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 Results 151 - 200 of 4586 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > 151 Mullon Charles - - 2013 Natural selection favors alleles that increase the number of offspring produced by their carriers. But in a world that is inherently uncertain within generations, selection also favors alleles that reduce the variance in the number of offspring produced. If previous studies have established this principle, they have largely ignored fundamental ... 152 Xu Fang - - 2013 As a group of important plant species in agriculture and biology, polyploids have been increasingly studied in terms of their genome structure and organization. There are two types of polyploids, allopolyploids and autopolyploids, each resulting from a different genetic origin, which undergo meiotic divisions of a distinct complexity. A set ... 153 Escott-Price Valentina - - 2013 We evaluate the effect of genotyping errors on the type-I error of a general association test based on genotypes, showing that, in the presence of errors in the case and control samples, the test statistic asymptotically follows a scaled non-central $\chi ^2$ distribution. We give explicit formulae for the scaling ... 154 Posma Joram M - - 2013 MetaboNetworks is a tool to create custom sub-networks in Matlab using main reaction pairs as defined by the Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and can be used to explore transgenomic interactions, for example mammalian and bacterial associations. It calculates the shortest path between a set of metabolites (e.g. ... 155 Peeler E J - - 2013 The application of risk analysis to the spread of disease with international trade in animals and their products, that is, import risk analysis (IRA), has been largely driven by the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The degree to which the IRA standard established by ... 156 Lee Jin - - 2013 The goal of this study was to examine the external validity of a 12-item generic safety climate scale for lone workers in order to evaluate the appropriateness of generalized use of the scale in the measurement of safety climate across various lone work settings. External validity evidence was established by ... 157 Kim Hye-Young - - 2013 It has been proposed that choice utility exhibits an inverted U-shape as a function of the number of options in the choice set. However, most researchers have so far only focused on the "physically extant" number of options in the set while disregarding the more important psychological factor, the "subjective" ... 158 Ip Edward H - - 2013 The reliability of an item designed to measure health belief is often confounded with response consistency at the person level. The study applied contemporary measurement methods to an inventory of common sense beliefs about diabetes and used a sample of N = 563 adults with diabetes to test the hypothesis ... 159 Asfahani Jamal - - 2013 Factor analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, in order to characterize the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging data are ... 160 Rice Mabel L - - 2013 This study investigated the etiology of Late Language Emegence (LLE) in 24-month-old twins considering possible twinning, zygosity, gender, and heritability effects for vocabulary and grammar phenotypes. A population-based sample of 473 twin pairs participated. Multilevel modelling estimated means and variances of vocabulary and grammar phenotypes, controlling for familiality. Heritability was ... 161 Cebolla A - - 2013 The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) was developed to measure eating styles that may contribute to or attenuate the development of overweight. It comprises three scales that measure emotional, external and restrained eating. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the internal structure of the Spanish version of ... 162 Michailidis George - - 2013 Reconstructing gene regulatory networks from high-throughput measurements represents a key problem in functional genomics. It also represents a canonical learning problem and thus has attracted a lot of attention in both the informatics and the statistical learning literature. Numerous approaches have been proposed, ranging from simple clustering to rather involved ... 163 Diniz-Filho José Alexandre Felizola - - 2013 Several methods of spatial analyses have been proposed to infer the relative importance of evolutionary processes on genetic population structure. Here we show how a new eigenfunction spatial analysis can be used to model spatial patterns in genetic data. Considering a sample of n local populations, the method starts by ... 164 Dreibelbis Robert - - 2013 Promotion and provision of low-cost technologies that enable improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) practices are seen as viable solutions for reducing high rates of morbidity and mortality due to enteric illnesses in low-income countries. A number of theoretical models, explanatory frameworks, and decision-making models have emerged which attempt to ... 165 Baxter Lisa K - - 2013 Epidemiological studies have observed between city heterogeneity in PM2.5-mortality risk estimates. These differences could potentially be due to the use of central-site monitors as a surrogate for exposure which do not account for an individual's activities or ambient pollutant infiltration to the indoor environment. Therefore, relying solely on central-site monitoring ... 166 Hedt-Gauthier Bethany L - - 2013 Traditional Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) designs assume observations are collected using simple random sampling. Alternatively, randomly sampling clusters of observations and then individuals within clusters reduces costs but decreases the precision of the classifications. In this paper, we develop a general framework for designing the cluster(C)-LQAS system and illustrate ... 167 Markolf Matthias - - 2013 Species are the fundamental units in evolutionary biology. However, defining them as evolutionary independent lineages requires integration of several independent sources of information in order to develop robust hypotheses for taxonomic classification. Here, we exemplarily propose an integrative framework for species delimitation in the "brown lemur complex" (BLC) of Madagascar, ... 168 Theodoridis A - - 2013 In this study, the level of technical efficiency of 58 sheep farms rearing the Chios breed in Greece was measured through the application of the stochastic frontier analysis method. A Translog stochastic frontier production function was estimated using farm accounting data of Chios sheep farms and the impact of various ... 169 Yao Zizhen - - 2013 High throughput ChIP-seq studies typically identify thousands of peaks for a single transcription factor. It is common for traditional motif discovery tools to predict motifs that are statistically significant against a naïve background distribution but are of questionable biological relevance. We describe a simple yet effective algorithm for discovering differential ... 170 Wang Xuefeng - - 2013 Family-based genetic association studies of related individuals provide opportunities to detect genetic variants that complement studies of unrelated individuals. Most statistical methods for family association studies for common variants are single marker based, which test one SNP a time. In this paper, we consider testing the effect of an SNP ... 171 Wu Jincao - - 2013 Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified hundreds of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with complex human diseases. However, risk prediction models based on them have limited discriminatory accuracy. It has been suggested that including many such SNPs can improve predictive performance. Here, we studied various aspects of model building to ... 172 Fu Qi - - 2013 The aim of the study is to develop a risk score model for identifying postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) without oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) in the Chinese population, and minimize the number of subjects needing further OGTT. Multivariable stepwise logistic regression was used to develop risk score models in a derivation ... 173 Browning Brian L - - 2013 Existing methods for identity by descent (IBD) segment detection were designed for SNP array data, not sequence data. Sequence data have a much higher density of genetic variants and a different allele frequency distribution, and can have higher genotype error rates. Consequently, best practices for IBD detection in SNP array ... 174 Ryoo Hyunju - - 2013 Recently, the use of a mixed model methodology in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been considered effective for controlling population stratification and explaining the polygenic effects of complex traits. However, estimating polygenic variance components and heritability was biased when the mixed model was used. This bias results from a diluted ... 175 Lichocki Pawel - - 2014 A key, yet often neglected, component of digital evolution and evolutionary models is the 'selection method' which assigns fitness (number of offspring) to individuals based on their performance scores (efficiency in performing tasks). Here, we study with formal analysis and numerical experiments the evolution of cooperation under the five most ... 176 Campos Daniel - - 2014 We study central-place foraging patterns of Aphaenogaster senilis ants at a population level by video framing individual ant trajectories in a circular arena with a nest connected to its centre. The ants naturally leave and enter the nest and forage generating non-trivial movement patterns around the nest. Our data analysis ... 177 Macgillivray Brian H - - 2013 Lay perceptions of risk appear rooted more in heuristics than in reason. A major concern of the risk regulation literature is that such "error-strewn" perceptions may be replicated in policy, as governments respond to the (mis)fears of the citizenry. This has led many to advocate a relatively technocratic approach to ... 178 Valdivia-Granda Willy A - - 2013 To protect our civilians and warfighters against both known and unknown pathogens, biodefense stakeholders must be able to foresee possible technological trends that could affect their threat risk assessment. However, significant flaws in how we prioritize our countermeasure-needs continue to limit their development. As recombinant biotechnology becomes increasingly simplified and ... 179 Soltan Ghoraie Laleh - - 2013 Protein crystals populate diverse conformational ensembles. Despite much evidence that there is widespread conformational polymorphism in protein side chains, most of the X-ray crystallography data are modeled by single conformations in the Protein Data Bank. The ability to extract or to predict these conformational polymorphisms is of crucial importance, as ... 180 Arcan K - - 2013 This study aimed to adapt and to test the validity and the reliability of the Turkish version of the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS-T) that was developed by Raylu and Oei (Addiction 99(6):757-769, 2004a). The significance of erroneous cognitions in the development and the maintenance of gambling problems, the importance of ... 181 Chaney Robert A - - 2013 Introduction. Local environmental factors provide important contributions to bicycle safety. The purpose of this study was to characterize bicycle collisions by neighborhood in Cincinnati, Ohio. Background. The majority of prior bicycle safety research has focused on helmet use, especially among youth. Studies that have considered the neighborhood have centered on ... 182 Scolamacchia F - - 2013 Palaearctic Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) represent a vital link in the northward advance of certain arboviral pathogens of livestock such as that caused by bluetongue virus. The effects of relevant ecological factors on weekly Culicoides vector abundances during the bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemics in the Netherlands in 2007 and ... 183 Rasmussen David A - - 2013 Coalescent methods are widely used to infer the demographic history of populations from gene genealogies. These approaches-often referred to as phylodynamic methods-have proven especially useful for reconstructing the dynamics of rapidly evolving viral pathogens. Yet population dynamics inferred from viral genealogies often differ widely from those observed from other sources ... 184 Anthonioz Alexandre - - 2013 Fingerprint practitioners rely on level 3 features to make decisions in relation to the source of an unknown friction ridge skin impression. This research proposes to assess the strength of evidence associated with pores when shown in (dis)agreement between a mark and a reference print. Based upon an algorithm designed ... 185 Gutiérrez Fernando - - 2013 Despite general support for dimensional models of personality disorder, it is currently unclear which, and how many, dimensions a taxonomy of this kind should include. In an attempt to obtain an empirically-based, comprehensive, and usable structure of personality, three instruments - The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), the Personality Diagnostic ... 186 R Holzinger Emily - - 2013 Advancements in high-throughput technology have allowed researchers to examine the genetic etiology of complex human traits in a robust fashion. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many novel variants associated with hundreds of traits, a large proportion of the estimated trait heritability remains unexplained. One hypothesis is that the ... 187 Lee Myeongjee - - 2013 Investigations of familial aggregation of disease can provide important clues for genetic mechanisms, and many such studies have been published in the epidemiological literature using various statistical methods. We developed a unified model for familial risk by extending a Cox regression model to enable estimation of the detailed effects of ... 188 Janko Karel - - 2013 Phylogenetic studies typically demonstrate lower evolutionary ages of clones, relative to their sexual ancestors. This has often been attributed to heightened extinction risk of asexual organisms. We previously criticized such interpretations and demonstrated that the life span of clones is ultimately limited by neutral drift depending on the rate at ... 189 Eisenberg Marisa C - - 2013 Haiti has been in the midst of a cholera epidemic since October 2010. Rainfall is thought to be associated with cholera here, but this relationship has only begun to be quantitatively examined. In this paper, we quantitatively examine the link between rainfall and cholera in Haiti for several different settings ... 190 Honnert Bertrand - - 2013 Manufactured nano-objects (MNO) are being increasingly used in industry, and, given their particular properties, it is therefore necessary to assess the risks linked to their production and use in industrial settings. We describe a survey conducted in France, in five industries concerned with the production of inks, paints, plastics, and ... 191 Abdelhady A M - - 2013 The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic and pharmacogenetic covariates that influence the disposition of efavirenz (EFV) and its major metabolites. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed from a randomized, cross-over, drug-interaction study in healthy male Korean subjects (n = 17). Plasma concentrations of EFV and its hydroxy-metabolites ... 192 Foch Eric - - 2013 Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is a common knee overuse injury among female runners. Atypical discrete trunk and lower extremity biomechanics during running may be associated with the etiology of ITBS. Examining discrete data points limits the interpretation of a waveform to a single value. Characterizing entire kinematic and kinetic waveforms ... 193 Glaesmer Heide - - 2013 The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) has often been used in cross-cultural settings and in studies focussing on asylum seekers, refugees etc. It is available in a number of languages. The present study investigates the psychometric properties of the German version of the HSCL-25 and delivers population-based norms. Psychometric properties are ... 194 Amei Amei - - 2013 Mutation frequencies can be modeled as a Poisson random field (PRF) to estimate speciation times and the degree of selection on newly arisen mutations. This approach provides a quantitative theory for comparing intraspecific polymorphism with interspecific divergence in the presence of selection and can be used to estimate population genetic ... 195 Dell'ampio Emiliano - - 2013 Phylogenetic relationships of the primarily wingless insects are still considered unresolved. Even the most comprehensive phylogenomic studies that addressed this question did not yield congruent results. In order to get a grip on these problems, we here analyzed the sources of incongruence in these phylogenomic studies using an extended transcriptome ... 196 Billinge Simon J L - - 2013 We examine the equations to obtain atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) from x-ray, neutron and electron powder diffraction data with a view to obtaining reliable and accurate PDFs from the raw data using a largely ad hoc correction process. We find that this should be possible under certain circumstances that ... 197 Taipale Sakari - - 2014 The aim of this article is to study how the corporeal and digital mobilities are spatially organised in relation to each other in everyday life. The dimensions of mobilities are modelled by using survey data (N=612) collected from Finland in 2011, Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) and Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA). ... 198 Aguilar María - - 2013 It is often discussed whether the biogeography of free-living protists is better explained by the 'everything is everywhere'(EiE) hypothesis, which postulates that only ecology drives their distribution, or by the alternative hypothesis of 'moderate endemicity' in which geographic barriers can limit their dispersal. To formally test this, it would be ... 199 Støer Nathalie C - - 2013 Nested case-control designs are inevitably less efficient than full cohort designs, and it is important to use available information as efficiently as possible. Reuse of controls by inverse probability weighting may be one way to obtain efficiency improvements, and it can be particularly advantageous when two or more endpoints are ... 200 Sonesson Anna K - - 2013 Canalization is defined as the stability of a genotype against minor variations in both environment and genetics. Genetic variation in degree of canalization causes heterogeneity of within-family variance. The aims of this study are twofold: (1) quantify genetic heterogeneity of (within-family) residual variance in Atlantic salmon and (2) test whether ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >