been slow in actual healthcare settings. The purpose of this research is to develop a theoretical model for explaining the predictive factors influencing physicians' willingness to use telemedicine technology to provide healthcare services. We developed the Telemedicine Service Acceptance model ...
Yoon Jeong-Mi JM Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Houston - Downtown, Houston, TX 77002, United States. - - 2014
Pierce's disease (PD) is a fatal disease of grapevines which results from an infection by the plant pathogen Xyllela fastidiosa. This bacterium grows in the xylem (water-conducting) vessels of the plant blocking movement of water. PD can kill vines in one year and poses a serious threat to both the ...
Dussy Franz F Forensische Chemie und Toxikologie, Institut fuer Rechtsmedizin, Basel, CH-4056, - - 2014
When investigating someone's hair a single lock is cut, washed, extracted and analysed. The forensic institutes in Switzerland agreed to retain a second lock for a possible reassessment. We were interested in the reproducibility of the concentrations of analytes in hair locks taken from different areas of the head of ...
Leesburg V L R VL USDA Agricultural Research Service, Miles City, MT 59301 Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, UFS, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa - - 2014
The goal of this research was to document the influence of Line 1 (L1) Hereford cattle, developed by the USDA at its research facility in Miles City, MT, on the U.S. Hereford population. The L1 Hereford population originated in 1934 and has been thereafter maintained as a closed herd at ...
Lee R J RJ Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Weymouth Laboratory, Barrack Road, The Nothe, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 7TF, UK E-mail: - - 2014
Estimation of the level of risk of faecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas is undertaken by monitoring faecal indicator bacteria in seawater samples under the United States programme and shellfish flesh samples under the European Union (EU) programme. Determining the relationship between the two approaches is important for assessing the ...
Vale Glyn A GA Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, United Kingdom; Southern African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South - - 2014
Male and female tsetse flies feed exclusively on vertebrate blood. While doing so they can transmit the diseases of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in domestic stock. Knowledge of the host-orientated behavior of tsetse is important in designing bait methods of sampling and controlling the flies, and in understanding ...
Lu Xuefei X Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, - - 2014
It is generally accepted that the high phenotypic diversity of mammals is a combined result of developmental constraint and ecological adaptation, although the influence of these endogenous and exogenous factors varies in different mammal groups. The rodent family Sciuridae represents an ideal candidate for examining phenotypic diversity in relation to ...
Robbins Philip P Department of Philosophy,University of Missouri,Columbia, MO - - 2014
Hibbing et al. contend that individual differences in political ideology can be substantially accounted for in terms of differences in a single psychological factor, namely, strength of negativity bias. We argue that, given the multidimensional structure of ideology, a better explanation of ideological variation will take into account both individual ...
Wilson David Sloan DS Evolution Institute and Departments of Biology and Anthropology,Binghamton University,Binghamton, NY - - 2014
Whenever selection operates at a given level of a multitier hierarchy, units at that level should become the object of functional analysis, and units at lower levels should be studied as proximate mechanisms. This intuition already exists for the study of genes in individuals, when individuals are the unit of ...
Shem-Tov Doron D The Balvatnic School of Computer Science, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, - - 2014
Recent technological improvements in the field of genetic data extraction give rise to the possibility of reconstructing the historical pedigrees of entire populations from the genotypes of individuals living today. Current methods are still not practical for real data scenarios as they have limited accuracy and assume unrealistic assumptions of ...
Parnell S - - 2014
Invasive plant pathogens are increasing with international trade and travel, with damaging environmental and economic consequences. Recent examples include tree diseases such as sudden oak death in the Western United States and ash dieback in Europe. To control an invading pathogen it is crucial that newly infected sites are quickly ...
Yoo Changwon C Department of Biostatistics, Florida International University, Miami, FL, - - 2014
In this article we introduce modern statistical machine learning and bioinformatics approaches that have been used in learning statistical relationships from big data in medicine and behavioral science that typically include clinical, genomic (and proteomic) and environmental variables. Every year, data collected from biomedical and behavioral science is getting larger ...
Qiu Juan - - 2014
This study aims to identify the landscape ecological determinants related to Oncomelania hupensis distribution, map the potential high risk of O. hupensis habitats at the microscale, and assess the effects of two environmental control strategies. Sampling was performed on 242 snail sites and 726 non-snail sites throughout Qianjiang City, Hubei ...
De Matteis Sara S Imperial College, London, - - 2014
The manual collection and coding of job histories is the standard method for assessing occupational exposure, but may be infeasible for large population-based studies such as the UK Biobank cohort. We aimed to develop a new web-based tool to automatically collect and code individual lifetime job histories in the UK ...
Lai Peggy P Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, - - 2014
Whether cessation of exposure to endotoxin containing organic dusts leads to transient vs. sustained improvement of lung function is unknown. The Shanghai Textile Workers study is a 30-year prospective cohort study of 447 cotton workers exposed to endotoxin containing cotton dust and 472 control silk workers unexposed to endotoxin. Spirometry ...
Driscoll Tim T Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, - - 2014
To consider the data shortcomings and methodological decisions involved in current burden of disease studies and the potential for these to be overcome and/or standardised. Most burden of disease estimates require considerable assumptions or methodological decisions about factors concerning exposure, the appropriate relative risk to match with the exposure, and/or ...
Loomis Dana D IARC, Lyon, - - 2014
To discuss the important role of occupational studies in identifying carcinogens and suggest how it could be still greater. The contribution of occupational studies to the IARC monographs is reviewed. Occupational epidemiology has made important contributions beyond developing knowledge to protect workers' health, notably in identifying carcinogens of concern for ...
Applebaum Katie K George Washington University, School of Public Health and Health Services, Washington, DC, - - 2014
In occupational epidemiology, we often rely on analytical models that look at the relationship between one exposure and one disease. However, the exposure may be related to more than one outcome at the target site (e.g., pulmonary diseases: pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or lung cancer), and one of ...
Salim Celso C Fundacentro, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, - - 2014
Considering data sources and statistical trends on recent fatal cases resulting from workplace accidents in the Brazilian construction industry, herein two aspects are emphasised: a critical appraisal of the official registers on deaths resulting from work-related accidents, and a discussion on alternatives to achieve better information to support interventions in ...
Bernardes Kionna K Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to evaluate the dimensional structure of the SRQ-20 in different occupational groups. It's a validation study that involved four sectional drawing surveys. Individual analysis of the databases has been conducted by using the method of principal components. The latent class analysis has been used ...
Vermeulen Roel R IRAS Utrecht University, Utrecht, The - - 2014
Risk of chronic disease may be governed not only by cumulative levels of exposure but also by dynamic aspects of the exposure history. These dynamic aspects include characteristics of the exposure history itself (such as duration of exposure or time-varying intensities of exposure) as well as aspects of age-related susceptibility. ...
Vlaanderen Jelle J IRAS Utrecht University, Utrecht, The - - 2014
Due to their interrelatedness, modelling independent effects of intensity, duration, and time since exposure on disease risk is complex. The indiscriminate use of the cumulative exposure metric (product of intensity and duration of exposure) might bias reported associations between exposure to hazardous agents and disease risk. We explored the use ...
Richardson David D Department of Epidemiology, Chapel Hill, NC, - - 2014
When an exposure is protracted or repeated over time, questions arise regarding variation in the effect for different temporal patterns of exposure. We review approaches to describe variation in an exposure's effect as a function of age-at-exposure, time-since-exposure, and exposure rate. These models implicitly assume that the effect of an ...
Chadeau-Hyam Marc M Imperial College, London, - - 2014
Chronic diseases are usually slow-developing condition and their risk may result from both long-term exposure and successive exposure increments, hence calling for models accounting for dynamics of exposure and disease progression. Discrete compartmental models are defined by a set of ordered states (compartments) reflecting the health status, and can be ...
Pesch Beate B Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance - Institute of Ruhr University Bochum (IPA), Bochum, - - 2014
To assess level and trend of exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in chromium-exposed occupations for the estimation of lung cancer risks in community-based studies. This analysis was based on 3666 personal measurements and auxiliary data compiled in the German MEGA database from 1988-2009. Cr(VI) was determined spectrophotometrically at 540 nm ...
McLean David D Massey University, Wellington, New - - 2014
Significant excess risks of lung cancer and haematologic neoplasms have been observed in slaughterhouse workers in eight New Zealand studies, and numerous studies conducted elsewhere. No specific causal agents have been identified, although a biological aetiology is suggested as the risk is highest in those areas where workers are exposed ...
Scott Laura L University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, MN, - - 2014
To quantify the effect of exposure and disease misclassification on the odds ratio (OR) for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality in a retrospective cohort study of trichlorophenol workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Exposure and disease classification parameters were defined using specificity and sensitivity values either reported in the peer-reviewed literature ...
Fritschi Lin L The University of Western Australia, Perth, - - 2014
Good occupational health policy requires an overall understanding of the proportion of the working population who are exposed to hazards at work. This is difficult to estimate when nearly three-quarters of the workforce are in small and medium sized companies and so not easily surveyed or monitored. We are undertaking ...
Demers Paul P Occupational Cancer Research Centre, Toronto, CanadaUniversity of Toronto, Toronto, - - 2014
In recent years, several new burden projects have been initiated with increased methodological sophistication. Previous studies have varied with respect to methods used to identify the prevalence and relevant levels of exposure, but many have relied on CAREX estimates. In this presentation, we will focus on the impact of incorporating ...
Pronk Anjoeka A TNO, Zeist, The - - 2014
A multidimensional intervention aimed at reducing silica exposure in the Dutch construction industry was performed. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the achieved reduction in exposure on the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in construction workers. The intervention aimed at technical, organisational and ...
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