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Fujita Goro G National Research Institute of Police Science, 6-3-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba-ken 277-0882, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
In Japan, where pedestrian deaths account for a third of road traffic fatalities, 7.4% of victims die from hit-and-run accidents. To identify determinants for drivers considering leaving an accident scene after hitting a pedestrian, environment-related, driver-related, and pedestrian-related factors were examined using Japanese national police data. Results generally confirmed the ...
Westneat David F DF Department of Biology, Center for Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Kentucky, 101 Morgan Building, Lexington, KY, 40506-0225, - - 2014
Phenotypes vary hierarchically among taxa and populations, among genotypes within populations, among individuals within genotypes, and also within individuals for repeatedly expressed, labile phenotypic traits. This hierarchy produces some fundamental challenges to clearly defining biological phenomena and constructing a consistent explanatory framework. We use a heuristic statistical model to explore ...
Arbizu Carlos C U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Vegetable Crops Research Unit; and Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1590 - - 2014
• Premise of the study: We explored the utility of multiple nuclear orthologs for the taxonomic resolution of wild and cultivated carrot, Daucus species.• Methods: We studied the phylogeny of 92 accessions of 13 species and two subspecies of Daucus and 15 accessions of related genera (107 accessions total) with ...
Yang Ming - - 2014
In differential evolution (DE) studies, there are many parameter adaptation methods, aiming at tuning the mutation factor F and the crossover probability CR . However, these methods still cannot resolve the issues of population premature convergence and population stagnation. To address these issues, in this paper, we investigate the population ...
Kang Guolian G Department of Biostatistics and Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tenn., - - 2014
We propose in this paper a set-valued (SV) system model, which is a generalized form of logistic (LG) and Probit (Probit) regression, to be considered as a method for discovering genetic variants, especially rare genetic variants in next-generation sequencing studies, for a binary phenotype. We propose a new SV system ...
Pirooznia Mehdi - - 2014
The processing and analysis of the large scale data generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS) experiments is challenging and is a burgeoning area of new methods development. Several new bioinformatics tools have been developed for calling sequence variants from NGS data. Here, we validate the variant calling of these tools and ...
Grube Martin M Institute of Plant Sciences, Karl-Franzens-University, Graz, - - 2014
Symbioses represent a frequent and successful lifestyle on earth and lichens are one of their classic examples. Recently, bacterial communities were identified as stable, specific and structurally integrated partners of the lichen symbiosis, but their role has remained largely elusive in comparison to the well-known functions of the fungal and ...
Wen Xuesong X 1 Interdepartmental Microbiology Program, Iowa State University , Ames, - - 2014
Abstract Translocation of foodborne pathogens into the interior tissues of pork through moisture enhancement may be of concern if the meat is undercooked. In the present study, a five-strain mixture of Campylobacter jejuni or Salmonella enterica Typhimurium was evenly spread on the surface of fresh pork loins. Pork loins were ...
Han Jia J 1 Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences of Ministry of Education Shanghai University of - - 2014
Summary.-There may be a higher-order processing system (or general proprioceptive ability) which receives inputs from various proprioceptive sources across different body areas. In general, Tremblay's (2013 ) criticisms are overly based on peripheral proprioceptors, and do not represent alternative interpretations or the data generated by studies evaluating those interpretations.
Choi Sungkyoung S Interdisciplinary Program in bioinformatics, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea Institute for Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn Germany, Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, Center for Genomic Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA, Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Institute for Genomic Mathematics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Bonn, Germany, Department of Statistics, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, Department of Public Health Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, - - 2014
Individuals in each family are genetically more homogeneous than unrelated individuals, and family-based designs are often recommended for the analysis of rare variants. However, despite the importance of family-based samples analysis, few statistical methods for rare variant association analysis are available. In this report, we propose a FAmily-based Rare Variant ...
Ristau Tina T University of Cologne, Cologne, 50924, - - 2014
Purpose: To create a risk model for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) based on non-genetic factors. Methods: In this case-control study, 1459 individuals were included, 445 patients showed nAMD and 1014 were healthy controls. Participants were randomly assigned into a training set (containing 2/3 of individuals) and a validation set. ...
Ivanova Kremena K National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Building 7, 3 Sv. Georgi Sofiyski St., Sofia 1606, Bulgaria - - 2014
As a part of the systematic survey of indoor radon in Bulgaria, the indoor radon concentration was measured in 296 kindergarten buildings of Sofia city during 3 months (February to April 2013) using the CR-39 nuclear tract detectors. In 256 buildings at least two frequently occupied rooms (mainly playrooms) were ...
Fehr Alexandra E AE Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Atlanta, - - 2014
Federal regulations permitting an exception from informed consent for research in emergency settings require community consultation before study approval. Rates of acceptance of exception from informed consent in community consultation are often reported, but predictors of acceptance are not well understood, and investigators and institutional review boards struggle to interpret ...
Adolfsen Frode F Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, - - 2014
Early drinking onset is associated with different psychosocial adjustment problems among adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess determinants associated with early drinking and to identify factors predicting early drinking onset among adolescents. The study included 1,550 eighth-graders with a mean age of 13.5 years from 41 schools. A ...
Lal Pranay P International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease - South-East Asia Office, New Delhi, India - - 2014
The Global Adult Tobacco Survey, or GATS, has proved to be an invaluable tool for policymakers. In India, it highlighted the alarming rates of prevalence of use and risks both nationally and at state level. However, a rapid analysis of GATS-India shows that there are limitations in methods (sampling, questionnaire, ...
Henderson Heather A HA Department of Psychology, University of - - 2014
Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early-appearing temperament characterized by strong reactions to novelty. BI shows a good deal of stability over childhood and significantly increases the risk for later diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Despite these general patterns, many children with high BI do not go on to develop ...
Sun Guibo - - 2014
Previous studies testing the association between the built environment and walking behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed results. This study reports on a natural experiment in which changes to the built environment were implemented at a university campus in Hong Kong. Longitudinal data on walking behaviors were ...
Liu Jing - - 2014
Multiview representations reveal the fundamental attributes of the studied instances from different perspectives. Some common perspectives are reviewed by multiple views simultaneously, while some specific ones are reflected by individual views. That is, there are two kinds of properties embedded in the multiview data: 1) consistency and 2) complementarity. Different ...
Sharov Alexei A AA National Institute on Aging, Genetics Laboratory, Baltimore, MD 21224, - - 2014
In the era of the extended evolutionary synthesis, which no longer considers natural selection as the only leading factor of evolution, it is meaningful to revisit the legacy of biologists who discussed the role of alternative factors. Here we analyze the evolutionary views of Sergei Meyen (1935-1987), a paleobotanist who ...
Neave Penny E - - 2014
In the UK, the majority of imported malaria infections occur in the London area among UK residents of African origin who travel to Africa visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). Effective malaria prevention measures are available but there is little understanding of the factors that enhance and constrain their use among ...
Sinnott Jennifer A JA Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA, - - 2014
To reduce costs and improve clinical relevance of genetic studies, there has been increasing interest in performing such studies in hospital-based cohorts by linking phenotypes extracted from electronic medical records (EMRs) to genotypes assessed in routinely collected medical samples. A fundamental difficulty in implementing such studies is extracting accurate information ...
Bora Nalini S NS Department of Ophthalmology, Jones Eye Institute, Pat and Willard Walker Eye Research Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Studies performed over the past decade in humans and experimental animals have been a major source of information and improved our understanding of how dysregulation of the complement system contributes to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathology. Drusen, the hall-mark of dry-type AMD are reported to be the by-product of complement ...
Kim Gyu Ri GR a Department of Epidemiology and Public Health , University College London , London , - - 2014
Objectives: The aim was to assess the reliability and validity of the quality of life (QoL) instrument CASP-19, and three shorter versions of CASP-12 in large population sample of older adults from the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study. Methods: From the Czech Republic, Russia, and ...
Eaves Lindon J LJ Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA, - - 2014
Genome wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) is extended to include environmental effects of the maternal genotype on offspring phenotype ("maternal effects", M-GCTA). The model includes parameters for the direct effects of the offspring genotype, maternal effects and the covariance between direct and maternal effects. Analysis of simulated data, conducted in ...
Wang Liya L Institute of Disease Control and Prevention, Academy of Military Medical Science, Beijing, People's Republic of - - 2014
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most common cause of viral encephalitis and an important public health concern in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly in China where 50% of global cases are notified. To explore the association between environmental factors and human JE cases and identify the high risk areas for JE ...
Middelweerd Anouk - - 2014
BackgroundIn May 2013, the iTunes and Google Play stores contained 23,490 and 17,756 smartphone applications (apps) categorized as Health and Fitness, respectively. The quality of these apps, in terms of applying established health behavior change techniques, remains unclear.MethodsThe study sample was identified through systematic searches in iTunes and Google Play. ...
Baar Johanna J a Faculty of Architecture and Social Sciences , Leipzig University of Applied Sciences , Leipzig , - - 2014
Residential self-selection is supposed to bias the relation between residential environments and physical activity, but empirical analyses are still rare. This study examines the association while simultaneously considering the effect of residential self-selection criteria. One thousand two hundred and forty-five German students were asked to report their physical activity, their ...
Wang Jinjun J Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, - - 2014
Within the last decade, several mouse models that manifest characteristic features of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) with antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and immune-mediated biliary duct pathology have been reported. Here, the authors discuss the current findings on two spontaneous (nonobese diabetic autoimmune biliary disease [NOD.ABD] and dominant negative transforming growth factor-β ...
Haller J J Institute of Experimental Medicine, Budapest, - - 2014
We review here the impact of early adversities on the development of violence and antisocial behaviour in humans, and present three etiological animal models of escalated rodent aggression, each disentangling the consequences of one particular adverse early-life factor. The review of the human data and those obtained with the animal ...
Gajewska M M Systems Toxicology Unit and EURL ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 21027 Ispra, VA, Italy; University of Milano Biccoca, Dep. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Piazza della Scienza 1, Milano, Italy; Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Molecular EXposomics (MEX), Ingolstädter Landstr.1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Joint physiologically-based toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic (PBTK/TD) mqodelling was applied to simulate concentration-time profiles of nicotine, a well-known stimulant, in the human body following single and repeated dosing. Both kinetic and dynamic models were first calibrated by using in vivo literature data for the Caucasian population. The models were then used ...
Lahey Benjamin B BB University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, - - 2014
The best-fitting model of the structure of common psychopathology often includes a general factor on which all dimensions of psychopathology load. Such a general factor would be important if it reflects etiologies and mechanisms shared by all dimensions of psychopathology. Nonetheless, a viable alternative explanation is that the general factor ...
Brennan Katharine A KA School of Psychology, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140, New Zealand. Electronic address: - - 2014
Smoking tobacco is highly addictive and a leading preventable cause of death. The main addictive constituent is nicotine; consequently it has been administered to laboratory animals to model tobacco dependence. Despite extensive use, this model might not best reflect the powerful nature of tobacco dependence because nicotine is a weak ...
Lu Angela H AH Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Electronic address: - - 2014
To develop and apply a framework exploring the extent of involvement in promoting environmental changes to prevent obesity by a group of nutrition educators (NE). Cross-sectional, mixed methods: qualitative interviews informed framework development; survey applied framework to describe NE's involvement in environmental changes. Cooperative Extension in New York State.Participants: Interviewees ...
Taroni F F University of Lausanne, School of Criminal Justice, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
This paper extends previous research [1] on the use of multivariate continuous data in comparative handwriting examinations, notably for gender classification. A database has been constructed by analyzing the contour shape of loop characters of type a and d by means of Fourier analysis, which allows characters to be described ...
Oliver Jeffrey C JC Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA - - 2014
Serial homologues are repeated traits that share similar development but occur in different parts of the body. Variation in number of repeats accounts for substantial diversity in animal form and considerable work has focused on identifying the factors accounting for this variation. Little is known, however, about how serial homologues ...
Thrasher James F JF University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, - - 2014
Health warning labels (HWLs) on tobacco packaging can be used to provide smoking cessation information, but the impact of this information is not well understood. Online consumer panels of adult smokers from Canada, Australia and Mexico were surveyed in September 2012, January 2013 and May 2013; replenishment was used to ...
Wang Xuefeng - - 2014
Machine learning, particularly kernel methods, has been demonstrated as a promising new tool to tackle the challenges imposed by today's explosive data growth in genomics. They provide a practical and principled approach to learning how a large number of genetic variants are associated with complex phenotypes, to help reveal the ...
Zouré Honorat Gm - - 2014
The original aim of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was to control onchocerciasis as a public health problem in 20 African countries. In order to identify all high risk areas where ivermectin treatment was needed to achieve control, APOC used Rapid Epidemiological Mapping of Onchocerciasis (REMO). REMO involved ...
Biscarini Filippo - - 2014
Genomic information can be used to predict not only continuous but also categorical (e.g. binomial)traits. Several traits of interest in human medicine and agriculture present a discrete distribution ofphenotypes (e.g. disease status). Root vigor in sugar beet (B. vulgaris) is an example of binomialtrait of agronomic importance. In this paper, ...
Schlage Walter K WK Philip Morris International R&D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, 2000 Neuchâtel, - - 2014
Abstract Smoking has been associated with diseases of the lung, pulmonary airways, and oral cavity. Cytologic, genomic, and transcriptomic changes in oral mucosa correlate with oral preneoplasia, cancer, and inflammation (e.g. periodontitis). Alteration of smoking-related gene expression changes in oral epithelial cells is similar to that in bronchial and nasal ...
Gu Xin - - 2014
Bayesian evaluation of inequality constrained hypotheses enables researchers to investigate their expectations with respect to the structure among model parameters. This article proposes an approximate Bayes procedure that can be used for the selection of the best of a set of inequality constrained hypotheses based on the Bayes factor in ...
Weyand Angela C AC Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, - - 2014
Although the zebrafish has been established as a research tool over the past two to three decades, in hematology it has primarily been used to investigate areas distinct from coagulation. The advantages of this vertebrate model include high fecundity, rapid and external development, and conservation of virtually all clotting factors ...
Bellot Sidonie S Systematic Botany and Mycology, University of Munich (LMU), Menzinger Str. 67, 80638 Munich, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Gene trees of holoparasitic plants usually show distinctly longer branch lengths than seen in photosynthetic closest relatives. Such substitution rate jumps have made it difficult to infer the absolute divergence times of parasites. An additional problem is that parasite clades often lack a fossil record. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA ...
Chivers W J WJ Faculty of Science and IT, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Models of near-exclusive predator-prey systems such as that of the Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare have included factors such as a second prey species, a Holling Type II predator response and climatic or seasonal effects to reproduce sub-sets of six signature patterns in the empirical data. We present an agent-based ...
Neuparth Teresa T CIMAR/CIIMAR-Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 177, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: - - 2014
Simvastatin (SIM), a hypocholesterolaemic drug, is among the most widely used pharmaceuticals worldwide and is therefore of emerging environmental concern. Despite the ubiquitous nature of SIM in the aquatic ecosystems, significant uncertainties exist about sublethal effects of the drug in aquatic organisms. Therefore, here we aimed at investigating a multi-level ...
Yildirim Suleyman S The Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, - - 2014
Bacterial communities colonizing the reproductive tracts of primates (including humans) impact the health, survival and fitness of the host, and thereby the evolution of the host species. Despite their importance, we currently have a poor understanding of primate microbiomes. The composition and structure of microbial communities vary considerably depending on ...
Grove J Morgan JM USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station, Baltimore Field Station, UMBC, 5522 Research Park Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21228, USA, - - 2014
Several social theories have been proposed to explain the uneven distribution of vegetation in urban residential areas: population density, social stratification, luxury effect, and ecology of prestige. We evaluate these theories using a combination of demographic and socio-economic predictors of vegetative cover on all residential lands in New York City. ...
Liu Hong H China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing, - - 2014
This paper examines how Chinese smokers respond to tax-driven cigarette price increases by estimating a discrete choice model of demand for differentiated products, using annual nationwide brand-level cigarette sales data in China from 2005 to 2010. We allow for substitution between different cigarette brands and also incorporate key features of ...
Chang Fi-John FJ Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address: - - 2014
We propose a systematical approach to assessing arsenic concentration in a river through: important factor extraction by a nonlinear factor analysis; arsenic concentration estimation by the neuro-fuzzy network; and impact assessment of important factors on arsenic concentration by the membership degrees of the constructed neuro-fuzzy network. The arsenic-contaminated Huang Gang ...
Gondro Cedric C The Centre for Genetic Analyses and Applications, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, - - 2014
In genome-wide association studies, quality control (QC) of genotypes is important to avoid spurious results. It is also important to maintain long-term data integrity, particularly in settings with ongoing genotyping (e.g. estimation of genomic breeding values). Here we discuss snpqc, a fully automated pipeline to perform QC analyses of Illumina ...
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