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Bowness Ruth R School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, Fife KY16 9AJ, UK - - 2014
The relationship between cfu and Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) time to positivity (TTP) is uncertain. We attempted to understand this relationship and create a mathematical model to relate these two methods of determining mycobacterial load. Sequential bacteriological load data from clinical trials determined by MGIT and cfu were collected ...
Burger Divan Aristo DA a Department of Mathematical Statistics and Actuarial Science , University of the Free State , Bloemfontein , South - - 2014
ABSTRACT Trials of the early bactericidal activity (EBA) of tuberculosis (TB) treatments assess the decline, during the first few days to weeks of treatment, in colony forming unit (CFU) count of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum of patients with smear-microscopy-positive pulmonary TB. Profiles over time of CFU data have conventionally ...
Yang Hyun Mo HM UNICAMP - IMECC - DMA, Praça Sérgio Buarque de Holanda, 651, CEP: 13083-859, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
The basic reproduction number is a key parameter in mathematical modelling of transmissible diseases. From the stability analysis of the disease free equilibrium, by applying Routh-Hurwitz criteria, a threshold is obtained, which is called the basic reproduction number. However, the application of spectral radius theory on the next generation matrix ...
Dallon J C JC Department of Mathematics, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602-6539, USA - - 2014
Two mathematical models for fibroblast-collagen interaction are proposed which reproduce qualitative features of fibroblast-populated collagen lattice contraction. Both models are force based and model the cells as individual entities with discrete attachment sites; however, the collagen lattice is modelled differently in each model. In the collagen lattice model, the lattice ...
Roy Kunal K Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN, Great Britain, United Kingdom; Drug Theoretics and Cheminformatics Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
Water solubility of ionic liquids (ILs) allows their dispersion into aquatic systems and raises concerns on their pollutant potential. Again, lipophilicity can contribute to the toxicity of ILs due to increased ability of the compounds to cross lipoidal bio-membranes. In the present work, we have performed statistical model development for ...
Bras A L AL Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Production Animal Health, Calgary, Alberta, - - 2014
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health concern. Surveillance programmes present invaluable epidemiological information regarding its temporal evolution, particularly for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), the most common form of TB and the one that presents the greatest challenge in public health. To characterise, model and predict monthly incidence rates for PTB ...
Sugarman J J Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit and McGill International Tuberculosis Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, - - 2014
Tuberculosis (TB) incidence was 234 per 100 000 in Nunavut, Canada, in 2012. Until recently, some individuals seen in local clinics for presumed TB required costly air evacuation to Southern Canada (Ottawa) for investigation if they were unable to produce sputum spontaneously. To estimate the cost per individual evaluated for TB, ...
Langley Ivor I Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, - - 2014
Several promising new diagnostic methods and algorithms for tuberculosis have been endorsed by WHO. National tuberculosis programmes now face the decision on which methods to implement and where to place them in the diagnostic algorithm. We used an integrated model to assess the effects of different algorithms of Xpert MTB/RIF ...
Anderson Dp D a Landcare Research , Wildlife Ecology and Management , PO Box 69040, Lincoln 7640 , New - - 2014
Abstract Disease surveillance for the management of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in New Zealand has focussed, to a large extent, on the development of tools specific for monitoring Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife. Diagnostic techniques have been modified progressively over 30 years of surveillance of TB in wildlife, from initial characterisation ...
van Dam Jesse Cj - - 2014
Different methods have been developed to infer regulatory networks from heterogeneous omics datasets and to construct co-expression networks. Each algorithm produces different networks and efforts have been devoted to automatically integrate them into consensus sets. However each separate set has an intrinsic value that is diluted and partly lost when ...
Rodrigues Paula P Department of Mathematics and Center of Mathematics and Applications, New University of Lisbon, 2829-516, Caparica, Portugal, - - 2014
We propose and analyze an optimal control problem where the control system is a mathematical model for tuberculosis that considers reinfection. The control functions represent the fraction of early latent and persistent latent individuals that are treated. Our aim was to study how these control measures should be implemented, for ...
Begun M M School of Public Health and Community Medicine,Faculty of Medicine,University of New South - - 2014
SUMMARY Estimation of the true incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is challenging. The approach proposed by Styblo in 1985 is known to be inaccurate in the modern era where there is widespread availability of treatment for TB. This study re-examines the relationship of incidence to prevalence and other disease indicators that ...
Fushing Hsieh H Department of Statistics, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 - - 2014
We propose a new method inspired from statistical mechanics for extracting geometric information from undirected binary networks and generating random networks that conform to this geometry. In this method an undirected binary network is perceived as a thermodynamic system with a collection of permuted adjacency matrices as its states. The ...
Dowdy D W DW Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, - - 2014
The landscape of diagnostic testing for tuberculosis (TB) is changing rapidly, and stakeholders need urgent guidance on how to develop, deploy and optimize TB diagnostics in a way that maximizes impact and makes best use of available resources. When decisions must be made with only incomplete or preliminary data available, ...
Yao Min M Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China ; - - 2014
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition affecting young, healthy individuals worldwide. Existing agents have inadequate therapeutic efficacy, and some are associated with side effects. Our objective is to summarize and critically assess the neurological recovery and antioxidant effects of curcumin for treatment of SCI in rat models. PUBMED, ...
Chen Z-W ZW a Laboratoire de Mécanique et d'Énergétique d'Évry , Université d'Évry-Val d'Essonne , Évry , - - 2014
Constitutive laws are fundamental to the studies of the mechanically dominated clinical interventions involving soft biological tissues which show a highly anisotropic hyperelastic mechanical properties. The purpose of this paper was to develop an improved constitutive law based on the Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden's model: to replace the isotropic part with Gent constitutive ...
Chaudhari Mangesh I - - 2014
Parallel-tempering MD results for a CH$_3$(CH$_2$-O-CH$_2$)$_m$CH$_3$ chain in water are exploited as a data-base for analysis of collective s tructural characteristics of the PEO globule with a goal of defining models permitting statistical thermodynamic analysis ofdispersants of Corexit type. The chain structure factor, relevant to neutron scattering from a deuterated ...
Bell Jr J Department of AgroEcology, Rothamsted Research, West Common, Harpenden, AL5 2JQ, - - 2014
1. Aphids represent a significant challenge to food production. The Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS) runs a network of 12.2m suction-traps throughout the year to collect migrating aphids. In 2014 the RIS celebrated its 50(th) anniversary. This paper marks that achievement with an extensive spatio-temporal analysis and the provision of the ...
Aryal Madhava P MP Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, - - 2014
The distribution of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) parametric estimates in a rat U251 glioma model was analyzed. Using Magnevist as contrast agent (CA), 17 nude rats implanted with U251 cerebral glioma were studied by DCE-MRI twice in a 24 h interval. A data-driven analysis selected one of three models to estimate ...
Costa Ariadne A AA Department of Physics, FFCLRP, University of São Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
The elevated plus-maze is an apparatus widely used to study the level of anxiety in rodents. The maze is plus-shaped, with two enclosed arms and two open arms, and elevated 50cm from the floor. During a test, which usually lasts for 5 min, the animal is initially put at the ...
Font Anna A MRC PHE Centre for Environment and Health, King's College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
Road widening schemes in urban areas are often proposed as a solution to traffic congestion and as a means of stimulating economic growth. There is however clear evidence that new or expanded roads rapidly fill with either displaced or induced traffic, offsetting any short-term gains in eased traffic flows. What ...
Segerstrom Suzanne C SC Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
The extant research is inconclusive regarding the best sampling methods to construct reliable measures of between-person differences in derived parameters of diurnal cortisol, and no study provides such recommendations for detecting within-person changes. These studies determined how many days of sampling are necessary to assess between-person differences and within-person changes ...
Oliveira Débora Ramiro de DR Departamento de Fisiologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Cidade Universitária "Prof. José Aloísio de Campos", 49100-000, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
The free-exploratory paradigm has been proposed as a model of trait anxiety and as such has been proven stable over time, which is a sine qua non condition for any model proposing to evaluate a personality trait. However this stability has only been shown for male rats. Considering that anxiety ...
Hu Zhe-Yi ZY Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, College of Pharmacy, 881 Madison Ave., Room 346, Memphis, TN, 38163, - - 2014
Human carboxylesterase-1 (CES1) is an enzyme that is primarily expressed in the liver, where it plays an important role in the metabolism of many commonly used medications. Ethanol (alcohol)-mediated inhibition of CES1 and loss-of-function polymorphisms in the CES1 gene can markedly reduce this enzyme's function. Such alterations in CES1 activity ...
Koopmans Frank - - 2014
A challenge in proteomics is that many observations are missing with the probability of missingness increasing as abundance decreases. Adjusting for this informative missingness is required to assess accurately which proteins are differentially abundant. We propose an Empirical Bayesian Random Censoring Threshold (EBRCT) model that takes the pattern of missingness ...
Passo Tsamo Claudine Valeria - - 2014
This study aimed at understanding the contribution of the fruit physico-chemical parameters to Musa sp diversity and plantain ripening stages. A discriminant analysis was first performed on a collection of 35 Musa sp cultivars, organized in six groups based on the consumption mode (dessert or cooking banana) and the genomic ...
Williams Monique M Environmental Toxicology Program, University of California, Riverside, CA; Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to characterize the performance of disposable button-activated and disposable airflow-activated electronic cigarettes (EC) and electronic hookahs (EH). The airflow rate required to produce aerosol, pressure drop, and the aerosol absorbance at 420nm were measured during smoke-outs of 9 disposable products. Three units of each ...
De Haan-Rietdijk Silvia S Methodology and Statistics, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80140, 3508 TC, Utrecht, The Netherlands, - - 2014
Intensive longitudinal data provide rich information, which is best captured when specialized models are used in the analysis. One of these models is the multilevel autoregressive model, which psychologists have applied successfully to study affect regulation as well as alcohol use. A limitation of this model is that the autoregressive ...
Matsuyama Yosuke Y Department of Orthodontics, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Tokyo, - - 2014
Summary OBJECTIVES : This study examined the effects of palate depth, modifications of the arm shape, and anchor screw placement in the mid-palatal area on rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using finite element (FE) analysis. Three-dimensional FE models were constructed that included the maxilla (cortical and cancellous bone), maxillary sinus, maxillary ...
Matson Kathleen M KM Kathleen M. Matson is a nurse administrator at the Mayo Clinic in Phoenix, - - 2014
What's transactional transformation? (No, it's not a tongue twister!) It's a hybrid leadership model that warrants your consideration.
Leavens Teresa L TL a Center for Chemical Toxicology Research and Pharmacokinetics, Department of Population Health and Pathobiology , College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University , Raleigh , NC , - - 2014
Frequent violation of flunixin residues in tissues from cattle has been attributed to non-compliance with the USFDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time. However, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue depletion has not been determined. The objective of this work was to develop a ...
Werdell P Jeremy - - 2014
Ocean reflectance inversion models (ORMs) provide a mechanism for inverting the color of the water observed by a satellite into marine inherent optical properties (IOPs), which can then be used to study phytoplankton community structure. Most ORMs effectively separate the total signal of the collective phytoplankton community from other water ...
Jung Kanghoon K Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Korea; Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States of - - 2014
A fundamental understanding of behavior requires predicting when and what an individual will choose. However, the actual temporal and sequential dynamics of successive choices made among multiple alternatives remain unclear. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that there is a general bursting property in both the timing and ...
van Soolingen D D *Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), - - 2014
In industrialised countries, sufficient resources for establishing and maintaining fully equipped biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories according to international standards are generally available. BSL-3 laboratories are designed to provide several layers of containment to protect the laboratory worker as well as the outside environment and community from risk of exposure ...
Cao Yanguang Y Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 14214, - - 2014
Target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) usually accounts for nonlinear pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs whose distribution and/or clearance are affected by their targets owing to high affinity and limited capacity. TMDD is frequently reported for monoclonal antibodies (mAb) for such reason. Minimal physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models (mPBPK), which accommodate the unique PK behaviors ...
Brothers Kimberly M KM *Department of Ophthalmology (OVSRC), Charles T. Campbell Ophthalmic Microbiology Laboratory, UPMC Eye Center, Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Research Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; and †Department of Ophthalmology, Fox Center for Vision Restoration, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, - - 2014
This study was designed to measure the impact of bacterial biofilms on diffusion of an ocular therapeutic through silicone hydrogel bandage lenses in vitro. An assay was designed to study the passage of a commonly used steroid, dexamethasone, through silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses. Diffused dexamethasone was measured using a ...
Thomas Diana M DM From the Center for Quantitative Obesity Research, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ (DMT); the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA (CKM, LMR, SBH, and CB); the Department of Computational and Systems Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (SL); Obesity Solutions, Mayo Clinic, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ (JAL); and Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI - - 2014
Clinical weight loss in individuals typically stabilizes at 6 mo. However, validated models of dynamic energy balance have consistently shown weight plateaus between 1 and 2 y. The cause for this discrepancy is unclear. We developed 2 mathematical models on the basis of the first law of thermodynamics to investigate ...
Toropova Alla P AP IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, 20156, Via La Masa 19, Milano, - - 2014
The development of quantitative structure-activity relationships for nanomaterials needs representation of molecular structure of extremely complex molecular systems. Obviously, various characteristics of nanomaterial could impact associated biochemical endpoints. Following features of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles (n=42) are considered here: (i) engineered size (nm); (ii) size in water suspension (nm); (iii) ...
Lan Sheng-Min SM Department of Orthopaedics, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, Douliu City, Yunlin County, 640, - - 2014
Hyaluronan (HA) is well known for its biocompatibility and has widespread clinical use. To change its mechanical and physiologic properties to adapt to specific clinical scenarios, HA is crosslinked with chemically reactive linker molecules, most of which are toxic chemical reagents. Adverse events related to clinical use of crosslinked HA ...
Palukuru Uday P UP Department of Bioengineering, Temple University, 1947 N. 12th St, Philadelphia, PA - - 2014
Changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are characteristic of injury or disease in cartilage tissue. Various imaging modalities and biochemical techniques have been used to assess the changes in cartilage tissue but lack adequate sensitivity, or in the case of biochemical techniques, result in destruction of the ...
Li Dajing D Institute of Farm Product Processing, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China; College of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
Light induced-isomerization of (all-E)-lutein in organic solvent and starch model systems was investigated. Lutein and its (Z)-isomers were separated by HPLC using a C30 column and gradient mobile phase based on methanol-methyl-tert-butyl ether-water in 24min. (All-E)-lutein and twelve (Z)-isomers of lutein, in addition a small amount of (all-E)-zeaxanthin and (9Z, ...
Hendrix Angelean O AO Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8205. Electronic address: - - 2014
A system of 16 differential equations is described which models hormonal regulation of the menstrual cycle focusing on the effects of the androgen testosterone (T) on follicular development and on the synthesis of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the pituitary. Model simulations indicate two stable menstrual cycles - one cycle fitting ...
de Faveri Favero Fabricio - - 2014
Artemisia annua L. has been used for many centuries in Chinese traditional medicine. Artemisinin, the active principle was first isolated and identified in the 1970s becoming the global back bone to the fight against malaria. Our research group previously developed an economic and ecological friendly process to obtain this compound. ...
Kobuchi Shinji S Department of Pharmacokinetics, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8414, - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to develop a simple pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model in rats that could predict the onset and degree of erythropenia, a severely toxic side effect that severely limits the use of the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) METHODS: Total erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, and hematocrit ...
Ramirez Ramses M RM 1 Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University , University Park, - - 2014
Abstract Recent one-dimensional (globally averaged) climate model calculations by Goldblatt et al. (2013) suggest that increased atmospheric CO2 could conceivably trigger a runaway greenhouse on present Earth if CO2 concentrations were approximately 100 times higher than they are today. The new prediction runs contrary to previous calculations by Kasting and ...
McIsaac Michael M Queen's University, Ontario, Canada - - 2014
Inverse probability weighted estimating equations and multiple imputation are two of the most studied frameworks for dealing with incomplete data in clinical and epidemiological research. We examine the limiting behaviour of estimators arising from inverse probability weighted estimating equations, augmented inverse probability weighted estimating equations and multiple imputation when the ...
Irwin K K KK School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, - - 2014
Body size is often constrained from evolving. Although artificial selection on body size in insects frequently results in a sizable response, these responses usually bear fitness costs. Further, these experiments tend to select only on size at one landmark age, rather than selecting for patterns of growth over the whole ...
Büttner K K Institute of Animal Breeding and Husbandry, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany; Evolutionary Theory Group, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Plön, - - 2014
This study considered a simple SIR model for the spread of epidemics amongst holdings of a producer community in Northern Germany, based on the directed network of animal movements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different control measures to reduce the epidemic size substantially. The ...
Quist Brian W BW Departments of Biomedical Engineering - - 2014
During exploratory behavior, rats brush and tap their whiskers against objects, and the mechanical signals so generated constitute the primary sensory variables upon which these animals base their vibrissotactile perception of the world. To date, however, we lack a general dynamic model of the vibrissa that includes the effects of ...
Beyer Hawthorne L HL ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, Centre for Biodiversity & Conservation Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, - - 2014
1. Impediments to animal movement are ubiquitous and vary widely in both scale and permeability. It is essential to understand how impediments alter ecological dynamics via their influence on animal behavioural strategies governing space use and, for anthropogenic features such as roads and fences, how to mitigate these effects to ...
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