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Kar Narayani Prasad - - 2014
Malaria continues to be a major health problem in more than 100 endemic countries located primarily in tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world. Malaria transmission is a dynamic process and involves many interlinked factors, from uncontrollable natural environmental conditions to man-made disturbances to nature. Almost half of the population ...
Daivadanam Meena - - 2014
Interventions having a strong theoretical basis are more efficacious, providing a strong argument for incorporating theory into intervention planning. The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual model to facilitate the planning of dietary intervention strategies at the household level in rural Kerala. Three focus group discussions and ...
Huang Xiaowei X School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Rd., 212013 Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, - - 2014
Yao-meat is a traditional Chinese salted meat. Total volatile basic nitrogen content (TVB-N), total viable bacterial count (TVC), and residual nitrite (RN) level are important indexes of freshness for Yao-meat. This paper attempted the feasibility to determine TVB-N content, TVC and RN level in Yao-meat by a colorimetric sensor array ...
Myers Nicholas D ND Department of Educational and Psychological Studies, University of Miami, Merrick Building 311E, Coral Gables, FL, 33124-2040, USA, - - 2014
The purpose of the present study was to explore the influence of the number of targets specified on the quality of exploratory factor analysis solutions with a complex underlying structure and incomplete substantive measurement theory. We extended previous research in this area by (a) exploring this phenomenon in situations in ...
Otárola Mauricio Fernández MF Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501-2060, San José, Costa - - 2014
• Premise of the study: Environmental heterogeneity is a strong selective force shaping adaptation and population dynamics across temporal and spatial scales. Natural and anthropogenic gradients influence the variation of environmental and biotic factors, which determine population demography and dynamics. Successional gradients are expected to influence demographic parameters, but the ...
Black Andrew J AJ School of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Processes that spread through local contact, including outbreaks of infectious diseases, are inherently noisy, and are frequently observed to be far noisier than predicted by standard stochastic models that assume homogeneous mixing. One way to reproduce the observed levels of noise is to introduce significant individual-level heterogeneity with respect to ...
Alemu Kassahun - - 2014
Malaria attacks are not evenly distributed in space in time. In highland areas with low endemicity, malaria transmission is highly variable and malaria acquisition risk for individuals is unevenly distributed even within a neighbourhood. Characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of malaria cases in high-altitude villages is necessary to prioritize the risk ...
Wang Dongmei - - 2014
This paper examines the individual factors that influence prevalence rates of canine heartworm in thecontiguous United States. A data set provided by the Companion Animal Parasite Council, whichcontains county-by-county results of over nine million heartworm tests conducted during 2011 and2012, is analyzed for predictive structure. The goal is to identify ...
Hill Harry H The Manchester Centre for Health Economics, Institute of Population Health, University of Manchester, Jean McFarlane Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, - - 2014
the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) is a widely used measure of fear of falling that assesses concerns with respect to falls over a range of physical and social activities. In the original validation study, the methods used (self-selection by participants) were likely to over-represent those with a higher educational level ...
Tyler Flockhart D T DT Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G2W1, - - 2014
Threats to migratory animals can occur at multiple periods of the annual cycle that are separated by thousands of kilometers and span international borders. Populations of the iconic monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America have declined over the last 21 years. Three hypotheses have been posed to explain ...
Kivelä Mikko M Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, School of Science, Aalto University, Helsinki, - - 2014
The recent application of graph-theory based network analysis to biogeography, community ecology and population genetics has created a need for user-friendly software which would allow a wider accessibility to and adaptation of these methods. EDENetworks aims to fill this void by providing an easy-to-use interface for the whole analysis pipeline ...
Hou Deyi D Geotechnical and Environmental Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
The sustainable remediation concept, aimed at maximizing the net environmental, social, and economic benefits in contaminated site remediation, is being increasingly recognized by industry, governments, and academia. However, there is limited understanding of actual sustainable behaviour being adopted and the determinants of such sustainable behaviour. The present study identified 27 ...
Rastegar S O SO Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, - - 2014
This study determined the optimal conditions required to attain maximum metal recovery in the bioleaching process of dewatered metal-plating sludge using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans). Adaptation of this strain was carried up to 1% (w/v) of the sample. Three factors including initial pH, initial Fe(3+) concentration and pulp density were ...
Servien Rémi R INRA, Université de Toulouse, UMR 1331 Toxalim, Research Centre in Food Toxicology, F-31027 Toulouse, France; INRA, UR 050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l'Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, F-11100 Narbonne, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
Following legislation, the assessment of the environmental risks of 30000-100000 chemical substances is required for their registration dossiers. However, their behavior in the environment and their transfer to environmental components such as water or atmosphere are studied for only a very small proportion of the chemical in laboratory tests or ...
Sheikhy Narany Tahoora T Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, - - 2014
In recent years, groundwater quality has become a global concern due to its effect on human life and natural ecosystems. To assess the groundwater quality in the Amol-Babol Plain, a total of 308 water samples were collected during wet and dry seasons in 2009. The samples were analysed for their ...
Flanders William Dana WD , Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA, - - 2014
Definitions and conceptualizations of confounding and selection bias have evolved over the past several decades. An important advance occurred with development of the concept of exchangeability. For example, if exchangeability holds, risks of disease in an unexposed group can be compared with risks in an exposed group to estimate causal ...
Stenzel Stephanie L SL Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, - - 2014
With limited funding and biological specimen availability, choosing an optimal sampling design to maximize power for detecting gene-by-environment (G-E) interactions is critical. Exposure-enriched sampling is often used to select subjects with rare exposures for genotyping to enhance power for tests of G-E effects. However, exposure misclassification (MC) combined with biased ...
Sahoo Anoop J AJ System Engineer, Infosys Technologies, Chennai, - - 2014
Now - a-days, some new classes of diseases have come into existences which are known as lifestyle diseases. The main reasons behind these diseases are changes in the lifestyle of people such as alcohol drinking, smoking, food habits etc. After going through the various lifestyle diseases, it has been found ...
Edelson Micah G MG Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel, Rehovot 7610001, - - 2014
Humans are strongly influenced by their environment, a dependence that can lead to errors in judgment. Although a rich literature describes how people are influenced by others, little is known regarding the factors that predict subsequent rectification of misleading influence. Using a mediation model in combination with brain imaging, we ...
Pearson John M JM Department of Neurobiology, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, and Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, - - 2014
Neuroeconomics applies models from economics and psychology to inform neurobiological studies of choice. This approach has revealed neural signatures of concepts like value, risk, and ambiguity, which are known to influence decision making. Such observations have led theorists to hypothesize a single, unified decision process that mediates choice behavior via ...
Duan Han-Chen HC Key Laboratory of Desert and Desertification, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 320, West Donggang Road, 730000, Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China, - - 2014
Aeolian desertification is one of the most serious environmental and socioeconomic problems in arid, semi-arid, and dry subhumid zones. Understanding desertification processes and causes is important to provide reasonable and effective control measures for preventing desertification. With satellite remote sensing images as data source to assess the temporal and spatial ...
Raulf M M Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Ruhr-University Bochum (IPA), Bochum, - - 2014
Exposure to high molecular weight sensitizers of biologic origin is an important risk factor for the development of asthma and rhinitis. Most of causal allergens have been defined based on their reactivity with IgE antibodies and in many cases the molecular structure and function of the allergens have been established. ...
Usher-Smith Juliet A JA The Primary Care Unit, University of Cambridge - - 2014
Melanoma incidence is rising rapidly worldwide among white skinned populations. Earlier diagnosis is the principal factor that can improve prognosis. Defining high-risk populations using risk prediction models may help targeted screening and early detection approaches. In this systematic review we searched Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for primary research ...
Vecino-Ortiz Andres I AI International Injury Research Unit, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2014
In settings with low seatbelt use prevalence, self-reported seatbelt use estimates often lack validity, and routine observational studies are scarce. In this paper, we aim to describe the prevalence of seatbelt use and associated factors in drivers and front-seat passengers across eight sites in four countries (Egypt, Mexico, Russia, Turkey) ...
Duforet-Frebourg Nicolas N Université Joseph Fourier, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire TIMC-IMAG, UMR 5525, Grenoble, - - 2014
There is a considerable impetus in population genomics to pinpoint loci involved in local adaptation. A powerful approach to find genomic regions subject to local adaptation is to genotype numerous molecular markers and look for outlier loci. One of the most common approaches for selection scans is based on statistics ...
Griffin Sarah A - - 2014
The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was developed as a measure of the maladaptive personality trait model included within Section III of the DSM-5. Although preliminary findings have suggested the PID-5 has a five-factor structure that overlaps considerably with the Five-Factor Model (FFM) at the higher order level, there has ...
Mikolajewski Amy J - - 2014
Prosociality is one construct included in the developmental propensity model proposed by Lahey and Waldman (2003, 2005) to explain the development of conduct problems in childhood and adolescence. Findings from previous literature on 2 facets of prosociality, dispositional sympathy and respect for rules, suggest that both may have genetic and ...
Morean Meghan E - - 2014
Self-reported impulsivity confers risk factor for substance abuse. However, the psychometric properties of many self-report impulsivity measures have been questioned, thereby undermining the interpretability of study findings using these measures. To better understand these measurement limitations and to suggest a path to assessing self-reported impulsivity with greater psychometric stability, we ...
Lattanzio Matthew S MS Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, 107 Irvine Hall, Athens, Ohio, 45701, - - 2014
Differences in individual behaviour affect social interactions and contribute to the spatial structuring of animal populations. However, disturbance should also affect spatial networks by altering habitat heterogeneity and resource availability. Variation in resource availability should perturb the frequency and nature of social and ecological interactions within a population by affecting ...
Ruiz Daniel D Grupo Investigación en Gestión Ambiental, Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia, Envigado, Antioquia, Colombia; International Research Institute for Climate and Society, and Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University, New York, City of New York; Subdirección de Vigilancia y Control en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, Colombia; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Bogotá, Bogotá, Colombia; Instituto Colombiano de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Compromiso con la Excelencia, Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia; School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool United Kingdom - - 2014
As part of the Integrated National Adaptation Pilot project and the Integrated Surveillance and Control System, the Colombian National Institutes of Health is working on the design and implementation of a Malaria Early Warning System framework, supported by seasonal climate forecasting capabilities, weather and environmental monitoring, and malaria statistical and ...
Samuel Douglas B DB Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA - - 2014
The Five-Factor Model Rating Form (FFMRF) provides a brief, one-page assessment of the Five-Factor Model. An important and unique aspect of the FFMRF is that it is the only brief measure that includes scales for the 30 facets proposed by Costa and McCrae. The current study builds on existing validity ...
Lagona Francesco F University of Roma Tre, Rome, Italy; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, - - 2014
Longitudinal data are often segmented by unobserved time-varying factors, which introduce latent heterogeneity at the observation level, in addition to heterogeneity across subjects. We account for this latent structure by a linear mixed hidden Markov model. It integrates subject-specific random effects and Markovian sequences of time-varying effects in the linear ...
Bodey Thomas W TW Centre for Ecology & Conservation, Penryn Campus, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Exploitation of the seas is currently unsustainable, with increasing demand for marine resources placing intense pressure on the Earth's largest ecosystem [1]. The scale of anthropogenic effects varies from local to entire ocean basins [1-3]. For example, discards of commercial capture fisheries can have both positive and negative impacts on ...
Hu Wenrong W Applied Statistics, Department of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, U.S.A.; Department of Biostatistics, CSL Behring, King of Prussia, PA, - - 2014
The case-cohort (CC) study design usually has been used for risk factor assessment in epidemiologic studies or disease prevention trials for rare diseases. The sample size/power calculation for a stratified CC (SCC) design has not been addressed before. This article derives such result based on a stratified test statistic. Simulation ...
Gross Alexander A University of Maine, United - - 2014
This paper explores a variety of methods for applying the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) automated topic modeling algorithm to the modeling of the structure and behavior of virtual organizations found within modern social media and social networking environments. As the field of Big Data reveals, an increase in the scale ...
Wu Zhenyu Z School of Computer Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
An increasing number of users interact, collaborate, and share information through social networks. Unprecedented growth in social networks is generating a significant amount of unstructured social data. From such data, distilling communities where users have common interests and tracking variations of users' interests over time are important research tracks in ...
Chen Xiao X Systems Engineering Institute, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, - - 2014
The haplotype assembly problem has been proven to be complex. Heuristic algorithms are the main methods that are used to solve the problem. These algorithms perform well when the SNP fragments are error-free, but they are less accurate when the error rate increases. The complex relationships caused by fragment errors ...
Rho Mi Jung MJ Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea Songeui Campus, 222, Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701, Republic of - - 2014
Despite the proliferation of telemedicine technology, telemedicine service acceptance has been slow in actual healthcare settings. The purpose of this research is to develop a theoretical model for explaining the predictive factors influencing physicians' willingness to use telemedicine technology to provide healthcare services. We developed the Telemedicine Service Acceptance model ...
Yoon Jeong-Mi JM Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Houston - Downtown, Houston, TX 77002, United States. - - 2014
Pierce's disease (PD) is a fatal disease of grapevines which results from an infection by the plant pathogen Xyllela fastidiosa. This bacterium grows in the xylem (water-conducting) vessels of the plant blocking movement of water. PD can kill vines in one year and poses a serious threat to both the ...
Dussy Franz F Forensische Chemie und Toxikologie, Institut fuer Rechtsmedizin, Basel, CH-4056, - - 2014
When investigating someone's hair a single lock is cut, washed, extracted and analysed. The forensic institutes in Switzerland agreed to retain a second lock for a possible reassessment. We were interested in the reproducibility of the concentrations of analytes in hair locks taken from different areas of the head of ...
Leesburg V L R VL USDA Agricultural Research Service, Miles City, MT 59301 Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, UFS, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa - - 2014
The goal of this research was to document the influence of Line 1 (L1) Hereford cattle, developed by the USDA at its research facility in Miles City, MT, on the U.S. Hereford population. The L1 Hereford population originated in 1934 and has been thereafter maintained as a closed herd at ...
Lee R J RJ Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Weymouth Laboratory, Barrack Road, The Nothe, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 7TF, UK E-mail: - - 2014
Estimation of the level of risk of faecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas is undertaken by monitoring faecal indicator bacteria in seawater samples under the United States programme and shellfish flesh samples under the European Union (EU) programme. Determining the relationship between the two approaches is important for assessing the ...
Vale Glyn A GA Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, United Kingdom; Southern African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South - - 2014
Male and female tsetse flies feed exclusively on vertebrate blood. While doing so they can transmit the diseases of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in domestic stock. Knowledge of the host-orientated behavior of tsetse is important in designing bait methods of sampling and controlling the flies, and in understanding ...
Lu Xuefei X Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, - - 2014
It is generally accepted that the high phenotypic diversity of mammals is a combined result of developmental constraint and ecological adaptation, although the influence of these endogenous and exogenous factors varies in different mammal groups. The rodent family Sciuridae represents an ideal candidate for examining phenotypic diversity in relation to ...
Robbins Philip P Department of Philosophy,University of Missouri,Columbia, MO - - 2014
Hibbing et al. contend that individual differences in political ideology can be substantially accounted for in terms of differences in a single psychological factor, namely, strength of negativity bias. We argue that, given the multidimensional structure of ideology, a better explanation of ideological variation will take into account both individual ...
Wilson David Sloan DS Evolution Institute and Departments of Biology and Anthropology,Binghamton University,Binghamton, NY - - 2014
Whenever selection operates at a given level of a multitier hierarchy, units at that level should become the object of functional analysis, and units at lower levels should be studied as proximate mechanisms. This intuition already exists for the study of genes in individuals, when individuals are the unit of ...
Shem-Tov Doron D The Balvatnic School of Computer Science, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, - - 2014
Recent technological improvements in the field of genetic data extraction give rise to the possibility of reconstructing the historical pedigrees of entire populations from the genotypes of individuals living today. Current methods are still not practical for real data scenarios as they have limited accuracy and assume unrealistic assumptions of ...
Parnell S - - 2014
Invasive plant pathogens are increasing with international trade and travel, with damaging environmental and economic consequences. Recent examples include tree diseases such as sudden oak death in the Western United States and ash dieback in Europe. To control an invading pathogen it is crucial that newly infected sites are quickly ...
Yoo Changwon C Department of Biostatistics, Florida International University, Miami, FL, - - 2014
In this article we introduce modern statistical machine learning and bioinformatics approaches that have been used in learning statistical relationships from big data in medicine and behavioral science that typically include clinical, genomic (and proteomic) and environmental variables. Every year, data collected from biomedical and behavioral science is getting larger ...
Qiu Juan - - 2014
This study aims to identify the landscape ecological determinants related to Oncomelania hupensis distribution, map the potential high risk of O. hupensis habitats at the microscale, and assess the effects of two environmental control strategies. Sampling was performed on 242 snail sites and 726 non-snail sites throughout Qianjiang City, Hubei ...
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