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Searle John J Road Accident Analysis, United - - 2014
A dilution model is widely used to link blood alcohol concentration and the quantity of alcohol consumed. Whilst some authors use the total body water formulation of that model, others use the Widmark Factor formulation. A paper by Forrest gave a table of example values of the Widmark Factor and ...
Dimitrov B D BD Academic Unit of Primary Care & Population Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, - - 2014
SUMMARY Multicomponent cyclicity in influenza (flu) incidence had been observed in various countries (e.g. periods T = 1, 2-3, 5-6, 8·0, 10·6-11·3, 13, 18-19 years) and its close similarity with cycles in natural environmental phenomena as meteorological factors and heliogeophysical activity (HGA) suggested. This report aimed at verifying previous results on cyclic ...
Crouch Simon S Epidemiology & Cancer Statistics Group, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, YO10 5DD, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
We present a new method for determining prevalence estimates together with estimates of their precision, from incidence and survival data using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques. The algorithm also provides for the incidence process to be marked with the values of subject level covariates, facilitating calculation of the distribution of these variables ...
Kochunov Peter P Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Combining datasets across independent studies can boost statistical power by increasing the numbers of observations and can achieve more accurate estimates of effect sizes. This is especially important for genetic studies where a large number of observations are required to obtain sufficient power to detect and replicate genetic effects. There ...
Onogi A A Department of Agricultural and Environmental Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657, - - 2014
The implementation of genomic selection for Japanese Black cattle known for rich marbling of their meat, is now being explored. Although multiple-step methods are often adopted for dairy cattle, they present shortcomings such as bias and loss of information in addition to operational complexity. These can be avoided using single-step ...
Siddique Juned J Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, - - 2014
The true missing data mechanism is never known in practice. We present a method for generating multiple imputations for binary variables, which formally incorporates missing data mechanism uncertainty. Imputations are generated from a distribution of imputation models rather than a single model, with the distribution reflecting subjective notions of missing ...
Gravel Simon S McGill - - 2014
Successful sequencing experiments require judicious sample selection. However, this selection must often be performed on the basis of limited preliminary data. Predicting the statistical properties of the final sample based on preliminary data can be challenging, because numerous uncertain model assumptions may be involved. Here, we ask whether we can ...
Shringarpure Suyash S Stanford - - 2014
Population stratification is an important task in genetic analyses. It provides information about the ancestry of individuals and can be an important confounder in genome-wide association studies. Public genotyping projects have made a large number of datasets available for study. However, practical constraints dictate that of a geographical/ethnic population, only ...
Taylor Aimee R - - 2014
Reliable measures of anti-malarial resistance are crucial for malaria control. Resistance is typically a complex trait: multiple mutations in a single parasite (a haplotype or genotype) are necessary for elaboration of the resistant phenotype. The frequency of a genetic motif (proportion of parasite clones in the parasite population that carry ...
Li Xin-Xu - - 2014
The report of the fifth national tuberculosis (TB) epidemiological survey in P. R. China, 2010, roughly showed that pulmonary TB (PTB) prevalence was higher in western China than in central and eastern China. However, accurately estimating the continuous spatial variations of PTB prevalence and clearly understanding factors impacting on spatial ...
Abraham Kuruvilla Joseph - - 2014
Genetic Analyses in large sample populations are important for a better understanding of the variation between populations, for designing conservation programs, for detecting rare mutations which may be risk factors for a variety of diseases, among other reasons. However these analyses frequently assume that the participating individuals or animals are ...
Helpman Liat L a Psychology Department and Gonda Brain Research Center , Bar-Ilan - - 2014
The applicability of diagnostic criteria of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder to the pediatric population has been a focus of much debate (e.g., Carrion, Weems, Ray, & Reiss, 2002 ), informing changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5). The current study examined the factor structure of ...
Wang Chaolong C 1] Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. [2] Department of Biostatistics, Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. - - 2014
Estimating individual ancestry is important in genetic association studies where population structure leads to false positive signals, although assigning ancestry remains challenging with targeted sequence data. We propose a new method for the accurate estimation of individual genetic ancestry, based on direct analysis of off-target sequence reads, and implement our ...
Yang Shengping - - 2014
Accurate genotype calling is a pre-requisite of a successful Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS). Although most genotyping algorithms can achieve an accuracy rate greater than 99% for genotyping DNA samples without copy number alterations (CNAs), almost all of these algorithms are not designed for genotyping tumor samples that are known to ...
Akanno E C EC Department of Animal & Poultry Science, Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, - - 2014
Genetic improvement of pigs in tropical developing countries has focused on imported exotic populations which have been subjected to intensive selection with attendant high population-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD). Presently, indigenous pig population with limited selection and low LD are being considered for improvement. Given that the infrastructure for genetic improvement ...
Chen Chun C School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 47907, West Lafayette, IN, - - 2014
Covering a cough can be useful in reducing the transmission of airborne infectious diseases. However, no simple method is available in the literature for predicting the exhaled airflow from a cough with the mouth covered. This investigation used smoke to visualize the airflow exhaled by 16 human subjects. Their mouths ...
Boucquemont Julie - - 2014
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive and usually irreversible disease. Different types of outcomes are of interest in the course of CKD such as time-to-dialysis, transplantation or decline of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Statistical analyses aiming at investigating the association between these outcomes and risk factors raise a ...
Chevillotte G G Laboratoire d'Evaluation du Risque Chimique pour le Consommateur (LERCCo), Université Européenne de Bretagne - Université de Bretagne Occidentale (UEB-UBO), UFR Sciences et Techniques, 6 Av. Victor Le Gorgeu, CS93837, 29238 Brest Cedex 3, - - 2014
In a risk assessment of cosmetic products, it is necessary to know both qualitative and quantitative compositions. Currently, European Regulation No 1223/2009 requires the industries to provide ingredient lists for finished cosmetic products but not their concentrations. Ingredient concentrations are available in few bibliographic references but in an incomplete and ...
Ricotta Emily E - - 2014
In places where malaria transmission is unstable or is transmitted under hypoendemic conditions, there are periods where limited foci of cases still occur and people become infected. These residual "hot spots" are likely reservoirs of the parasite population and so are fundamental to the seasonal spread and decline of malaria. ...
Waller Alison S AS Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, - - 2014
Bacteriophages have key roles in microbial communities, to a large extent shaping the taxonomic and functional composition of the microbiome, but data on the connections between phage diversity and the composition of communities are scarce. Using taxon-specific marker genes, we identified and monitored 20 viral taxa in 252 human gut ...
Herrera Paz Edwin Francisco EF Universidad Católica de Honduras, San Pedro, Sula, - - 2014
In this work, we investigated surname distribution in 4,348,021 Honduran electors with the aim of detecting population structure through the study of isonymy in three administrative levels: the whole nation, the 18 departments, and the 298 municipalities. For each administrative level, we studied the surname effective number, α, the total ...
Gertz Michael M Centre for Applied Pharmacokinetic Research Manchester Pharmacy School, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PT, Manchester, - - 2014
To investigate the effect of OATP1B1 genotype as a covariate on repaglinide pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interaction (DDIs) risk using a reduced physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Twenty nine mean plasma concentration-time profiles for SLCO1B1 c.521T>C were used to estimate hepatic uptake clearance (CLuptake) in different genotype groups applying a population approach ...
Kribs-Zaleta Christopher M CM Department of Mathematics, University of Texas at Arlington, Box 19408, Arlington, TX 76019-0408 USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The notion of evolutionary trade-off (one attribute increasing at the expense of another) is central to the evolution of traits, well-studied especially in life-history theory, where a framework first developed by Levins illustrates how internal (genetics) and external (fitness landscapes) forces interact to shape an organism's ongoing adaptation. This manuscript ...
Jiménez-Gómez José M JM INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR 1318, Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, Versailles, France; Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Carl-von-Linné-Weg 10, 50829 Cologne, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
We are in the age of data-driven biology. Not even a decade after the invention of high-throughput sequencing technologies, there are methods that accurately monitor DNA polymorphisms, transcription profiles, methylation states, transcription factor binding sites, chromatin compactness, nucleosome positions, dynamic histone marks, and so on. We are starting to generate ...
Filgueiras A A University of Western Ontario (UWO), Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Several studies have attempted to understand the dimensions of psychiatric symptoms in manic episodes, but only a few have been able to model the latent structure of mania in bipolar disorder patients using confirmatory factor analysis. The objective of the present study was to search for the best model of ...
Adams Mark M Evolutionary Biology Unit, South Australian Museum, North Terrace SA 5000, - - 2014
Several recent estimates of global biodiversity have concluded that the total number of species on Earth lies near the lower end of the wide range touted in previous decades. However, none of these recent estimates formally explore the real 'elephant in the room', namely, what proportion of species are taxonomically ...
Gavina Maica Krizna A MK Institute of Mathematical Sciences and Physics, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, 4031, - - 2014
Farmers frequently decide where to locate the colonies of their domesticated eusocial bees, especially given the following mutually exclusive scenarios: (i) there are limited nectar and pollen sources within the vicinity of the apiary that cause competition among foragers; and (ii) there are fewer pollinators compared to the number of ...
Fang Cheng-Ran CR School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, Hangzhou, 310023, China, - - 2014
Sorption is a fundamental process controlling the transformation, fate, degradation, and biological activity of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the environment. We investigated the kinetics, isotherms, and potential mechanisms for the sorption of two phthalic acid esters (PAEs), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP), on aged refuse. A two-compartment first-order ...
Brook Ah A School of Dentistry, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; Institute of Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, United - - 2014
Complex systems are present in such diverse areas as social systems, economies, ecosystems and biology and, therefore, are highly relevant to dental research, education and practice. A Complex Adaptive System in biological development is a dynamic process in which, from interacting components at a lower level, higher level phenomena and ...
Sjölander A A Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, - - 2014
A common goal of epidemiologic research is to study how two exposures interact in causing a binary outcome. Causal interaction is defined as the presence of subjects for which the causal effect of one exposure depends on the level of the other exposure. For binary exposures, it has previously been ...
Leaché Adam D AD Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, - - 2014
The multispecies coalescent has provided important progress for evolutionary inferences, including increasing the statistical rigor and objectivity of comparisons among competing species delimitation models. However, Bayesian species delimitation methods typically require brute force integration over gene trees via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), which introduces a large computation burden and ...
Chen Senlin S Department of Kinesiology, Iowa State University, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Physical inactivity needs to be strategically addressed from and throughout childhood and adolescence. The youth physical activity promotion model provides a comprehensive framework for understanding and promoting physical activity in youth. This study examined psychometric characteristics of the children's attraction to physical activity scale and the perceived physical competence scale, ...
Bornbaum Catherine C - - 2014
PURPOSE The construct validity of the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL; Hogikyan & Sethuraman, 1999) measure was evaluated in a sample of 109 individuals who have undergone total laryngectomy. METHOD A principal components factor analysis was performed on participant responses to the 10-question V-RQOL measure. RESULTS Factor analysis of the ...
Gan Zhuohui - - 2014
Mandatory deposit of raw microarray data files for public access, prior to study publication, provides significant opportunities to conduct new bioinformatics analyses within and across multiple datasets. Analysis of raw microarray data files (e.g. Affymetrix .cel files) can be time consuming, complex, and requires fundamental computational and bioinformatics skills. The ...
Lehotkay R R Psychiatric Unit of Mental Development (UPDM), Department of Mental Health and Psychiatry, University Hospitals of Geneva (HUG), University of Geneva, Geneva, - - 2014
In this study realised in collaboration with the department of psychology and parapsychology of Andhra University, validation of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) in Telugu, the official language of Andhra Pradesh, one of India's 28 states, was carried out. To assess the factor validity and reliability of this Telugu version, ...
Anderson Craig C School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Glasgow, 15 University Gardens, Glasgow G12 8QQ, - - 2014
Disease mapping is the field of spatial epidemiology interested in estimating the spatial pattern in disease risk across $n$ areal units. One aim is to identify units exhibiting elevated disease risks, so that public health interventions can be made. Bayesian hierarchical models with a spatially smooth conditional autoregressive prior are ...
Zheng Yi Y Center for Water Research, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, PR China; Beijing Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Utilization and Management, Beijing 100871, PR China. Electronic address: - - 2014
Urban stormwater runoff delivers a significant amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mostly of atmospheric origin, to receiving water bodies. The PAH pollution of urban stormwater runoff poses serious risk to aquatic life and human health, but has been overlooked by environmental modeling and management. This study proposed a dynamic ...
Weinig Cynthia C Department of Botany, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA; Program in Ecology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA; Department of Molecular Biology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Locally adapted genotypes have higher fitness in their native site in comparison to foreign genotypes. Recent studies have demonstrated both local adaptation to and genomic associations with a range of climate variables. For climate adaptation, the most common genomic pattern is conditional neutrality, as proven by weak across-environment correlations, frequent ...
Zhang Lei L Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Tulane University, New Orleans, - - 2014
Fast and accurate genotype imputation is necessary for facilitating gene mapping studies, especially with the ever increasing numbers of both common and rare variants generated by high throughput sequencing experiments. However, most of the existing imputation approaches suffer from either inaccurate results or heavy computational demand. In this study, aiming ...
Rowell A A Department for Health, University of Bath, , Bath, - - 2014
In the UK, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have been arguing that levels of illicit trade are high and increasing and will rise further if standardised packaging is implemented. This paper examines trends in and accuracy of media reporting of, and industry data on, illicit tobacco in the UK. Quantification of ...
Kaufman Shachar S Tel Aviv - - 2014
It is widely acknowledged that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex human disease fail to explain a large portion of heritability, primarily due to lack of statistical power - a problem which is exacerbated when seeking detection of interactions of multiple genomic loci. An untapped source of information that is ...
Yu Hwa-Lung HL Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1 Roosevelt Rd. Sec. 4, Taipei, 10617, - - 2014
The emergence and re-emergence of disease epidemics is a complex question that may be influenced by diverse factors, including the space-time dynamics of human populations, environmental conditions, and associated uncertainties. This study proposes a stochastic framework to integrate space-time dynamics in the form of a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model, together with ...
Straccia Claudio C Child Clinical Neuropsychology Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
The main aim of this study was to generate psychometric data for the French translation of the Developmental Behavior Checklist - Adult version (DBC-A). In addition, the score distributions were examined by using components of mean-based scores. The DBC-A was administered to 580 adults with intellectual disability recruited in the ...
Benitez-Borrego Sonia S Department of Methodology of Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to analyze the factor structure of the abbreviated Spanish version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF; WHOQOL Group in Psychol Med 28(3): 551-558, 1998b) questionnaire in a sample of individuals from several Spanish-speaking countries. The data were based on a sample ...
Norström Thor T 1Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University, Stockholm, - - 2014
While several studies suggest that cannabis users are at increased risk of interpersonal violence, it is not clear to what extent the association is causal. Our paper aims to assess the association between cannabis use and violence by using a method that diminishes the risk of confounding. Methods: We analysed ...
van der Wal Reine C RC 1Radboud University Nijmegen, The - - 2014
Previous research demonstrated that perceived relationship value is a strong predictor of forgiveness. Here we suggest that relationship value may not be sufficient. Given that executive control is an important facilitator of forgiveness, we predicted that relationship value and executive control should interact toward promoting forgiveness. Using different indicators of ...
Nuss Philip - - 2014
Because modern technology depends on reliable supplies of a wide variety of materials and because of increasing concern about those supplies, a comprehensive methodology was created to quantify the degree of criticality of the metals of the periodic table. In this paper, we apply this methodology to iron and several ...
Lester R J G RJ School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, - - 2014
SUMMARY Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the ...
Krenn Patricia Jasmin - - 2014
Despite evidence that environmental features are related to physical activity, the association between the built environment and bicycling for transportation remains a poorly investigated subject. The aim of the study was to improve our understanding of the environmental determinants of bicycling as a means of transportation in urban European settings ...
Burgess Stephen S Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of - - 2014
Sample size calculations are an important tool for planning epidemiological studies. Large sample sizes are often required in Mendelian randomization investigations. and results: Resources are provided for investigators to perform sample size and power calculations for Mendelian randomization with a binary outcome. We initially provide formulae for the continuous outcome ...
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