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Results 451 - 500 of 6109
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Waples Robin S RS National Marine Fisheries - - 2014
Use of single-sample genetic methods to estimate effective population size has skyrocketed in recent years. Although the underlying models assume discrete generations, they are widely applied to age-structured species. We simulated genetic data for 21 iteroparous animal and plant species to evaluate two untested hypotheses regarding performance of the single-sample ...
Parry Matthew M Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New - - 2014
The spread of Huanglongbing through citrus groves is used as a case study for modeling an emerging epidemic in the presence of a control. Specifically, the spread of the disease is modeled as a susceptible-exposed-infectious-detected-removed epidemic, where the exposure and infectious times are not observed, detection times are censored, removal ...
Shen Yun Y Technical University, 10587 Berlin, Germany - - 2014
We derive a family of risk-sensitive reinforcement learning methods for agents, who face sequential decision-making tasks in uncertain environments. By applying a utility function to the temporal difference (TD) error, nonlinear transformations are effectively applied not only to the received rewards but also to the true transition probabilities of the ...
Rey Juan J - - 2014
Previous research has suggested multiple factor structures for the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), with contradictory evidence arising across different studies on the validity of these models. In the present research, it was hypothesized that these inconsistent findings were due to the interaction of 3 main methodological factors: ambiguous response ...
Molina J Gabriel - - 2014
The 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has become a popular screening instrument with which to measure general psychological health in different settings. Previous studies into the factorial structure of the GHQ-12 have mainly supported multifactor solutions, and only a few recent works have shown that the GHQ-12 ...
Tsiliyannis Christos Aristeides CA ANION Environmental Ltd., 26 Lykoudi Str., Athens GR 11141, Greece. Electronic address: - - 2014
Planning of end-of-life (EoL) product take-back systems and sizing of dismantling and recycling centers, entails the EoL flow (EoLF) that originates from the product dynamic stock (DS). Several uncertain factors (economic, technological, health, social and environmental) render both the EoLF and the remaining stock uncertain. Early losses of products during ...
Mehta Sanjay R SR Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Rapid growth in the genetic sequencing of pathogens in recent years has led to the creation of large sequence databases. This aggregated sequence data can be very useful for tracking and predicting epidemics of infectious diseases. However, the balance between the potential public health benefit and the risk to personal ...
Khan Adnan - - 2014
Dengue, an infectious tropical disease, has recently emerged as one of the most important mosquitoborneviral diseases in the world. We perform a retrospective analysis of the 2011 dengue feverepidemic in Pakistan in order to assess the transmissibility of the disease. We obtain estimates of thebasic reproduction number R0 from epidemic ...
Ricotta Carlo C Department of Environmental Biology, University of Rome 'La Sapienza', Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy, - - 2014
Although recurrent fire events with very short return periods have the most dangerous effects on landscape degradation, only a few papers have explored the landscape ecological factors that drive the probability of fire recurrence. In this paper we apply a habitat suitability model for analyzing the spatial relationship between a ...
Yeung Jian Sheng JS Centre for Infrastructure Systems, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue N1-B1b-09, Singapore 639798, Singapore. Electronic address: - - 2014
In order to overcome urban space constraints, underground road systems are becoming popular options for cities. Existing literature suggests that accident rates in road tunnels are lower than those in open roads. However, there is a lack of understanding in how the road tunnel environment affects inter-vehicle interactions. In this ...
De Cao Elisabetta E Department of Economics, Econometrics and Finance, University of Groningen, Nettelbosje 2, 9747 AE Groningen, The - - 2014
The recent availability of survey data on social contact patterns has made possible important advances in the understanding of the social determinants of the spread of close-contact infections, and of the importance of long-lasting contacts for effective transmission to occur. Still, little is known about the relationship between two of ...
Huang Yen-Tsung YT Department of Epidemiology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, - - 2014
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and expression-/methylation-quantitative trait loci (eQTL/mQTL) studies constitute popular approaches for investigating the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with disease and expression/methylation, respectively. Here, we propose to integrate QTL studies to more powerfully test the SNP effect on disease in GWASs when they are conducted among ...
McLaren A A 1 SRUC, Hill & Mountain Research Centre, Kirkton Farm, Crianlarich, FK20 8RU, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to define different terminal sire flock environments, based on a range of environmental factors, and then investigate the presence of genotype by environment interactions (G×E) between the environments identified. Data from 79 different terminal sire flocks (40 Texel, 21 Charollais and 18 Suffolk), were ...
Kwon Yong-Kook YK Integrated Metabolomics Research Group, Westen Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-713, Republic of Korea; Graduate School of Analytical Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Republic of - - 2014
ICP-MS and (1)H NMR are commonly used to determine the geographical origin of food and crops. In this study, data from multielemental analysis performed by ICP-AES/ICP-MS and metabolomic data obtained from (1)H NMR were integrated to improve the reliability of determining the geographical origin of medicinal herbs. Astragalus membranaceus and ...
Wang Jixian J a Novartis Pharma , - - 2014
Abstract Determining causal effects in exposure-response relationships is an important but also a challenging task since confounding factors that affect both drug exposure and response often exist and lead to confounding biases in causal effect estimation. Randomized concentration control (RCC) trials are designed to eliminate or to reduce the confounding ...
Xu Chengcheng C a Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Urban ITS, Southeast University Jiangsu Province Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Urban Traffic Technologies Si Pai Lou #2 , Nanjing , China , 210096 Tel: +86-13801580045 Email: iamxcc1@gmail.com E-mail: wangwei@seu.edu.cn Email: - - 2014
ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to identify the traffic flow variables contributing to crash risks under different traffic states, and to develop a real-time crash risk model incorporating the varying crash mechanisms across different traffic states. Methods: The crash, traffic and geometric data were collected on the I-880N freeway in ...
Chen Liddy M LM a Global Research Operation, Biostatistics PAREXEL International 2520 Meridian Parkway, Durham , North Carolina 27713 , - - 2014
Abstract It has been widely recognized that interim analyses of accumulating data in a clinical trial can inflate type I error. Different methods, from group sequential boundaries to flexible alpha spending functions, have been developed to control the overall type I error at pre-specified level. These methods mainly apply to ...
Fu Bo B a Centre for Biostatistics, School of Medicine , The University of Manchester , Manchester , M13 9PL , - - 2014
Abstract In non-designed longitudinal observational studies, irregularly spaced measurements are commonly present over a period of follow-up time. We propose a smoothing dynamic model, based on the idea of varying coefficients, to analyze this highly unbalanced longitudinal data. The estimate of model parameters can be obtained by implementing a well-developed ...
Dupuy Céline C Unité Epidémiologie, Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l'alimentation, de l'environnement et du travail (Anses), 31 avenue Tony Garnier, F-69364 Lyon, Cedex 07, France; Unité d'épidémiologie animale, UR346, INRA, F-63122 St Genès Champanelle, - - 2014
Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease due to Cysticercus bovis. This study aimed to identify factors that could have an impact on the prevalence of cysticercosis and to use them to build standardized indicators of prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on data from 4,564,065 cattle (91.3% of ...
Briggs A D M AD Thames Valley Public Health England Centre, Chilton, - - 2014
SUMMARY Water supply-associated cryptosporidiosis outbreaks have decreased in England since the application of risk reduction measures to public water supplies. We hypothesized that smaller outbreaks were occurring which could be better detected by enhanced surveillance. Rolling analysis of detailed questionnaire data was applied prospectively in a population of 2·2 million ...
Kosciw Joseph G JG GLSEN, New York, NY, - - 2014
For lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, coming out (i.e., disclosure of LGBT identity to others) can be a key developmental milestone, one that is associated with better psychological well-being. However, this greater visibility may come with increased risk of peer victimization. Being out, therefore, may reflect resilience and ...
Lucena Eudes Euler de Souza EE Department of Dentistry, Rio Grande do Norte State University, Caicó/RN, Brazil; Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal/RN, - - 2014
Workers from various occupational groups stand out as being more susceptible to photodamage. Behaviors that can reduce the risk of onset of these disorders include the limitation or reduction of sun exposure, use of photoprotective clothing, and correct use of sunscreen. The present study aimed to verify the use of ...
Spinks Phillip Q PQ Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, La Kretz Center for California Conservation Science, Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
A goal of modern taxonomy is to develop classifications that reflect current phylogenetic relationships and are as stable as possible given the inherent uncertainties in much of the tree of life. Here, we provide an in-depth phylogenetic analysis, based on 14 nuclear loci comprising 10,305 base pairs of aligned sequence ...
McGuire Jimmy A JA Museum of Vertebrate Zoology and Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The tempo of species diversification in large clades can reveal fundamental evolutionary mechanisms that operate on large temporal and spatial scales [1-4]. Hummingbirds have radiated into a diverse assemblage of specialized nectarivores comprising 338 species, but their evolutionary history has not, until now, been comprehensively explored. We studied hummingbird diversification ...
Dijkstra Hildebrand H *University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen Department of Radiology, Groningen, The - - 2014
The aim of this study was to compare the summing method (A) with the complement method (B) for calculating the cumulative lifetime-attributable-risk (LARtot) of tumor incidence and mortality of multiple CT exposures. Method A defines LARtot as the summation of the risk of each separate exposure. Method B was defined ...
Major Jason T JT Department of - - 2014
Research on the relations of personality traits to intelligence has primarily been concerned with linear associations. Yet, there are no a priori reasons why linear relations should be expected over nonlinear ones, which represent a much larger set of all possible associations. Using 2 techniques, quadratic and generalized additive models, ...
Tomás Inés I Department of Methodology of Behavioral Sciences, University of Valencia, Valencia, - - 2014
Test of measurement invariance across translated versions of questionnaires is a critical prerequisite to comparing scores on the different versions. In this study, we used exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) as an alternative approach to evaluate the measurement invariance of the Spanish version of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ). The ...
Wang Zhiyong Z 1 Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago , Chicago, - - 2014
Abstract Sparse modeling, a feature selection method widely used in the machine-learning community, has been recently applied to identify associations in genetic studies including expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping. These genetic studies usually involve high dimensional data where the number of features is much larger than the number of ...
Sun Y Y Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, the - - 2014
Because of a ban on the use of beak trimming in some European countries, feather pecking is becoming a substantial problem in the layer industry, both from animal welfare and economic points of view. The feather condition score (FCS) as a measure of feather damage has been shown to be ...
Wu Joseph T JT Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of - - 2014
Seroprevalence survey is the most practical method for accurately estimating infection attack rate (IAR) in an epidemic such as influenza. These studies typically entail selecting an arbitrary titer threshold for seropositivity (e.g. microneutralization [MN] 1∶40) and assuming the probability of seropositivity given infection (infection-seropositivity probability, ISP) is 100% or similar ...
Kamaluddin M R MR Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Health Sciences, Forensic Sciences Programme, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. - - 2014
Murder is the most notorious crime that violates religious, social and cultural norms. Examining the types and number of different killing methods that used are pivotal in a murder case. However, the psychological traits underlying specific and multiple killing methods are still understudied. The present study attempts to fill this ...
Krause Neal N Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029, - - 2014
Research indicates that meaning in life is an important correlate of health and well-being. However, relatively little is known about the way a sense of meaning may change over time. The purpose of this study is to explore two ways of assessing change in meaning within a second-order confirmatory factor ...
Maciejewski Wes W Department of Mathematics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, - - 2014
Evolutionary graph theory is a well established framework for modelling the evolution of social behaviours in structured populations. An emerging consensus in this field is that graphs that exhibit heterogeneity in the number of connections between individuals are more conducive to the spread of cooperative behaviours. In this article we ...
Burns G Leonard - - 2014
To determine if ADHD/ODD symptoms are better represented by a bifactor model of disruptive behavior [general disruptive behavior factor along with specific inattention (IN), specific hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and specific oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) factors] than an ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD three-factor model. Mothers' and fathers' ratings of ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ...
Nevado B - - 2014
Decreasing costs of next-generation sequencing (NGS) experiments have made a wide range of genomic questions open for study with nonmodel organisms. However, experimental designs and analysis of NGS data from less well-known species are challenging because of the lack of genomic resources. In this work, we investigate the performance of ...
Lowitt Eric - - 2014
Climate change presents clear and pressing threats to business--materials and product shortages, price volatility, legal bans or consumer backlash, and damaged transportation infrastructure, to name just a few. But there are opportunities as well. Lowitt, a consultant in the sustainability field, has developed a series of detailed checklists that will ...
Shimadera Hikari - - 2014
Improvement of air quality models is required so that they can be utilized to design effective control strategies for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system was applied to the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan in winter 2010 and summer 2011. The model results were compared ...
Baghaei Purya - - 2014
The validity and psychometric properties of a new Persian adaptation of the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale were investigated. The scale was translated into Persian and administered to 160 undergraduate students (131 women, 29 men; M age = 23.4 yr., SD = 4.3). Rasch model analysis on the scale's original ...
Pate M L - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to assess how selected variables affect the confined-space hazard perceptions of farmers in Utah. A confined space was defined as "any space found in an agricultural workplace that was not designed or intended as a regular workstation, has limited or restricted means of entry ...
O Brien Thomas F TF Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women´s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2014
The microbes that infect us spread in global and local epidemics, and the resistance genes that block their treatment spread within and between them. All we can know about where they are to track and contain them comes from the only places that can see them, the world´s microbiology laboratories, ...
Sen Shibotosh S Medical Officer, West Bengal Public Health & Administrative Service, Directorate of Health Services, Government of West Bengal, Swasthya Bhavan, Kolkata, West Bengal, - - 2014
A descriptive study was designed based on secondary data of Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC). To estimate present status and trend of Malaria in KMC area; to determine time, place, person distribution of Malaria; to identify high-risk areas to mitigate future outbreak, and to recommend control strategies of Malaria. Three different ...
Manzotti Riccardo R Institute "GP Fabris", IULM University, via Carlo Bo, 8, 20143 Milano, - - 2014
The issue of integration in neural networks is intimately connected with that of consciousness. In this paper, integration as an effective level of physical organization is contrasted with a methodological integrative approach. Understanding how consciousness arises out of neural processes requires a model of integration in just causal physical terms. ...
Bohlmeijer Ernst T ET a Department of Psychology, Health & Technology , University of Twente , Enschede , The - - 2014
Objectives: As people grow older, identity development in later life becomes a more and more relevant topic. Studying processes that hinder or promote identity development in later life is of importance. Within this broader field, there has been a growing interest in narrative foreclosure. Our goal was to develop a ...
Devarajan Karthik K Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, U.S.A. - - 2014
Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) by the multiplicative updates algorithm is a powerful machine learning method for decomposing a high-dimensional nonnegative matrix V into two nonnegative matrices, W and H, where V~WH. It has been successfully applied in the analysis and interpretation of large-scale data arising in neuroscience, computational biology, and ...
Karacaören Burak B Department of Animal Science, Akdeniz University, Antalya 07059, - - 2014
Most of the associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genome wide association studies (GWAS) explain very little proportion of phenotypic variance in outbred populations. One reason is; large number of markers raises the problem of multiple hypothesis testing correction using conservative statistical tests in single marker models. Admixture mapping could ...
Floody Owen R OR Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania 17837. Electronic address: - - 2014
Studies using factor analysis have helped describe the organization of copulatory behavior in male rodents. However, the focus of these studies on a few traditional measures may have limited their results. To test this possibility, 74 sexually-experienced male hamsters were observed as they copulated with stimulus females. The measures collected ...
Sobas Frédéric F aHaemostasis Laboratory, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Lyon, France bDepartment of Statistics, Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens, Greece cCryopep, Montpellier, France *Frédéric Sobas and Panagiotis Tsiamyrtzis contributed equally to the writing of the - - 2014
An ideal medical biology internal quality control (IQC) plan should both monitor the laboratory methods efficiently and implement the relevant clinical-biological specifications. However, many laboratories continue to use the 12s quality control rule without considering the high risk of false rejection and without considering the relationship of analytical performance to ...
Taylor Graeme J GJ Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto and Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
Several studies have demonstrated associations between alexithymia, adult attachment styles, personality traits, and relationship adjustment. Only two studies, however, have explored associations between alexithymia and attachment representations. As part of a larger investigation of maternal and infant attachment, the current study explored this association in a sample of 97 pregnant ...
Degiorgio Michael - - 2014
As it becomes increasingly possible to obtain DNA sequences of orthologous genes from diverse setsof taxa, species trees are frequently being inferred from multilocus data. However, the behavior ofmany methods for performing this inference has remained largely unexplored. Some methods have been proven to be consistent given certain evolutionary models, ...
Booth Tom T University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, - - 2014
The current article compares the use of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) as an alternative to confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models in personality research. We compare model fit, factor distinctiveness, and criterion associations of factors derived from ESEM and CFA models. In Sample 1 (n = 336) participants completed the ...
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