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Walls Ramona L RL The iPlant Collaborative, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of - - 2014
The study of biodiversity spans many disciplines and includes data pertaining to species distributions and abundances, genetic sequences, trait measurements, and ecological niches, complemented by information on collection and measurement protocols. A review of the current landscape of metadata standards and ontologies in biodiversity science suggests that existing standards such ...
Ahlgren Serina - - 2014
The issue of indirect land use changes (ILUC) caused by the promotion of transport biofuels has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In this paper, we reviewed the current literature on modelling work to estimate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) caused by ILUC of biofuels. We also reviewed the development ...
Moore Sean M SM Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, Maryland, - - 2014
Stemming from the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti, cholera transmission in Hispaniola continues with over 40,000 cases in 2013. The presence of an ongoing cholera outbreak in the region poses substantial risks to countries throughout the Americas, particularly in areas with poor infrastructure. Since September 9, 2013 nearly 200 cholera ...
Salamati Katayoun K Institute for Transportation Research and Education, N.C. State University NCSU Campus Box 8601, Raleigh, NC - - 2014
Unlike other types of controlled intersections, drivers do not always comply with the "yield to pedestrian" sign at the roundabouts. This paper aims to identify the contributing factors affecting the likelihood of driver yielding to pedestrians at two-lane roundabouts. It further models the likelihood of driver yielding based on these ...
Hwang Taesung - - 2014
Freight transportation activities are responsible for a large share of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Various freight transportation modes have significantly different impacts on air quality and environmental sustainability, and this highlights the need for a better understanding of interregional freight shipment mode choices. This ...
González-Suárez Manuela M Department of Conservation Biology, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC) Calle Américo Vespucio s/n, Sevilla, - - 2014
An important challenge for conservation today is to understand the endangerment process and identify any generalized patterns in how threats occur and aggregate across taxa. Here we use a global database describing main current external threats in mammals to evaluate the prevalence of distinct threatening processes, primarily of anthropogenic origin, ...
Barnea Oren O Biomathematics Unit, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, - - 2014
We analysed an 11-year dataset (1998-2009) of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) that was based on surveillance of ∽23% of Israel's population. We examined whether the level of synchrony of ILI epidemics in Israel's 12 largest cities is high enough to view Israel as a single epidemiological unit. Two methods were developed ...
Zahradnik Eva E Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA) , Bochum , - - 2014
Exposure to animal allergens is a major risk factor for sensitization and allergic diseases. Besides mites and cockroaches, the most important animal allergens are derived from mammals. Cat and dog allergies affect the general population; whereas, allergies to rodents or cattle is an occupational problem. Exposure to animal allergens is ...
Karakaş Metin O O TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey - - 2014
The study of phylogenetic relationships between 14 Colchicum taxa spread throughout Turkey was performed using a fluorescent-based amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Five primer pair combinations were used in AFLP reactions. The data set was analyzed statistically using the NTSYS 2.1 software, and the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods ...
Khosravi Yahya Y Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, - - 2014
Objective. Construction is a hazardous occupation due to the unique nature of activities involved and the repetitiveness of several field behaviors. The aim of this methodological and theoretical review is to explore the empirical factors influencing unsafe behaviors and accidents on construction sites. Methods. In this work, results and findings ...
Manore Carrie A CA Center for Computational Science, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, - - 2014
We have identified environmental and demographic variables, available in January, that predict the relative magnitude and spatial distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) for the following summer. The yearly magnitude and spatial distribution for WNV incidence in humans in the United States (US) have varied wildly in the past decade. ...
George Priya Doss C C Medical Biotechnology Division, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
Recent developments in high-throughput discovery and genotyping have generated a tremendous amount of information about the existence of single amino acid polymorphisms (SAPs). Detailed understanding of the SAPs that affect protein structure and function can provide us valuable insight into disease genotype-phenotype correlations. Functional variants of biological importance are likely ...
Lester Nigel P - - 2014
A simple population model was developed to evaluate the role of plastic and evolutionary life-history changes on sustainable exploitation rates. Plastic changes are embodied in density-dependent compensatory adjustments to somatic growth rate and larval/juvenile survival, which can compensate for the reductions in reproductive lifetime and mean population fecundity that accompany ...
Cohen Emily B - - 2014
The behavior of long-distance migrants during stopover is constrained by the need to quickly and safely replenish energetic reserves. Replenishing fuel stores at stopover sites requires adjusting to unfamiliar landscapes with little to no information about the distribution of resources. Despite their critical importance to the success of songbird migration, ...
Bielinski Suzette J SJ Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address: - - 2014
To report the design and implementation of the Right Drug, Right Dose, Right Time-Using Genomic Data to Individualize Treatment protocol that was developed to test the concept that prescribers can deliver genome-guided therapy at the point of care by using preemptive pharmacogenomics (PGx) data and clinical decision support (CDS) integrated ...
Nonacs Peter P Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, , Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2014
Many social Hymenoptera species have morphologically sterile worker castes. It is proposed that the evolutionary routes to this obligate sterility must pass through a 'monogamy window', because inclusive fitness favours individuals retaining their reproductive totipotency unless they can rear full siblings. Simulated evolution of sterility, however, finds that 'point of ...
Du Xindong X School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China. - - 2014
Scientific interpretation of the mechanism of land use change is important for government planning and management activities. This study analyzes the land use change in Jiangsu Province using three land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2008. The study results show that there was a significant change in land use. ...
Jeffery Caroline C Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Department of International Public Health, Monitoring and Evaluation Technical assistance and Research group, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK. - - 2014
Spatial data on cases are available either in point form (e.g. longitude/latitude), or aggregated by an administrative region (e.g. zip code or census tract). Statistical methods for spatial data may accommodate either form of data, however the spatial aggregation can affect their performance. Previous work has studied the effect of ...
Thomas Stephanie Margarete SM Department of Biogeography, University of Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 30, D-95447 Bayreuth, Germany. - - 2014
During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) has rapidly spread around the globe. Global shipment of goods contributes to its permanent introduction. Invaded regions are facing novel and serious public health concerns, especially regarding the transmission of formerly non-endemic arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ...
Grabowicz Przemyslaw A PA Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos, CSIC-UIB, Palma de Mallorca, Spain; Max Planck Institute for Software Systems, MPG, Saarbrücken, - - 2014
Daily interactions naturally define social circles. Individuals tend to be friends with the people they spend time with and they choose to spend time with their friends, inextricably entangling physical location and social relationships. As a result, it is possible to predict not only someone's location from their friends' locations ...
Shigemizu Daichi D Laboratory for Medical Science Mathematics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, - - 2014
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Various models using clinical and/or genetic risk factors have been developed for T2D risk prediction. However, analysis considering algorithms for genetic risk factor detection and regression methods for model construction in ...
Luo Zhenhua Z 1 College of Wildlife Resources, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, - - 2014
Human and livestock related disturbances of habitat selection by ungulates are topics of global concern, as they have profound impacts on ungulate survival, population density, fitness, and management; however, differences in ungulate habitat use under different human and livestock densities are not fully understood. Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa), an endemic ...
Huang Hui H Department of Management Science, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL - - 2014
We propose a novel two-step procedure to combine epidemiological data obtained from diverse sources with the aim to quantify risk factors affecting the probability that an individual develops certain disease such as cancer. In the first step we derive all possible unbiased estimating functions based on a group of cases ...
Hanna Emily E Macroevolution and Macroecology Group, Research School of Biology, Australian National University, , Building 116, Daley Road, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, - - 2014
Globally, elevated extinction risk in mammals is strongly associated with large body size. However, in regions where introduced predators exert strong top-down pressure on mammal populations, the selectivity of extinctions may be skewed towards species of intermediate body size, leading to a hump-shaped relationship between size and extinction risk. The ...
Biggs J J School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Queen's Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ, - - 2014
A key challenge for volcanological science and hazard management is that few of the world's volcanoes are effectively monitored. Satellite imagery covers volcanoes globally throughout their eruptive cycles, independent of ground-based monitoring, providing a multidecadal archive suitable for probabilistic analysis linking deformation with eruption. Here we show that, of the ...
Pierrakos George G Associate Professor of Department of Health Care and Social Units Administration, Faculty of Management and Economics, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Athens, - - 2014
Purpose: This article contains a comparative analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of population policies in European Union (EU) countries, using multivariate analysis. Data and Methods: To study these differences, it is primarily necessary to have the relevant data. The most recent database available was developed by the OECD in ...
Hullám Gábor G Department of Measurement and Information Systems, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, - - 2014
Rich dependency structures are often formed in genetic association studies between the phenotypic, clinical, and environmental descriptors. These descriptors may not be standardized, and may encompass various disease definitions and clinical endpoints which are only weakly influenced by various (e.g., genetic) factors. Such loosely defined complex intermediate clinical phenotypes are ...
Siegenthaler Caroline C Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Zurich, - - 2014
The inference of biological networks is an active research area in the field of systems biology. The number of network inference algorithms has grown tremendously in the last decade, underlining the importance of a fair assessment and comparison among these methods. Current assessments of the performance of an inference method ...
Liang Wenbin W National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University, G.P.O. Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845, - - 2014
Background. Observational studies are commonly conducted in health research. However, due to their lack of randomization, the estimated associations between the outcome and the exposure can be affected by unmeasured confounding factors. It is important to determine how likely a significant association observed between an outcome variable and a noncausally ...
Liang Wenbin W National Drug Research Institute, Health Science, Curtin University, G.P.O. Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845, - - 2014
Background. Known and unknown/unmeasured risk factors are the main sources of confounding effects in observational studies and can lead to false observations of elevated protective or hazardous effects. In this study, we investigate an alternative approach of analysis that is operated on field-specific knowledge rather than pure statistical assumptions. Method. ...
Allison Jeremy D JD Department of Entomology, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, LSU Campus, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of - - 2014
In North America, cerambycid beetles can have significant ecological and economic effects on forest ecosystems, and the rate of introduction and/or detection of exotic species is increasing. Detection and survey programs rely on semiochemical-baited intercept traps which are often ineffective for large woodborers like cerambycid beetles. This study examined the ...
Arnold Benjamin F BF Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of - - 2014
Efforts to monitor malaria transmission increasingly use cross-sectional surveys to estimate transmission intensity from seroprevalence data using malarial antibodies. To date, seroconversion rates estimated from cross-sectional surveys have not been compared to rates estimated in prospective cohorts. Our objective was to compare seroconversion rates estimated in a prospective cohort with ...
Kramer Lena L Department of General Practice/Family Medicine, University of Marburg, - - 2014
Introduction: The implementation of complex medical interventions in daily practice is often fraught with difficulties. According to the iterative phase model proposed by the British Medical Research Council (MRC), the development, implementation and evaluation of complex interventions should be theory-driven. A conceptual model that seems to be a promising framework ...
Prazeres da Costa Olivia O Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universität München, Munich, - - 2014
Many studies examine gene expression data that has been obtained under the influence of multiple factors, such as genetic background, environmental conditions, or exposure to diseases. The interplay of multiple factors may lead to effect modification and confounding. Higher order linear regression models can account for these effects. We present ...
Zhao Jiangchao J Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, - - 2014
Human-associated microbial communities play important roles in health and disease. Antibiotic administration is arguably one of the most important modifiable determinants of the composition of the human microbiota. However, quantitatively modeling antibiotic use to account for its impact on microbial community dynamics presents a challenge. We used antibiotic therapy of ...
Johnston Naira N NN Ecosystem Science and Management, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, - - 2014
Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the ...
Kadri Naveen K NK Centre for Quantitative genetics and Genomics, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, - - 2014
Population structure is known to cause false-positive detection in association studies. We compared the power, precision, and type-I error rates of various association models in analyses of a simulated dataset with structure at the population (admixture from two populations; P) and family (K) levels. We also compared type-I error rates ...
Lin Jing J Department of Construction Management, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, - - 2014
An innovative logic tree, Failure Expansion Tree (FET), is proposed in this paper, which improves on traditional Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). It describes a different thinking approach for risk factor identification and reliability risk assessment. By providing a more comprehensive and objective methodology, the rather subjective nature of FTA node ...
Cheng Xianfu X 0000-0002-4524-7555 School of Mechanical and Electronical Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013, - - 2014
The performance of the suspension system is one of the most important factors in the vehicle design. For the double wishbone suspension system, the conventional deterministic optimization does not consider any deviations of design parameters, so design sensitivity analysis and robust optimization design are proposed. In this study, the design ...
Yan Kestens K Université de Montréal Hospital Research Center, Centre de Recherche du CHUM (CRCHUM), Tour St-Antoine S02-340, 850 St-Denis, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 0A9 ; Social and Preventive Medicine Department, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada H3N - - 2014
Background. While increasing evidence links environments to health behavior, clinicians lack information about patients' physical activity levels and lifestyle environments. We present mobile health tools to collect and use spatio-behavioural lifestyle data for personalized physical activity plans in clinical settings. Methods. The Dyn@mo lifestyle intervention was developed at the Sainte-Justine ...
Cocuzza Marcello M Department of Urology, University of São Paulo (USP), Rua Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar 255, 7o. Andar, Sala 710F, 05403-000 São Paulo, SP, - - 2014
We systematically examined the evidence of declining sperm counts and the hypothesis that an increased exposure to environmental pollutants is responsible for such decline. Search engines, including PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and Cochrane library, were used to identify epidemiologic studies published from 1985 to 2013. We concluded that there is ...
Radford Ian J IJ Division of Science and Conservation, Department of Parks and Wildlife, Kununurra, Western Australia, - - 2014
We construct a state-and-transition model for mammals in tropical savannas in northern Australia to synthesize ecological knowledge and understand mammalian declines. We aimed to validate the existence of alternative mammal assemblage states similar to those in arid Australian grasslands, and to speculate on transition triggers. Based on the arid grassland ...
Kim Jiye J College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu, Suwon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 440-746, Korea. - - 2014
User authentication and key management are two important security issues in WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks). In WSNs, for some applications, the user needs to obtain real-time data directly from sensors and several user authentication schemes have been recently proposed for this case. We found that a two-factor mutual authentication scheme ...
Arghami Shirazeh S Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran. - - 2014
It is believed that improved safety culture/climate is a fundamental element to accident prevention. Therefore, development a scale to assess safety climate is a step towards accident control. The purpose of this study was to construct a Persian safety climate questionnaire. The study took place in Tehran and Esfahan oil ...
Abraham Gad G Medical Systems Biology, Department of Pathology and Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, - - 2014
Principal component analysis (PCA) is routinely used to analyze genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, for detecting population structure and potential outliers. However, the size of SNP datasets has increased immensely in recent years and PCA of large datasets has become a time consuming task. We have developed flashpca, a highly ...
Memon Aftab Hameed AH Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor, - - 2014
This study uncovered inhibiting factors to cost performance in large construction projects of Malaysia. Questionnaire survey was conducted among clients and consultants involved in large construction projects. In the questionnaire, a total of 35 inhibiting factors grouped in 7 categories were presented to the respondents for rating significant level of ...
Camacho Ana I AI Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, c/José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006, Madrid, - - 2014
This is the first published database of Bathynellacea. It includes all data of bathynellids (Crustacea, Bathynellacea) collected in the last 64 years (1949 to 2013) on the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island. The samples come from groundwater (caves, springs, wells and hyporrheic habitat associated rivers) from both sampling campaigns and ...
Yang Kun K Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Key Laboratory of Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention (Ministry of Health), Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Parasite Molecular Biology, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, - - 2014
China has made remarkable progress in schistosomiasis control over the past decades. Transmission control has replaced morbidity control as the country moves towards the goal of elimination and the current challenge is to find a sensitive measure capable of gauging transmission risk in low-prevalence areas. The study aims to develop ...
Grujić Jelena J 1] Complexity & Networks Group and Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, SW7 2AZ, London, UK [2] Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC), Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid, - - 2014
We have carried out a comparative analysis of data collected in three experiments on Prisoner's Dilemmas on lattices available in the literature. We focus on the different ways in which the behavior of human subjects can be interpreted, in order to empirically narrow down the possibilities for behavioral rules. Among ...
Thompson Debbe D - - 2014
Physical activity decreases from childhood through adulthood. Among youth, teenagers (teens) achieve the lowest levels of physical activity, and high school age youth are particularly at risk of inactivity. Effective methods are needed to increase youth physical activity in a way that can be maintained through adulthood. Because teens text ...
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