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Song Minryung R MR Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, South - - 2014
Because most rewarding events are probabilistic and changing, the extinction of probabilistic rewards is important for survival. It has been proposed that the extinction of probabilistic rewards depends on arousal and the amount of learning of reward values. Midbrain dopamine neurons were suggested to play a role in both arousal ...
Lowe Elizabeth C EC School of Biological Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, - - 2014
Urbanisation modifies landscapes at multiple scales, impacting the local climate and changing the extent and quality of natural habitats. These habitat modifications significantly alter species distributions and can result in increased abundance of select species which are able to exploit novel ecosystems. We examined the effect of urbanisation at local ...
Hübner Ronald R Fachbereich Psychologie, Universität Konstanz Konstanz, - - 2014
SOME RESULTS SUGGEST THAT ATTENTIONAL SELECTION IN GLOBAL/LOCAL PROCESSING OCCURS AT TWO STAGES: an early stage, where global and local information of a hierarchical stimulus is filtered or weighted according to the current goal, and a late stage, where the contents of the stimulus are bound to their respective level. ...
Leil T A TA Exploratory Clinical & Translational Research, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Lawrenceville, New Jersey, - - 2014
A Bayesian mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity was developed based on a clinical study of the effects of ketoconazole and rifampin on midazolam exposure and plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4βHC) concentrations. Simulations from the model demonstrated that the dynamic range of 4βHC as a biomarker of CYP3A4 induction ...
Jackson Alice F AF Laboratory for the Neurodevelopment of Reading and Language, Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland College Park, MD, USA ; Program for Neuroscience and Cognitive Science, University of Maryland College Park, MD, - - 2014
The GOLD model (Graph Of Language Distribution) is a network model constructed based on co-occurrence in a large corpus of natural language that may be used to explore what information may be present in a graph-structured model of language, and what information may be extracted through theoretically-driven algorithms as well ...
Picard Nicolas N UPR Biens et services des écosystèmes forestiers tropicaux (BSEF), Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), Montpellier, - - 2014
Matrix population models are widely used to study population dynamics but have been criticized because their outputs are sensitive to the dimension of the matrix (or, equivalently, to the class width). This sensitivity is concerning for the population growth rate ([Formula: see text]) because this is an intrinsic characteristic of ...
Pawelec K M KM Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, , 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS, - - 2014
In this paper, we show, for the first time, the key link between scaffold architecture and latent heat evolution during the production of porous biomedical collagen structures using freeze-drying. Collagen scaffolds are used widely in the biomedical industry for the repair and reconstruction of skeletal tissues and organs. Freeze-drying of ...
Xu Hao H The Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, PR - - 2014
An individual-tree diameter growth model was developed for Cunninghamia lanceolata in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 72 plantation-grown China-fir trees in 24 single-species plots. Ordinary non-linear least squares regression was used to choose the best base model from among 5 theoretical growth equations; selection criteria were the ...
Sun Catherine C CC New York Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University, Ithaca New York, United States of - - 2014
An increasing number of studies employ spatial capture-recapture models to estimate population size, but there has been limited research on how different spatial sampling designs and trap configurations influence parameter estimators. Spatial capture-recapture models provide an advantage over non-spatial models by explicitly accounting for heterogeneous detection probabilities among individuals that ...
Gunawardena Jeremy J Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, USA. - - 2014
: In this essay I will sketch some ideas for how to think about models in biology. I will begin by trying to dispel the myth that quantitative modeling is somehow foreign to biology. I will then point out the distinction between forward and reverse modeling and focus thereafter on ...
Rudolph-Lilith Michelle M Unité de Neurosciences, Information et Complexité, CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, - - 2014
We introduce an analytic model for directed Watts-Strogatz small-world graphs and deduce an algebraic expression of its defining adjacency matrix. The latter is then used to calculate the small-world digraph's asymmetry index and clustering coefficient in an analytically exact fashion, valid nonasymptotically for all graph sizes. The proposed approach is ...
Mason Christopher E - - 2014
In today's biology, studies have shifted to analyzing systems over discrete biochemical reactions and pathways. These studies depend on combining the results from scores of experimental methods that analyze DNA; mRNA; noncoding RNAs, DNA, RNA, and protein interactions; and the nucleotide modifications that form the epigenome into global datasets that ...
Alaoui Moulay Abdelaziz El MA Functional Genomic Platform, UATRS, Center for Scientific and Technical Research [CNRST], Rabat, Morocco ; Laboratory of Genetics and Biometry, Faculty of Sciences, University Ibn - - 2014
The Δ(9-)Tetrahydrocannabinol (THCA) is the primary psychoactive compound of Cannabis Sativa. It is produced by Δ(1-) Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCA) which catalyzes the oxidative cyclization of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) the precursor of the THCA. In this study, we were interested by the three dimensional structure of THCA synthase protein. Generation ...
Jordán Cristina C Instituto de Matemáticas Multidisciplinar, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, - - 2014
An n × n matrix is called an N 0-matrix if all its specified principal minors are nonpositive. In the context of partial matrices, a partial matrix is called a partial N 0-matrix if all its specified principal minors are nonpositive. In this paper we characterize the existence of an ...
Jafree Hafsa Athar HA Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, - - 2014
This paper presents new simple approaches for evaluating determinant and inverse of a matrix. The choice of pivot selection has been kept arbitrary thus they reduce the error while solving an ill conditioned system. Computation of determinant of a matrix has been made more efficient by saving unnecessary data storage ...
Farasat Iman I Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, - - 2014
Developing predictive models of multi-protein genetic systems to understand and optimize their behavior remains a combinatorial challenge, particularly when measurement throughput is limited. We developed a computational approach to build predictive models and identify optimal sequences and expression levels, while circumventing combinatorial explosion. Maximally informative genetic system variants were first ...
Jak Suzanne S Department of Methods and Statistics, Faculty of Social Sciences, Utrecht University Utrecht, - - 2014
Within structural equation modeling, the most prevalent model to investigate measurement bias is the multigroup model. Equal factor loadings and intercepts across groups in a multigroup model represent strong factorial invariance (absence of measurement bias) across groups. Although this approach is possible in principle, it is hardly practical when the ...
Dally Simon S Institute for Laboratory and Transfusion Medicine, Heart and Diabetes Center North Rhine-Westphalia, Bad Oeynhausen, Germany; Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Stuttgart, - - 2014
Since its development, microarray technology has evolved to a standard method in the biotechnological and medical field with a broad range of applications. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism of the hybridization process of PCR-products to microarray capture probes is still not completely understood, and several observed phenomena cannot be explained with ...
Borondo J J 1] Macro Connections, The MIT Media Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA [2] Grupo de Sistemas Complejos and Departamento de Física y Mecánica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Agrónomos, 28040 Madrid, - - 2014
A system is said to be meritocratic if the compensation and power available to individuals is determined by their abilities and merits. A system is topocratic if the compensation and power available to an individual is determined primarily by her position in a network. Here we introduce a model that ...
Diekman Casey O CO Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, 07102, - - 2014
Hugh Wilson has proposed a class of models that treat higher-level decision making as a competition between patterns coded as levels of a set of attributes in an appropriately defined network (Cortical Mechanisms of Vision, pp. 399-417, 2009; The Constitution of Visual Consciousness: Lessons from Binocular Rivalry, pp. 281-304, 2013). ...
Rupp Matthias M Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich, - - 2014
Machine learning has been used for estimation of potential energy surfaces to speed up molecular dynamics simulations of small systems. We demonstrate that this approach is feasible for significantly larger, structurally complex molecules, taking the natural product Archazolid A, a potent inhibitor of vacuolar-type ATPase, from the myxobacterium Archangium gephyra ...
Yu Eunjong E 0000-0002-4098-5153 Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University 222, Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Republic of - - 2014
Damage of a 5-story framed structure was identified from two types of measured data, which are frequency response functions (FRF) and natural frequencies, using a finite element (FE) model updating procedure. In this study, a procedure to determine the appropriate weightings for different groups of observations was proposed. In addition, ...
Fedorova Elena V EV Saint-Petersburg State Chemical Pharmaceutical Academy, Ministry of Healthcare and Social Development of Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, Russian - - 2014
Based on the data about structure and antidiabetic activity of twenty seven vanadium and zinc coordination complexes collected from literature we developed QSAR models using the GUSAR program. These QSAR models were applied to 10 novel vanadium coordination complexes designed in silico in order to predict their hypoglycemic action. The ...
Hassan A S AS Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South - - 2014
A new model for the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and bovine tuberculosis in a community, consisting of humans and African buffalos, is presented. The buffalo-only component of the model exhibits the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, which arises due to the reinfection of exposed and recovered buffalos, when the associated ...
Sharp Thomas T School of Computer Science, The University of Manchester Manchester, UK ; Laboratory for Neural Circuit Theory, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wakoshi Saitama, - - 2014
Simulations of neural circuits are bounded in scale and speed by available computing resources, and particularly by the differences in parallelism and communication patterns between the brain and high-performance computers. SpiNNaker is a computer architecture designed to address this problem by emulating the structure and function of neural tissue, using ...
Römer Michael M Center of Bioinformatics Tuebingen (ZBIT), University of Tuebingen, Tübingen, - - 2014
In the area of omics profiling in toxicology, i.e. toxicogenomics, characteristic molecular profiles have previously been incorporated into prediction models for early assessment of a carcinogenic potential and mechanism-based classification of compounds. Traditionally, the biomarker signatures used for model construction were derived from individual high-throughput techniques, such as microarrays designed ...
Davoodi-Bojd Esmaeil E School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, United States of - - 2014
Substantial effort is being expended on using micro-structural modeling of the white matter, with the goal of relating diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) to the underlying structure of the tissue, such as axonal density. However, one of the important parameters affecting diffusion is the water exchange rate between the ...
López-Caamal Fernando F Integrative Systems Biology Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Kunigami, Okinawa, - - 2014
We consider a Markov process in continuous time with a finite number of discrete states. The time-dependent probabilities of being in any state of the Markov chain are governed by a set of ordinary differential equations, whose dimension might be large even for trivial systems. Here, we derive a reduced ...
Monzo Carlos C 0000-0003-3883-3588 Computer Science, Multimedia and Telecommunication Studies, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC), Rambla del Poblenou 156, 08018 Barcelona, - - 2014
This paper presents the perceptual experiments that were carried out in order to validate the methodology of transforming expressive speech styles using voice quality (VoQ) parameters modelling, along with the well-known prosody (F 0, duration, and energy), from a neutral style into a number of expressive ones. The main goal ...
Hierholtzer A A Urban Water Technology Centre, School of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of Abertay Dundee, Bell Street, Dundee DD1 1HG, Scotland, UK E-mail: - - 2014
Some of the key factors affecting the adaptation of anaerobic digestion processes to increasing levels of salinity were determined in batch tests using brown seaweed as a feedstock. It was found that cultures seeded with non-saline anaerobic inoculum required an adaptation period of up to two months to reach the ...
Du Qiang Q Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Affiliated Union Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China E-mail : ylchen@medmail.com.cn, - - 2014
Background: Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is the most common carcinoma of the biliary system. Among its research models, orthotopic xenograft models, important research tools, have been rarely reported in the literature however. Aim: To explore establishment of an orthotopic xenograft model and to evaluate the advantage and disadvantage as compared with ...
Keeping Derek D Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, - - 2014
Counting animals to estimate their population sizes is often essential for their management and conservation. Since practitioners frequently rely on indirect observations of animals, it is important to better understand the relationship between such indirect indices and animal abundance. The Formozov-Malyshev-Pereleshin (FMP) formula provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the ...
Jaber Khalid Mohammad KM Faculty of Science and Information Technology, Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Amman, - - 2014
In recent times, the size of biological databases has increased significantly, with the continuous growth in the number of users and rate of queries; such that some databases have reached the terabyte size. There is therefore, the increasing need to access databases at the fastest rates possible. In this paper, ...
Dalbey Walden E WE DalbeyTox, LLC, 860 Penns Way, West Chester, PA, 19382, USA. Email: - - 2014
Lubricating oil base stocks (LOBs) are substances used in the manufacture of finished lubricants and greases. They are produced from residue remaining after atmospheric distillation of crude oil that is subsequently fractionated by vacuum distillation and additional refining steps. Initial LOB streams that have been produced by vacuum distillation but ...
Heredia Ortiz Roberto R Département de santé environnementale et santé au travail, Chaire d'analyse et de gestion des risques toxicologiques and Institut de recherche en santé publique de l'Université de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, - - 2014
Biomathematical modeling has become an important tool to assess xenobiotic exposure in humans. In the present study, we have used a human physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and an simple compartmental toxicokinetic model of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) kinetics and its 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP) metabolite to reproduce the time-course of this biomarker of exposure ...
Franks Becca B Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of - - 2014
As animal personality research becomes more central to the study of animal behavior, there is increasing need for theoretical frameworks addressing its causes and consequences. We propose that regulatory focus theory (RFT) could serve as one such framework while also providing insights into how animal personality relates to welfare. RFT ...
Gong Jing J Cancer Research Center, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, - - 2014
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize invasion of microbial pathogens and initiate innate immune responses that are essential for inhibiting pathogen dissemination and for the development of acquired immunity. To understand how these receptors work, it is crucial to investigate them from a structural perspective. High-throughput genome sequencing projects have led to ...
Zhang Pu P 0000-0003-4347-0224 Department of Mathematics, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157011, - - 2014
Let T be a singular integral operator with its kernel satisfying |K(x - y) - ∑ k=1 (ℓ) ‍B k (x)ϕ k (y)| ≤ C | y| (γ) /|x - y| (n+γ) , |x | > 2 | y | > 0, where B k and ϕ k   (k = ...
Feng Mei-Chen MC Institute of Dryland Farming Engineer, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, People's Republic of - - 2014
In this study, relationships between normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and plant (winter wheat) nitrogen content (PNC) and between PNC and grain protein content (GPC) were investigated using multi-temporal moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data at the different stages of winter wheat in Linfen (Shanxi, P. R. China). The anticipating model ...
Li Borui B Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. - - 2014
Traditional object tracking technology usually regards the target as a point source object. However, this approximation is no longer appropriate for tracking extended objects such as large targets and closely spaced group objects. Bayesian extended object tracking (EOT) using a random symmetrical positive definite (SPD) matrix is a very effective ...
Nakajima Natsu N Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, - - 2014
We tackle the problem of completing and inferring genetic networks under stationary conditions from static data, where network completion is to make the minimum amount of modifications to an initial network so that the completed network is most consistent with the expression data in which addition of edges and deletion ...
Li Yuqin Y College of Pharmacy, Taishan Medical University, Taian, Shandong 271016, - - 2014
Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) were developed to predict the inhibition ratio of pyrrolidine derivatives on matrix metalloproteinase via heuristic method (HM) and gene expression programming (GEP). The descriptors of 33 pyrrolidine derivatives were calculated by the software CODESSA, which can calculate quantum chemical, topological, geometrical, constitutional, and electrostatic descriptors. HM ...
Ju Jingjuan J Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China. - - 2014
In fresh waters cyanobacterial blooms can produce a variety of toxins, such as microcystin variants (MCs) and anatoxin-a (ANA). ANA is a well-known neurotoxin, whereas MCs are hepatotoxic and, to a lesser degree, also neurotoxic. Neurotoxicity applies especially to invertebrates lacking livers. Current standardized neurotoxicity screening methods use rats or ...
Nakada Yohei - - 2014
Online Bayesian learning has been successfully applied to online learning for multilayer perceptrons and radial basis functions. In online Bayesian learning, typically, the conventional transition model has been used. Although the conventional transition model is based on the squared norm of the difference between the current parameter vector and the ...
Puyol D D Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA E-mail: danielpuyol@email.arizona.edu; - - 2014
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently discovered microbial process commonly applied to treat ammonium pollution in effluents with low organic carbon content. Modeling anammox processes is important for simulating and controlling full-scale plants. In this study, the anammox process was simulated using three models, and substrate and growth parameters ...
Huanhuan Chen - - 2014
The emergence of large sensor networks has facilitated the collection of large amounts of real-time data to monitor and control complex engineering systems. However, in many cases the collected data may be incomplete or inconsistent, while the underlying environment may be time-varying or unformulated. In this paper, we develop an ...
Zwerling Alice A Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of - - 2014
The field of diagnostics for active tuberculosis (TB) is rapidly developing. TB diagnostic modeling can help to inform policy makers and support complicated decisions on diagnostic strategy, with important budgetary implications. Demand for TB diagnostic modeling is likely to increase, and an evaluation of current practice is important. We aimed ...
- - 2014
A correction was made to Retinal Detachment Model in Rodents by Subretinal Injection of Sodium Hyaluronate. The footnotes were removed from the abstract due to redundancy in the introduction.
van Hasselt J G Coen JG Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, P.O. Box 1066 CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands ; Department of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Slotervaart Hospital, Louwesweg 6, P.O. Box 90440, 1006 BK Amsterdam, The - - 2014
This work describes a first population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for free and total cefazolin during pregnancy, which can be used for dose regimen optimization. Secondly, analysis of PK studies in pregnant patients is challenging due to study design limitations. We therefore developed a semiphysiological modeling approach, which leveraged gestation-induced changes ...
Monfardini Elisabetta E INSERM, U1028, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, ImpAct Team, Lyon, France ; CNRS, UMR5292, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, ImpAct Team, Lyon, France ; University Lyon, Lyon, France ; Institut de Médecine Environnementale, Paris, - - 2014
Monkeys readily learn to discriminate between rewarded and unrewarded items or actions by observing their conspecifics. However, they do not systematically learn from humans. Understanding what makes human-to-monkey transmission of knowledge work or fail could help identify mediators and moderators of social learning that operate regardless of language or culture, ...
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