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Beck L L CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France; C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
Study of prehistoric art is playing a major role in the knowledge of human evolution. Many scientific methods are involved in this investigation including chemical analysis of pigments present on artefacts or applied to cave walls. In the past decades, the characterization of coloured materials was carried on by taking ...
Roshan A A MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research Centre, Cambridge CB2 2XZ, - - 2014
Biological tools such as genetic lineage tracing, three-dimensional confocal microscopy and next-generation DNA sequencing are providing new ways to quantify the distribution of clones of normal and mutated cells. Understanding population-wide clone size distributions in vivo is complicated by multiple cell types within observed tissues, and overlapping birth and death ...
Cervera Javier J Departament de Termodinàmica, Universitat de València, Burjassot 46100, Spain - - 2014
The interplay between cooperativity and diversity is crucial for biological ensembles because single molecule experiments show a significant degree of heterogeneity and also for artificial nanostructures because of the high individual variability characteristic of nanoscale units. We study the cross-effects between cooperativity and diversity in model threshold ensembles composed of ...
Read Mark M Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5GW, UK - - 2014
We present a framework to assist the diagrammatic modelling of complex biological systems using the unified modelling language (UML). The framework comprises three levels of modelling, ranging in scope from the dynamics of individual model entities to system-level emergent properties. By way of an immunological case study of the mouse ...
Velazquez Miguel A MA a Centre for Biological Sciences , University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital , Southampton , United - - 2014
Ovarian transvaginal ultrasonography (OTU) has been used world-wide for commercial ovum pick-up programs for in vitro embryo production in elite herds, providing an excellent model for the elucidation of factors controlling bovine oocyte developmental competence. Noninvasive sampling and treatment of ovarian structures is easily accomplished with bovine OTU techniques providing ...
Dauphas Nicolas N Origins Laboratory, Department of the Geophysical Sciences and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA - - 2014
Geochemical evidence suggests that the material accreted by the Earth did not change in nature during Earth's accretion, presumably because the inner protoplanetary disc had uniform isotopic composition similar to enstatite chondrites, aubrites and ungrouped achondrite NWA 5363/5400. Enstatite meteorites and the Earth were derived from the same nebular reservoir ...
Day James M D JM Scripps Isotope Geochemistry Laboratory, Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093-0244, USA - - 2014
The Moon is depleted in volatile elements relative to the Earth and Mars. Low abundances of volatile elements, fractionated stable isotope ratios of S, Cl, K and Zn, high μ ((238)U/(204)Pb) and long-term Rb/Sr depletion are distinguishing features of the Moon, relative to the Earth. These geochemical characteristics indicate both ...
Hall Benjamin A BA Microsoft Research, 21 Station Road, Cambridge CB1 2FB, UK - - 2014
Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development is a paradigm system for understanding cell differentiation in the process of organogenesis. Through temporal and spatial controls, the fate pattern of six cells is determined by the competition of the LET-23 and the Notch signalling pathways. Modelling cell fate determination in vulval development using state-based ...
Mashanov Gregory I GI Division of Physical Biochemistry, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK - - 2014
The analysis of single molecule imaging experiments is complicated by the stochastic nature of single molecule events, by instrument noise and by the limited information which can be gathered about any individual molecule observed. Consequently, it is important to cross check experimental results using a model simulating single molecule dynamics ...
Colin R R http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9051-8003 The Rowland Institute at Harvard, 100 Edwin H. Land Boulevard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA - - 2014
Swimming bacteria explore their environment by performing a random walk, which is biased in response to, for example, chemical stimuli, resulting in a collective drift of bacterial populations towards 'a better life'. This phenomenon, called chemotaxis, is one of the best known forms of collective behaviour in bacteria, crucial for ...
Shinnawi Rami R The Sohnis Research Laboratory for Cardiac Electrophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, POB 9649, Haifa, 31096, - - 2014
The study of inherited cardiac disorders is hampered by the lack of suitable in vitro human cardiac disease models and relevant functional assays. A potential solution to this cell-sourcing challenge may be the recently described human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology. Pioneering studies were successful in establishing patient-specific, hiPSC-derived ...
Ding Jie J Department of Urology, Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Yangpu, Shanghai 200092, P.R. - - 2014
Experimental animal models are crucial in the study of biological behavior and pathological development of cancer, and evaluation of the efficacy of novel therapeutic or preventive agents. A variety of animal models that recapitulate human urothelial cell carcinoma have thus far been established and described, while models generated by novel ...
Campos Mauro - - 2014
Bare bones particle swarm optimization (BBPSO) is a swarm algorithm that has shown potential for solving single-objective unconstrained optimization problems over continuous search spaces. However, it suffers of the premature convergence problem that means it may get trapped into a local optimum when solving multimodal problems. In order to address ...
Heath Andrew C AC Department of Psychiatry 8134, Washington University School of Medicine, Midwest Alcoholism Research Center, 4560 Clayton Avenue, Suite 1000, St Louis, MO, 63110, USA, - - 2014
The authors review past work on modeling human mate selection, and suggest, using illustrations from existing literature on the impact of alcoholism on relationship formation and dissolution and reproduction, that the challenges of adequately characterizing human mate selection have not yet been overcome. Some paths forwards are suggested.
Gill Pamela G PG School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queens Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ, - - 2014
The origin and radiation of mammals are key events in the history of life, with fossils placing the origin at 220 million years ago, in the Late Triassic period. The earliest mammals, representing the first 50 million years of their evolution and including the most basal taxa, are widely considered ...
Goswami A A Research Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK - - 2014
Phenotypic integration is a pervasive characteristic of organisms. Numerous analyses have demonstrated that patterns of phenotypic integration are conserved across large clades, but that significant variation also exists. For example, heterochronic shifts related to different mammalian reproductive strategies are reflected in postcranial skeletal integration and in coordination of bone ossification. ...
Zandt Bas-Jan BJ MIRA - Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500, AE, Enschede, The Netherlands, - - 2014
Neural mass models are successful in modeling brain rhythms as observed in macroscopic measurements such as the electroencephalogram (EEG). While the synaptic current is explicitly modeled in current models, the single cell electrophysiology is not taken into account. To allow for investigations of the effects of channel pathologies, channel blockers ...
Klinke David J DJ 2nd Department of Chemical Engineering; Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology; and Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, 26506, - - 2014
Inductive inference plays a central role in the study of biological systems where one aims to increase their understanding of the system by reasoning backwards from uncertain observations to identify causal relationships among components of the system. These causal relationships are postulated from prior knowledge as a hypothesis or simply ...
Bonomi Massimiliano M University of California, San Francisco, United States; - - 2014
The use of in vivo Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) data to determine the molecular architecture of a protein complex in living cells is challenging due to data sparseness, sample heterogeneity, signal contributions from multiple donors and acceptors, unequal fluorophore brightness, photobleaching, flexibility of the linker connecting the fluorophore to ...
Millot Claude - - 2014
Quantum chemical calculations are used to derive distributed polarizability models sufficiently accurate and compact to be used in classical Molecular Dynamics simulations of imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids. Two distributed polarizability models are fitted to reproduce the induction energy of three imidazolium cations (1,3-dimethyl-, 1-ethyl-3-methyl- and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) and four anions ...
Seifikar Masoud M Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork, Ireland Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork, - - 2014
We present a self-consistent Green's function (SCGF) approach for the Anderson many-impurity model to calculate the band dispersion and density of states near the conduction band edge in GaNxAs1-x dilute nitride alloys. Two different models of the N states have been studied to investigate the band structure of these materials: ...
Rasmi Sarah - - 2014
Using a multidomain and bidimensional approach, the present study applied and extended the acculturation gap-distress model with an immigrant Arab Canadian sample. Consistent with this model, immigrant Arab emerging adults (n = 113) perceived acculturation gaps between themselves and their parents with respect to their heritage and settlement culture orientation ...
Socha Aaron M AM Deconstruction Division, Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA 94608;Center for Sustainable Energy andDepartment of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Bronx Community College, City University of New York, Bronx, NY - - 2014
Ionic liquids (ILs), solvents composed entirely of paired ions, have been used in a variety of process chemistry and renewable energy applications. Imidazolium-based ILs effectively dissolve biomass and represent a remarkable platform for biomass pretreatment. Although efficient, imidazolium cations are expensive and thus limited in their large-scale industrial deployment. To ...
Ventosa Antonio A Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sevilla, 41012, Sevilla, Spain, - - 2014
Multi-pond salterns constitute an excellent model for the study of the microbial diversity and ecology of hypersaline environments, showing a wide range of salt concentrations, from seawater to salt saturation. Accumulated studies on the Santa Pola (Alicante, Spain) multi-pond solar saltern during the last 35 years include culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular ...
Smith Martin R MR Department of Earth Sciences, Downing Site, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EQ, - - 2014
The Palaeozoic form-taxon Lobopodia encompasses a diverse range of soft-bodied 'legged worms' known from exceptional fossil deposits. Although lobopodians occupy a deep phylogenetic position within Panarthropoda, a shortage of derived characters obscures their evolutionary relationships with extant phyla (Onychophora, Tardigrada and Euarthropoda). Here we describe a complex feature in the ...
Nikitin Maxim P MP 1] Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Natural Science Centre, 38 Vavilov St, Moscow 119991, Russia [2] Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 16/10 Miklukho-Maklaya St, Moscow 117997, Russia [3] Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutskii per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700, - - 2014
Nanoparticles with biocomputing capabilities could potentially be used to create sophisticated robotic devices with a variety of biomedical applications, including intelligent sensors and theranostic agents. DNA/RNA-based computing techniques have already been developed that can offer a complete set of Boolean logic functions and have been used, for example, to analyse ...
Ong Yongzhi Y Department of Ecoinformatics, Biometrics and Forest Growth, University of Göttingen, Büsgenweg 4, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany - - 2014
Functional-structural plant models (FSPMs) simulate biological processes at different spatial scales. Methods exist for multiscale data representation and modification, but the advantages of using multiple scales in the dynamic aspects of FSPMs remain unclear. Results from multiscale models in various other areas of science that share fundamental modelling issues with ...
Bühler Dominik D Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research, University of Munich Medical Center, Max-Lebsche Platz 30, 81377, Munich, - - 2014
Genetically engineered mice are a valuable tool to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therefore, several murine SAH models were developed during the last 15 years. Among those models, the perforation of the Circle of Willis by an endovascular filament or "filament model" ...
Jyske Tuula T Vantaa Research Unit, Finnish Forest Research Institute, PO Box 18, FI-01301, Vantaa, - - 2014
The hydraulic properties of xylem and phloem differ but the magnitude and functional consequences of the differences are not well understood. Phloem and xylem functional areas, hydraulic conduit diameters and conduit frequency along the stems of Picea abies trees were measured and expressed as allometric functions of stem diameter and ...
Rix Michael G MG Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Australia; Department of Terrestrial Zoology, Western Australian Museum, Locked Bag 49, Welshpool DC, Western Australia, 6986, - - 2014
The south-western land division of Western Australia (SWWA), bordering the temperate Southern and Indian Oceans, is the only global biodiversity hotspot recognised in Australia. Renowned for its extraordinary diversity of endemic plants, and for some of the largest and most botanically significant temperate heathlands and woodlands on Earth, SWWA has ...
Diambra Luis - - 2014
It is hard to bridge the gap between mathematical formulations and biological implementations of Turing patterns, and yet this is necessary for both understanding and engineering these networks with synthetic biology approaches. Here we model a reaction-diffusion system with two morphogens in a monostable regime, inspired by components that we ...
Liu Jin J Wayne State University, Biological Sciences Department, Detroit, MI, 48202, - - 2014
Variations in body pigmentation, encompassing both the range of specific colors as well as the spatial arrangement of those colors, are among the most noticeable and lineage-specific insect features. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for generating this diversity are still limited to several model species that are primarily holometabolous insects. ...
Graham Michelle T MT Division of Pediatric Immunology, Allergy, and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 1291 Welch Rd, Grant S303, Stanford, CA 94305. Electronic address: - - 2014
The relevance of using mouse models to represent human allergic pathologies is still unclear. Recent studies suggest the limitations of using models as a standard for assessing immune response and tolerance mechanisms, as mouse models often do not sufficiently depict human atopic conditions. Allergy is a combination of aberrant responses ...
Zhang Jing - - 2014
With crowdsourcing systems, it is easy to collect multiple noisy labels for the same object for supervised learning. This dynamic annotation procedure fits the active learning perspective and accompanies the imbalanced multiple noisy labeling problem. This paper proposes a novel active learning framework with multiple imperfect annotators involved in crowdsourcing ...
Dale Holly H Department of Physics and Astronomy hjdale@ucalgary.ca - - 2014
Bark patterns are a visually important characteristic of trees, typically attributed to fractures occurring during secondary growth of the trunk and branches. An understanding of bark pattern formation has been hampered by insufficient information regarding the biomechanical properties of bark and the corresponding difficulties in faithfully modelling bark fractures using ...
Kagan Leonid L Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey - - 2014
Subcutaneous (SC) injection is an important route of administration for therapeutic proteins that provides several advantages over other modes of parenteral delivery. Despite extensive clinical use, the exact mechanism underlying SC absorption of proteins is not completely understood and the accuracy of prediction of absorption of biotherapeutics in humans remains ...
Booth R R Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, SMBB 3100, 36 S. Wasatch Dr., Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA, - - 2014
This paper presents the permeability analysis of neuroactive drugs and correlation with in vivo brain/plasma ratios in a dynamic microfluidic blood-brain barrier (BBB) model. Permeability of seven neuroactive drugs (Ethosuximide, Gabapentin, Sertraline, Sunitinib, Traxoprodil, Varenicline, PF-304014) and trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) were quantified in both dynamic (microfluidic) and static (transwell) ...
Campbell Ian M IM Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, - - 2014
Set-based network similarity metrics are increasingly utilized to productively analyze genome-wide data. Conventional approaches, such as mean shortest path and clique-based metrics, have been useful but are not well suited to all applications. Computational scientists in other disciplines have developed communicability as a complementary metric. Network communicability considers all paths ...
Jayasinghe Nadeera N University of Toronto, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Toronto, ON, - - 2014
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed as an alternative energy resource for the conversion of organic compounds to electricity. In an MFC, microorganisms such as Geobacter sulfurreducens form an anode-associated biofilm that can completely oxidize organic matter (electron donor) to carbon dioxide with direct electron transfer to the anode ...
Saba Rami - - 2014
Objectives A finite element model of the human coiled cochlea was used to model the voltage distribution due to stimulation by the individual electrodes of a cochlear implant. The scalar position of the electrode array was also varied in order to investigate its effect on the voltage distribution. Multi-electrode current ...
Zhu Fan F 1 Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, - - 2014
Functional relationship networks, which summarize the probability of co-functionality between any two genes in the genome, could complement the reductionist focus of modern biology for understanding diverse biological processes in an organism. One major limitation of the current networks is that they are static while one might expect functional relationships ...
Zhang Qiang Q Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, - - 2014
Background: Increasingly, there is a move toward using in vitro toxicity testing for assessment of human health risk by chemicals. As with in vivo toxicity testing, an important question for in vitro results is whether there are thresholds for adverse cellular responses. Empirical evaluations may show consistency with thresholds, but ...
Nantasenamat Chanin C Center of Data Mining and Biomedical Informatics, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10700, Thailand; Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10700, - - 2014
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has immense utility in biomedical imaging owing to its autofluorescent nature. In efforts to broaden the spectral diversity of GFP, there have been several reports of engineered mutants via rational design and random mutagenesis. Understanding the origins of spectral properties of GFP could be achieved by ...
Jack J - - 2014
A new standard for medicine is emerging that aims to improve individual drug responses through studying associations with genetic variations. This field, pharmacogenomics, is undergoing a rapid expansion due to a variety of technological advancements that are enabling higher throughput with reductions in cost. Here we review the advantages, limitations, ...
Paulsen Jonas J Institute for Cancer Genetics and Informatics, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, N-0424 Oslo, Norway - - 2014
Identification of three-dimensional (3D) interactions between regulatory elements across the genome is crucial to unravel the complex regulatory machinery that orchestrates proliferation and differentiation of cells. ChIA-PET is a novel method to identify such interactions, where physical contacts between regions bound by a specific protein are quantified using next-generation sequencing. ...
Wang Ying - - 2014
Recombination plays an important role in the maintenance of genetic diversity in many types of organisms, especially diploid eukaryotes. Recombination can be studied and used to map diseases. However, recombination adds a great deal of complexity to the genetic information. This renders estimation of evolutionary parameters more difficult. After the ...
Dumas Guillaume G http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2253-1844 The Human Brain and Behavior Laboratory, Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431; and dumas@ccs.fau.edu - - 2014
Social neuroscience has called for new experimental paradigms aimed toward real-time interactions. A distinctive feature of interactions is mutual information exchange: One member of a pair changes in response to the other while simultaneously producing actions that alter the other. Combining mathematical and neurophysiological methods, we introduce a paradigm called ...
Ko Yi-An YA Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, - - 2014
While there has been extensive research developing gene-environment interaction (GEI) methods in case-control studies, little attention has been given to sparse and efficient modeling of GEI in longitudinal studies. In a two-way table for GEI with rows and columns as categorical variables, a conventional saturated interaction model involves estimation of ...
Vasilyev Dmitry M - - 2014
We recently published in BMC Systems Biology an approach for calculating the perturbation amplitudes of causal network models by integrating gene differential expression data. This approach relies on the process of score aggregation, which combines the perturbations at the level of the individual network nodes into a global measure that ...
Zhang Jian J School of Computer Science and Information Technology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 1300117, P.R. - - 2014
The extracellular matrix proteins (ECMs) are widely found in the tissues of multicellular organisms. They consist of various secreted proteins, mainly polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The ECMs involve the exchange of materials and information between resident cells and the external environment. Accurate identification of ECMs is a significant step in understanding ...
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