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Sharp Thomas T School of Computer Science, The University of Manchester Manchester, UK ; Laboratory for Neural Circuit Theory, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wakoshi Saitama, - - 2014
Simulations of neural circuits are bounded in scale and speed by available computing resources, and particularly by the differences in parallelism and communication patterns between the brain and high-performance computers. SpiNNaker is a computer architecture designed to address this problem by emulating the structure and function of neural tissue, using ...
Chen Zeqiang Z Institute of Space and Earth Information Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong ; Collaborative Innovation Center for Geospatial Information Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China ; Shenzhen Research Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518057, - - 2014
Sharing and integrating Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System/Science (GIS) models are critical for developing practical application systems. Facilitating model sharing and model integration is a problem for model publishers and model users, respectively. To address this problem, a framework based on a Web service for sharing and integrating ...
Ju Jingjuan J Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China. - - 2014
In fresh waters cyanobacterial blooms can produce a variety of toxins, such as microcystin variants (MCs) and anatoxin-a (ANA). ANA is a well-known neurotoxin, whereas MCs are hepatotoxic and, to a lesser degree, also neurotoxic. Neurotoxicity applies especially to invertebrates lacking livers. Current standardized neurotoxicity screening methods use rats or ...
Talluri Rajesh R The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, - - 2014
We propose Bayesian methods for Gaussian graphical models that lead to sparse and adaptively shrunk estimators of the precision (inverse covariance) matrix. Our methods are based on lasso-type regularization priors leading to parsimonious parameterization of the precision matrix, which is essential in several applications involving learning relationships among the variables. ...
Zhang Xiaohang X School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, - - 2014
A complex network is a useful tool for representing and analyzing complex systems, such as the world-wide web and transportation systems. However, the growing size of complex networks is becoming an obstacle to the understanding of the topological structure and their characteristics. In this study, a globally and locally adaptive ...
Nielsen J Rasmus JR Technical University of Denmark, National Institute of Aquatic Resources (DTU AQUA), Charlottenlund, - - 2014
Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP) statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes zero observations and over-dispersion. The model ...
Farasat Iman I Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, - - 2014
Developing predictive models of multi-protein genetic systems to understand and optimize their behavior remains a combinatorial challenge, particularly when measurement throughput is limited. We developed a computational approach to build predictive models and identify optimal sequences and expression levels, while circumventing combinatorial explosion. Maximally informative genetic system variants were first ...
Gong Jing J Cancer Research Center, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, - - 2014
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize invasion of microbial pathogens and initiate innate immune responses that are essential for inhibiting pathogen dissemination and for the development of acquired immunity. To understand how these receptors work, it is crucial to investigate them from a structural perspective. High-throughput genome sequencing projects have led to ...
Ryu Ehri E Department of Psychology, Boston College Chestnut Hill, MA, - - 2014
Assessing goodness of model fit is one of the key questions in structural equation modeling (SEM). Goodness of fit is the extent to which the hypothesized model reproduces the multivariate structure underlying the set of variables. During the earlier development of multilevel structural equation models, the "standard" approach was to ...
Zoratto Francesca F 0000-0002-3626-8928 Section of Behavioural Neuroscience, Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy ; Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital IRCCS, Rome, - - 2014
Interest is rising for animal modeling of pathological gambling. Using the operant probabilistic-delivery task (PDT), gambling proneness can be evaluated in laboratory animals. Drawing a comparison with rats, this study evaluated the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) using a PDT. By nose- or hand-poking, subjects learnt to prefer a large (LLL, ...
Moseby Katherine E KE The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, Australia; Arid Recovery, Roxby Downs, - - 2014
Reintroduction programs for threatened species often include elaborate release strategies designed to improve success, but their advantages are rarely tested scientifically. We used a set of four experiments to demonstrate that the influence of release strategies on short-term reintroduction outcomes is related to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We compared ...
Zhang Jun J Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Camden, New Jersey, United States of America; The Rutgers Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Camden, New Jersey, United States of - - 2014
In vitro bioassays have been developed and are currently being evaluated as potential alternatives to traditional animal toxicity models. Already, the progress of high throughput screening techniques has resulted in an enormous amount of publicly available bioassay data having been generated for a large collection of compounds. When a compound ...
Li Yuqin Y College of Pharmacy, Taishan Medical University, Taian, Shandong 271016, - - 2014
Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) were developed to predict the inhibition ratio of pyrrolidine derivatives on matrix metalloproteinase via heuristic method (HM) and gene expression programming (GEP). The descriptors of 33 pyrrolidine derivatives were calculated by the software CODESSA, which can calculate quantum chemical, topological, geometrical, constitutional, and electrostatic descriptors. HM ...
Di Marco Fabiana F Department of Biotechnology and Applied Clinical Science, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, - - 2014
The central nervous system undergoing degeneration can be stabilized, and in some models can be restored to function, by neuroprotective treatments. Photobiomodulation (PBM) and dietary saffron are distinctive as neuroprotectants in that they upregulate protective mechanisms, without causing measurable tissue damage. This study reports a first attempt to combine the ...
Weir Scott M SM The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, United States of - - 2014
Despite widespread recognition of significant data deficiencies, reptiles remain a relatively understudied taxon in ecotoxicology. To conduct ecological risk assessments on reptiles frequently requires using surrogate taxa such as birds, but recent research suggests that reptiles have significantly different exposure profiles and toxicant sensitivity. We exposed western fence lizards, Sceloporus ...
Liu Enqiang E University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, - - 2014
The contents access and sharing in multimedia social networks (MSNs) mainly rely on access control models and mechanisms. Simple adoptions of security policies in the traditional access control model cannot effectively establish a trust relationship among parties. This paper proposed a novel two-party trust architecture (TPTA) to apply in a ...
Tedford Stephanie E SE Department of Pharmacology, Center for Compulsive Behavior and Addiction, Rush University Medical Center Chicago, IL, USA ; Department of Pharmacology, Rush University Medical Center Chicago, IL, - - 2014
Pathological gambling is one manifestation of impulse control disorders. The biological underpinnings of these disorders remain elusive and treatment is far from ideal. Animal models of impulse control disorders are a critical research tool for understanding this condition and for medication development. Modeling such complex behaviors is daunting, but by ...
Banon-Maneus E E Comprehensive Pneumology Center, University Hospital Großhadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, 81337 Munich, Germany ; Fundació Clínic, Laboratori Experimental de Nefrologia i Transplantament (LENIT), CELLEX 2B, C/Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona, - - 2014
Progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by deposition of extracellular matrix. This is an irreversible process that leads to tubulointerstitial fibrosis and finally loss of kidney function. Wnt/ β -catenin pathway was reported to be aberrantly activated in the progressive damage associated with chronic organ failure. Extensive renal ...
Rocha Bruno Alves BA Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP, - - 2014
Monensin A is a commercially important natural product isolated from Streptomyces cinnamonensins that is primarily employed to treat coccidiosis. Monensin A selectively complexes and transports sodium cations across lipid membranes and displays a variety of biological properties. In this study, we evaluated the Jacobsen catalyst as a cytochrome P450 biomimetic ...
Langmead Christopher James CJ Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, - - 2014
Atomistic simulations of the conformational dynamics of proteins can be performed using either Molecular Dynamics or Monte Carlo procedures. The ensembles of three-dimensional structures produced during simulation can be analyzed in a number of ways to elucidate the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system. The goal of this chapter ...
Rassoli Aisa A Biological Fluid Mechanics Research Laboratory, Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, - - 2014
Purpose: The Mechanical properties of the ureteral wall may be altered by certain diseases&nbsp;such as megaureter. Ureter compliance and wall tension alterations can occur, leading to&nbsp;some abnormalities such as reflex mechanisms. Familiarizing with the mechanical properties&nbsp;of the ureter can help us advance in the understanding of urinary tract diseases. Materials ...
Yan Chang-An CA State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China ; Key Laboratory of Digital Earth Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100094, - - 2014
A watershed hydrological model, hydrological simulation program-Fortran (HSPF), was applied to simulate the spatial and temporal variation of hydrological processes in the Jiaoyi watershed of Huaihe River Basin, the heaviest shortage of water resources and polluted area in China. The model was calibrated using the years 2001-2004 and validated with ...
Smith Aaron D AD Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, PO Box 5640, Flagstaff, AZ, 86011-5640, - - 2014
Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been ...
Salewski Volker V Michael-Otto-Institut im NABU, Bergenhusen, - - 2014
Changes in morphology have been postulated as one of the responses of animals to global warming, with increasing ambient temperatures leading to decreasing body size. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. Problems related to the analyses of trends in body size may be related to the short-term nature ...
Dally Simon S Institute for Laboratory and Transfusion Medicine, Heart and Diabetes Center North Rhine-Westphalia, Bad Oeynhausen, Germany; Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Stuttgart, - - 2014
Since its development, microarray technology has evolved to a standard method in the biotechnological and medical field with a broad range of applications. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism of the hybridization process of PCR-products to microarray capture probes is still not completely understood, and several observed phenomena cannot be explained with ...
Heredia Ortiz Roberto R Département de santé environnementale et santé au travail, Chaire d'analyse et de gestion des risques toxicologiques and Institut de recherche en santé publique de l'Université de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, - - 2014
Biomathematical modeling has become an important tool to assess xenobiotic exposure in humans. In the present study, we have used a human physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and an simple compartmental toxicokinetic model of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) kinetics and its 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP) metabolite to reproduce the time-course of this biomarker of exposure ...
Matsuda Eiko E Department of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; School of Informatics and Engineering, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, - - 2014
Vicarious trial-and-error (VTE) is a behavior observed in rat experiments that seems to suggest self-conflict. This behavior is seen mainly when the rats are uncertain about making a decision. The presence of VTE is regarded as an indicator of a deliberative decision-making process, that is, searching, predicting, and evaluating outcomes. ...
Schvartzman M Sol MS Food Safety Department, Teagasc Food Research Centre Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland ; Biosystems Engineering, School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin Dublin, - - 2014
Surface-ripened cheeses are matured by means of manual or mechanical technologies posing a risk of cross-contamination, if any cheeses are contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. In predictive microbiology, primary models are used to describe microbial responses, such as growth rate over time and secondary models explain how those responses change with ...
Fedorova Elena V EV Saint-Petersburg State Chemical Pharmaceutical Academy, Ministry of Healthcare and Social Development of Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, Russian - - 2014
Based on the data about structure and antidiabetic activity of twenty seven vanadium and zinc coordination complexes collected from literature we developed QSAR models using the GUSAR program. These QSAR models were applied to 10 novel vanadium coordination complexes designed in silico in order to predict their hypoglycemic action. The ...
Gusenleitner Daniel D Bioinformatics Program, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America; Department of Computational Biomedicine, Boston University Medical Campus, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of - - 2014
Despite an overall decrease in incidence of and mortality from cancer, about 40% of Americans will be diagnosed with the disease in their lifetime, and around 20% will die of it. Current approaches to test carcinogenic chemicals adopt the 2-year rodent bioassay, which is costly and time-consuming. As a result, ...
Xu Hao H The Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, PR - - 2014
An individual-tree diameter growth model was developed for Cunninghamia lanceolata in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 72 plantation-grown China-fir trees in 24 single-species plots. Ordinary non-linear least squares regression was used to choose the best base model from among 5 theoretical growth equations; selection criteria were the ...
Terashi Genki G School of Pharmacy, Kitasato - - 2014
In the absence of experimentally determined three dimensional (3D) structures of proteins, the prediction of protein structures using computational methods is a standard alternative approach in bioinformatics. When using the predicted protein models to compute the native structure of an unknown target protein, estimating the actual quality of the protein ...
Huang Qiongyu Q Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of - - 2014
Avian diversity is under increasing pressures. It is thus critical to understand the ecological variables that contribute to large scale spatial distribution of avian species diversity. Traditionally, studies have relied primarily on two-dimensional habitat structure to model broad scale species richness. Vegetation vertical structure is increasingly used at local scales. ...
Shangguan Wei W 0000-0001-7622-8210 College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing 100875, - - 2014
We investigated eleven particle-size distribution (PSD) models to determine the appropriate models for describing the PSDs of 16349 Chinese soil samples. These data are based on three soil texture classification schemes, including one ISSS (International Society of Soil Science) scheme with four data points and two Katschinski's schemes with five ...
Galli Corrado Lodovico CL Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, - - 2014
Our research is aimed at devising and assessing a computational approach to evaluate the affinity of endocrine active substances (EASs) and their metabolites towards the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the androgen receptor (AR) in three distantly related species: human, rat, and zebrafish. We computed the affinity for all the ...
Liao Bo B Key Laboratory for Embedded and Network Computing of Hunan Province, the College of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha Hunan, - - 2014
Sparse representation classification (SRC) is one of the most promising classification methods for supervised learning. This method can effectively exploit discriminating information by introducing a [Formula: see text] regularization terms to the data. With the desirable property of sparisty, SRC is robust to both noise and outliers. In this study, ...
Jak Suzanne S Department of Methods and Statistics, Faculty of Social Sciences, Utrecht University Utrecht, - - 2014
Within structural equation modeling, the most prevalent model to investigate measurement bias is the multigroup model. Equal factor loadings and intercepts across groups in a multigroup model represent strong factorial invariance (absence of measurement bias) across groups. Although this approach is possible in principle, it is hardly practical when the ...
López-Caamal Fernando F Integrative Systems Biology Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Kunigami, Okinawa, - - 2014
We consider a Markov process in continuous time with a finite number of discrete states. The time-dependent probabilities of being in any state of the Markov chain are governed by a set of ordinary differential equations, whose dimension might be large even for trivial systems. Here, we derive a reduced ...
Lowe Elizabeth C EC School of Biological Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, - - 2014
Urbanisation modifies landscapes at multiple scales, impacting the local climate and changing the extent and quality of natural habitats. These habitat modifications significantly alter species distributions and can result in increased abundance of select species which are able to exploit novel ecosystems. We examined the effect of urbanisation at local ...
Hassan A S AS Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South - - 2014
A new model for the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and bovine tuberculosis in a community, consisting of humans and African buffalos, is presented. The buffalo-only component of the model exhibits the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, which arises due to the reinfection of exposed and recovered buffalos, when the associated ...
Bekara Mohammed El Amine ME University Paris Est, Anses, Laboratory of Animal Health, Epidemiology Unit, Maisons-Alfort, - - 2014
Epidemiological models are key tools for designing and evaluating detection and control strategies against animal infectious diseases. In France, after decades of decrease of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) incidence, the disease keeps circulating. Increasing prevalence levels are observed in several areas, where the detection and control strategy could be adapted. The ...
Zwerling Alice A Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of - - 2014
The field of diagnostics for active tuberculosis (TB) is rapidly developing. TB diagnostic modeling can help to inform policy makers and support complicated decisions on diagnostic strategy, with important budgetary implications. Demand for TB diagnostic modeling is likely to increase, and an evaluation of current practice is important. We aimed ...
Leil T A TA Exploratory Clinical & Translational Research, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Lawrenceville, New Jersey, - - 2014
A Bayesian mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity was developed based on a clinical study of the effects of ketoconazole and rifampin on midazolam exposure and plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4βHC) concentrations. Simulations from the model demonstrated that the dynamic range of 4βHC as a biomarker of CYP3A4 induction ...
Jones Daniel O B DO National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton Waterfront Campus, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, - - 2013
Seafloor organisms are vital for healthy marine ecosystems, contributing to elemental cycling, benthic remineralization, and ultimately sequestration of carbon. Deep-sea life is primarily reliant on the export flux of particulate organic carbon from the surface ocean for food, but most ocean biogeochemistry models predict global decreases in export flux resulting ...
Shams Shiva S IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Istituto Agrario di S. Michele all'Adige, Fondazione E. Mach, Via E. Mach 1, 38010 S. Michele all'Adige (Trento), Italy; Human and Environmental Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, P.O. Box X-918, D-78457 Konstanz, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2013
In this study, we investigated the kinetic aspects of the microcystin (MC) transfer from Planktothrix rubescens to Daphnia magna by carrying out exposure experiments in small simple mesocosms. We hypothesized that higher fractions of toxic cyanobacteria in the diet of grazers would shift the balance towards a greater than linear, ...
Posada-Izquierdo Guiomar D GD Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Darwin-C1, 14014 Córdoba, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and model the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh-cut lettuce submitted to a neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) treatment, packaged in passive modified atmosphere and subsequently stored at different temperatures (4, 8, 13, 16°C) for a maximum of 27days. Results indicated that ...
Abbasian Parandoush P Health Physics and Dosimetry Laboratory, Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amir Kabir University of Technology, Tehran, - - 2014
The main purpose of this work was to develop a pharmacokinetic model for the bone pain palliation agent Samarium-153 ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonate ([(153)Sm]-EDTMP) in normal rats to analyze the behavior of the complex. The use of compartmental analysis allows a mathematical separation of tissues and organs to determine the concentration ...
Aher Rahul Balasaheb - - 2013
Both a development of resistance to artemisinin monotherapy and lack of effective vaccine against malaria have created the urgent need for the development of new and efficient antimalarial agents. In this background, we have developed here a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model and a few 3D-pharmacophore models for the classification ...
Sonne Christian C Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Denmark. Electronic address: - - 2013
Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the potential health impact in the Arctic far from the emission sources have been highlighted in numerous studies. As a supplement to human POP biomonitoring studies, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was set up to estimate the fate of POPs in ...
Loerakker Sandra S Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB , Eindhoven, The Netherlands, - - 2013
Collagen is the main load-bearing component of many soft tissues and has a large influence on the mechanical behavior of tissues when exposed to mechanical loading. Therefore, it is important to increase our understanding of collagen remodeling in soft tissues to understand the mechanisms behind pathologies and to control the ...
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