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van der Meel R R Department of Clinical Chemistry and Haematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The - - 2014
The majority, if not all, of human cell types secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs) into their environment, at least partly as a means of intercellular communication. These secreted vesicles can be detected in most bodily fluids including blood, urine, and saliva. The number of secreted vesicles and their composition is altered ...
Zini G G Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, - - 2014
The International Council for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH) is a not-for-profit organization aimed at improving global quality and harmonization of analytical methods, and achieving reliable and reproducible results in diagnostic hematology. ICSH co-ordinates Working Groups of experts to examine laboratory methods and instruments for hematological analyses, and co-operates with different ...
Lee Heeyoung H Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 140-742, - - 2014
In this study, we developed mathematical models to describe the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on natural cheeses. A five-strain mixture of Staph. aureus was inoculated onto 15 g of Brie and Camembert cheeses at 4 log CFU/g. The samples were then stored at 4, 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C for 2-60 d, ...
- - 2014
The ab initio cyclic cluster model is presented by Michael F. Peintinger and Thomas Bredow on page 839 (DOI: 10.1002/jcc.23550). The similarity between this Γ-point and molecular approaches allows in principle the application of sophisticated post Hartree-Fock methods to solid-state problems. The cover background shows the treatment of four-center integrals ...
Micheloni Alessio A a Interdepartmental Research Centre E. Piaggio, University of Pisa , Via Diotisalvi 2, 56126 Pisa , - - 2014
White fat cells have an important physiological role in maintaining triglyceride and free fatty acid levels due to their fundamental storage property, as well as determining insulin resistance. ADipocyte METabolism is a mathematical model that mimics the main metabolic pathways of human white fat cell, connecting inputs (composition of culture ...
Bryce Steven M SM Litron Laboratories, Rochester, New - - 2014
The specificity of in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity assays is low, as they yield a high incidence of positive results that are not observed in animal genotoxicity and carcinogenicity tests, that is, "misleading" or "irrelevant" positives. We set out to develop a rapid and effective follow-up testing strategy that would ...
Leonardi María Soledad MS Laboratorio de Parasitología, Centro Nacional Patagónico, CENPAT-CONICET, Boulevard Brown 2915, PC U9120ACV, Puerto Madryn, Argentina, - - 2014
Among Anoplura, the family Echinophthiriidae includes those species that infest mainly the pinnipeds. Working with large hosts implies methodological considerations as the time spent in the sampling, and the way in that the animal is restrained. Previous works on echinophthiriids combined a diverse array of analyses including field counts of ...
Friedrich Thomas T a  GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Department of Biophysics, Darmstadt, Germany; - - 2014
We present an application of the Giant LOop Binary LEsion (GLOBLE) model to the case of cell killing after irradiation with ultrasoft X rays. The model is based on the analysis of DSB clustering on the level of chromatin organization on a megabase pair length scale; it distinguishes between two ...
Sluka James P JP Biocomplexity Institute, Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, - - 2014
Currently there are no ontologies capable of describing both the spatial organization of groups of cells and the behaviors of those cells. The lack of a formalized method of describing the spatiality and intrinsic biological behaviors of cells makes it difficult to adequately describe cells, tissues and organs as spatial ...
Woodruff D Cary DC Museum of the Rockies, Bozeman, Montana; Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, - - 2014
Vertebral neural spine bifurcation has been historically treated as largely restrictive to sauropodomorph dinosaurs; wherein it is inferred to be an adaptation in response to the increasing weight from the horizontally extended cervical column. Because no extant terrestrial vertebrates have massive, horizontally extended necks, extant forms with large cranial masses ...
van den Broek Lenie J LJ Departments of Dermatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Research Institute MOVE, The - - 2014
Most cutaneous wounds heal with scar formation. Ideally, an inconspicuous normotrophic scar is formed, but an abnormal scar (hypertrophic scar or keloid) can also develop. A major challenge to scientists and physicians is to prevent adverse scar formation after severe trauma (e.g. burn injury) and understand why some individuals will ...
Wang Xiayi X Program in Applied Mathematical and Computational Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA - - 2014
We present a model of articular cartilage lesion formation to simulate the effects of cyclic loading. This model extends and modifies the reaction-diffusion-delay model by Graham et al., 2012 for the spread of a lesion formed though a single traumatic event. Our model represents 'implicitly' the effects of loading, meaning ...
Zhou Xiaobei X Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, - - 2014
A popular approach for comparing gene expression levels between (replicated) conditions of RNA sequencing data relies on counting reads that map to features of interest. Within such count-based methods, many flexible and advanced statistical approaches now exist and offer the ability to adjust for covariates (e.g. batch effects). Often, these ...
Vaughan T G TG Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Massey University, New - - 2014
Population structure significantly affects evolutionary dynamics. Such structure may be due to spatial segregation, but may also reflect any other gene-flow-limiting aspect of a model. In combination with the structured coalescent, this fact can be used to inform phylogenetic tree reconstruction, as well as to infer parameters such as migration ...
Saijoh Yukio Y Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, - - 2014
A central unresolved question in the molecular cascade that drives establishment of left-right (LR) asymmetry in vertebrates are the mechanisms deployed to relay information between the midline site of symmetry-breaking and the tissues which will execute a program of asymmetric morphogenesis (Figure 1). The cells located between these two distant ...
Mendenhall Chase D CD 1] Center for Conservation Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA [2] Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, - - 2014
The equilibrium theory of island biogeography is the basis for estimating extinction rates and a pillar of conservation science. The default strategy for conserving biodiversity is the designation of nature reserves, treated as islands in an inhospitable sea of human activity. Despite the profound influence of islands on conservation theory ...
Dewitt Stephen Joseph - - 2014
Films grown through the anodic oxidation of metal substrates are promising for applications ranging from solar cells to medical devices, but the underlying mechanisms of anodic growth are not fully understood. To provide better understanding of these mechanisms, we present a new one-dimensional model for the anodization of aluminum. In ...
Killeen Gerry F - - 2014
Eliminating malaria from highly endemic settings will require unprecedented levels of vector control. To suppress mosquito populations, vector control products targeting their blood hosts must attain high biological coverage of all available sources, rather than merely high demographic coverage of a targeted resource subset, such as humans while asleep indoors. ...
Karunasena H C P HC School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, 2-George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia. - - 2014
Fundamental understanding on microscopic physical changes of plant materials is vital to optimize product quality and processing techniques, particularly in food engineering. Although grid-based numerical modelling can assist in this regard, it becomes quite challenging to overcome the inherited complexities of these biological materials especially when such materials undergo critical ...
Jin Wei-Tao WT State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10093, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
The subtribe Orchidinae, distributed predominantly in Eastern Asia and the Mediterranean, presents some of the most intricate taxonomic problems in the family Orchidaceae with respect to generic delimitation. Based on three DNA markers (plastid matK, rbcL, and nuclear ITS), morphological characters, and a broad sampling of Orchidinae and selected Habenariinae ...
Rodríguez-Suárez Eva E Proteomics Platform, CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, ProteoRed-ISCIII, Derio, - - 2014
Extracellular vesicles have created great interest as possible source of biomarkers for different biological processes and diseases. Although the biological function of these vesicles is not fully understood, it is clear that they participate in the removal of unnecessary cellular material and act as carriers of various macromolecules and signals ...
Winters Nichelle I NI Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, - - 2014
Historically, analyses of mesothelial differentiation have focused on the heart where a highly migratory population of progenitors originating from a localized "extrinsic" source moves to and over the developing organ. This model long stood alone as the paradigm for generation of this cell type. Here, using chick/quail chimeric grafting and ...
Chen Wei W Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Microscopic disease (MSD) left after tumorectomy is a major cause of local recurrence in breast conserving therapy (BCT). However, the effect of microscopic disease and RT dose on tumor control probability (TCP) was seldom studied quantitatively. A simulation framework was therefore constructed to explore the relationship between tumor load, radiation ...
Eddie Sharon L SL Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, - - 2014
Preclinical toxicity testing in animal models is a cornerstone of the drug development process, yet it is often unable to predict adverse effects and tolerability issues in human subjects. Species-specific responses to investigational drugs have led researchers to utilize human tissues and cells to better estimate human toxicity. Unfortunately, human ...
Almquist Joachim J Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre, Chalmers Science Park, SE-412 88 Göteborg, Sweden; Systems and Synthetic Biology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden. Electronic address: - - 2014
An increasing number of industrial bioprocesses capitalize on living cells by using them as cell factories that convert sugars into chemicals. These processes range from the production of bulk chemicals in yeasts and bacteria to the synthesis of therapeutic proteins in mammalian cell lines. One of the tools in the ...
Wang Yao Y Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences and the Key Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Physics of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, - - 2014
The extracellular matrix is mimicked by a novel dendrimer-based hydrogel, which exhibits a highly interconnected porous network, enhanced mechanical stiffness, and a low swelling ratio. The hydrogel system supports the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells without any cytotoxic effects. This dendrimer-based hydrogel may serve as a model for ...
Svensson Carl-Magnus CM Applied Systems Biology, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans-Knöll-Institute (HKI), Jena, Germany; Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, - - 2014
Personalized medicine is a modern healthcare approach where information on each person's unique clinical constitution is exploited to realize early disease intervention based on more informed medical decisions. The application of diagnostic tools in combination with measurement evaluation that can be performed in a reliable and automated fashion plays a ...
Christie Christopher R CR Department of Chemical Engineering, VA Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA - - 2014
Context: A control engineering perspective provides a framework for representing important mechanistic details of the calcium (Ca) regulatory system efficiently. The resulting model facilitates the testing of hypotheses about mechanisms underlying the emergence of known calcium-related pathologies. Objective: The objective of this work is to develop a comprehensive computational model ...
Baycin Hizal Deniz - - 2014
Protein glycosylation serves critical roles in the cellular and biological processes of many organisms. Aberrant glycosylation has been associated with many illnesses such as hereditary and chronic diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and immunological disorders. Emerging mass spectrometry (MS) technologies that enable the high-throughput identification of glycoproteins and ...
Zuha Raja Muhammad RM Forensic Science Program, School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (National University of Malaysia), Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, - - 2014
Cosmopolitan scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) is one of the commonest forensic species recorded colonizing human corpse indoors and in concealed environment. The occurrence of this species in such environments provides a higher evidential value to assist estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) compared to other forensically important dipterans. ...
Guilak Farshid F Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery and Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, 375 MSRB, Box 3093, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
"Functional tissue engineering" is a subset of the field of tissue engineering that was proposed by the United States National Committee on Biomechanics over a decade ago in order to place more emphasis on the roles of biomechanics and mechanobiology in tissue repair and regeneration. Over the past decade, there ...
Liu Jun J State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Key Laboratory of Biodiversity Dynamics and Conservation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, PR - - 2014
Recent molecular surveys have advanced our understanding of the forces shaping the large-scale ecological distribution of microbes in Earth's extreme habitats, such as hot springs and acid mine drainage. However, few investigations have attempted dense spatial analyses of specific sites to resolve the local diversity of these extraordinary organisms and ...
Dallai Romano R Department of Life Sciences, University of Siena, Via Aldo Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The main characteristics of the sperm structure of Hexapoda are reported in the review. Data are dealing with the process of spermatogenesis, including the aberrant models giving rise to a reduced number of sperm cells. The sperm heteromorphism and the giant sperm exceeding the usual sperm size for length and ...
Mercier Sarah M SM Crucell Holland BV, Process Development Department, Archimedesweg 4-6, 2333 CN Leiden, The - - 2014
Increasingly elaborate and voluminous datasets are generated by the (bio)pharmaceutical industry and are a major challenge for application of PAT and QbD principles. Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) is required to delineate relevant process information from large multi-factorial and multi-collinear datasets. Here the key role of MVDA for industrial (bio)process data ...
Kliethermes Stephanie S Department of Medicine, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, 2160 S. First Ave, Maywood, IL 60153, - - 2014
Longitudinal growth patterns are routinely seen in medical studies where individual growth and population growth are followed up over a period of time. Many current methods for modeling growth presuppose a parametric relationship between the outcome and time (e.g., linear and quadratic); however, these relationships may not accurately capture growth ...
Tsang John S JS Trans-NIH Center for Human Immunology, Autoimmunity and Inflammation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA; Systems Genomics and Bioinformatics Unit, Laboratory of Systems Biology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
A major goal of systems biology is the development of models that accurately predict responses to perturbation. Constructing such models requires the collection of dense measurements of system states, yet transformation of data into predictive constructs remains a challenge. To begin to model human immunity, we analyzed immune parameters in ...
Law Simon S Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009, - - 2014
Mitochondria occupy a central role in the eukaryotic cell. In addition to being major sources of cellular energy, mitochondria are also involved in a diverse range of functions including signalling, the synthesis of many essential organic compounds and a role in programmed cell death. The active proliferation and differentiation of ...
Wilding Jennifer L JL Authors' Affiliation: Department of Oncology, Cancer and Immunogenetics Laboratory, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United - - 2014
Despite the millions of dollars spent on target validation and drug optimization in preclinical models, most therapies still fail in phase III clinical trials. Our current model systems, or the way we interpret data from them, clearly do not have sufficient clinical predictive power. Current opinion suggests that this is ...
Kurashima Akira A Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan, - - 2014
A new combination and a new species of onchobothriid tapeworm are described from triakid sharks. We found Platybothrium xiamenensis Wang & Yang, 2001 and Erudituncus musteli (Yamaguti, 1952) from Hemitriakis japanica (Müller & Henle). Based on the morphology of the hooks P. xiamenensis is transferred to the genus Erudituncus Healy, ...
Rojas-Aguirre Yareli Y Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 , Mexico City, - - 2014
Understanding the relationship between the chemical structure of bioactive compounds and Caco-2 permeability is of major importance in modern drug discovery. The purpose of this work was to characterize systematically the Caco-2 permeability landscape of a benchmark dataset of 100 molecules using a novel approach based on the emerging concept ...
Tan Chin Wee - - 2014
Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is involved in different stages of mammalian development and implicated in various cancers (e.g. colorectal cancer). Recent experimental and computational studies have revealed characteristics of the pathway, however a cell-specific spatial perspective is lacking. In this study, a novel 3D confocal quantitation protocol is developed to acquire spatial ...
White J J Centre for Sustainable Tropical Fisheries and Aquaculture & School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, 4811, - - 2014
Estimates of life-history parameters were made for shark-like batoids of conservation concern Rhynchobatus spp. (Rhynchobatus australiae, Rhynchobatus laevis and Rhynchobatus palpebratus) and Glaucostegus typus using vertebral ageing. The sigmoid growth functions, Gompertz and logistic, best described the growth of Rhynchobatus spp. and G. typus, providing the best statistical fit and ...
Jauhiainen Alexandra A Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, - - 2014
In metabolomics the goal is to identify and measure the concentrations of different metabolites (small molecules) in a cell or a biological system. The metabolites form an important layer in the complex metabolic network, and the interactions between different metabolites are often of interest. It is crucial to perform proper ...
Wawer Mathias J MJ 1Center for the Science of Therapeutics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA, - - 2014
Understanding the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of small molecules is important for developing probes and novel therapeutic agents in chemical biology and drug discovery. Increasingly, multiplexed small-molecule profiling assays allow simultaneous measurement of many biological response parameters for the same compound (e.g., expression levels for many genes or binding constants against ...
Singh Shantanu S 1Imaging Platform, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, - - 2014
Target-based high-throughput screening (HTS) has recently been critiqued for its relatively poor yield compared to phenotypic screening approaches. One type of phenotypic screening, image-based high-content screening (HCS), has been seen as particularly promising.In this article, we assess whether HCS is as high content as it can be. We analyze HCS ...
Rolland-Lagan Anne-Gaëlle AG University of - - 2014
The analysis of biological shapes has applications in many areas of biology, and tools exist to quantify organ shape and detect shape differences between species or among variants. However, such measurements do not provide any information about the mechanisms of shape generation. Quantitative data on growth patterns may provide insights ...
Bennetts Craig J CJ a Computational Biomodeling (CoBi) Core, Department of Biomedical Engineering , Lerner Research Institute , Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland , OH 44195 , - - 2014
Finite element analysis provides a means of describing cellular mechanics in tissue, which can be useful in understanding and predicting physiological and pathological changes. Many prior studies have been limited to simulations of models containing single cells, which may not accurately describe the influence of mechanical interactions between cells. It ...
Barigye Stephen J SJ Unit of Computer-Aided Molecular "Biosilico" Discovery and Bioinformatic Research (CAMD-BIR Unit), Faculty of Chemistry-Pharmacy, Universidad Central "Martha Abreu" de Las Villas, 54830 , Santa Clara, Villa Clara, Cuba, - - 2014
This report offers a chronological review of the most relevant applications of information theory in the codification of chemical structure information, through the so-called information indices. Basically, these are derived from the analysis of the statistical patterns of molecular structure representations, which include primitive global chemical formulae, chemical graphs, or ...
Zhou Chang-Fu - - 2014
Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis is an emblematic turtle from the Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning, China, a geological rock unit that is famous for yielding perfectly preserved skeletons of fossil vertebrates, including that of feathered dinosaurs. Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis was one of the first vertebrates described from this fauna, also known as the ...
Unterberger Michael J MJ Institute of Biomechanics, Graz University of Technology, Kronesgasse 5-I, 8010 , Graz, - - 2014
The protein actin is a part of the cytoskeleton and, therefore, responsible for the mechanical properties of the cells. Starting with the single molecule up to the final structure, actin creates a hierarchical structure of several levels exhibiting a remarkable behavior. The hierarchy spans several length scales and limitations in ...
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