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Beyer Hawthorne L HL ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, Centre for Biodiversity & Conservation Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, - - 2014
1. Impediments to animal movement are ubiquitous and vary widely in both scale and permeability. It is essential to understand how impediments alter ecological dynamics via their influence on animal behavioural strategies governing space use and, for anthropogenic features such as roads and fences, how to mitigate these effects to ...
Zhu Sha S Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, - - 2014
The Yule-Harding-Kingman (YHK) model and the proportional to distinguishable arrangements (PDA) model are two binary tree generating models that are widely used in evolutionary biology. Understanding the distributions of clade sizes under these two models provides valuable insights into macro-evolutionary processes, and is important in hypothesis testing and Bayesian analyses ...
Prowse Thomas A A TA The Environment Institute and School of Earth and Environmental Science, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, - - 2014
1.Life-history theory predicts the progressive dwarfing of animal populations that are subjected to chronic mortality stress but the evolutionary impact of harvesting terrestrial herbivores has seldom been tested. In Australia, marsupials of the genus Macropus (kangaroos and wallabies) are subjected to size-selective commercial harvesting. Mathematical modelling suggests that harvest quotas ...
Malherbe Cedric - - 2014
The in situ control of the chemical composition of industrial aluminum smelter is a challenge: high temperature, high surrounding electromagnetic field and highly corrosive molten salt electrolyte. In previous works, we proposed that Raman spectroscopy is a method of choice that could be adapted to real smelters. The laboratory study ...
Maderich V V Institute of Mathematical Machine and System Problems, Glushkov av., 42, Kiev 03187, Ukraine. Electronic address: - - 2014
The 3D compartment model POSEIDON-R was applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of (90)Sr in the period 1945-2010 and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of (90)Sr due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident for the period 2011-2040. The contamination ...
Ottesen Johnny T JT Department of Science, Systems, and Models, Roskilde University, Universitestvej 1, 4000 Roskilde, - - 2014
We consider the inverse and patient specific problem of short term (seconds to minutes) heart rate regulation specified by a system of nonlinear ODEs and corresponding data. We show how a recent method termed the structural correlation method (SCM) can be used for model reduction and for obtaining a set ...
Downing A S AS Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Frescati Backe, 10691, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Kräftriket 2B, 10691, Stockholm, - - 2014
Scale is a key to determining which processes drive community structure. We analyse size distributions of phytoplankton to determine time scales at which we can observe either fixed environmental characteristics underlying communities structure or competition-driven size distributions. Using multiple statistical tests, we characterise size distributions of phytoplankton from 20-year time ...
Kucera Otto O Otto Kucera, Zuzana Cervinkova, Department of Physiology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove, 50038 Hradec Kralove, Czech - - 2014
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the Western world, and it persists at a high prevalence. NAFLD is characterised by the accumulation of triglycerides in the liver and includes a spectrum of histopathological findings, ranging from simple fatty liver through non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) ...
Seo S Niggol SN School of Economics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia, - - 2014
This paper provides an analysis of adaptation to extreme climate changes using the Australian animal husbandry data. The paper finds that farmers have adapted to a hot and arid climate regime through animal husbandry. The number of sheep vastly increases into arid ecosystems while the number of beef cattle does ...
Wang Xiaodong X Genentech, South San Francisco, - - 2014
Peginterferon lambda-1a (Lambda) is under clinical development for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C virus (HBV, HCV, respectively) infection. This is the first of two manuscripts detailing the pharmacodynamic derivation of Lambda dosing and treatment durations for phase 3 studies in HCV, based on phase 2 data. We ...
Vandenplas J J Animal Science Unit, Gembloux Agro Bio-Tech, University of Liege, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium; National Fund for Scientific Research, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
Linear mixed models, for which the prior multivariate normal distributions of random effects are assumed to have a mean equal to 0, are commonly used in animal breeding. However, some statistical analyses (e.g., the consideration of a population under selection into a genomic scheme breeding, multiple-trait predictions of lactation yields, ...
Nolan D R DR Biomedical Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, Galway, - - 2014
The Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden (HGO) model for anisotropic hyperelastic behaviour of collagen fibre reinforced materials was initially developed to describe the elastic properties of arterial tissue, but is now used extensively for modelling a variety of soft biological tissues. Such materials can be regarded as incompressible, and when the incompressibility condition is ...
Gadaleta Domenico D Laboratory of EnvironmentalChemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milano, Italy & Dipartimento di Farmacia - Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, - - 2014
Repeated dose toxicity is of the utmost importance to characterize the toxicological profile of a chemical after repeated administration. Its evaluation refers to the Lowest-Observed-(Adverse)-Effect-Level (LO(A)EL) explicitly requested in several regulatory contexts, such as REACH and EC Regulation 1223/2009 on cosmetic products. So far invivo tests have been the sole ...
Yamashita Masanao M Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543, - - 2014
To predict concentrations in humans of the herbicidal carbamate molinate, used exclusively in rice cultivation, a forward dosimetry approach was carried out using data from lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level doses orally administered to rats, wild type mice, and chimeric mice with humanized liver and from in vitro human and rodent experiments. Human liver ...
Prakash G K Surya GK Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California , Los Angeles, California 90089, United - - 2014
The introduction of the CF3 group on the C9 atom in quinidine can significantly increase the conformational interconversion barrier of the cinchona alkaloid scaffold. With this modification the conformational behavior of cinchona alkaloids in various solvents can be conveniently investigated via (19)F NMR spectroscopy. Based on the reliable conformational distribution ...
Dionisio Kathie L KL National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, - - 2014
Using multipollutant models to understand combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants is becoming more common. However, complex relationships between pollutants and differing degrees of exposure error across pollutants can make health effect estimates from multipollutant models difficult to interpret. To quantify relationships between multiple pollutants and their associated ...
Ball Kathryn K Centre de Pharmacocinétique et Métabolisme, Groupe de Recherche Servier, Orléans, - - 2014
The prediction of brain extracellular fluid (ECF) concentrations in human is a potentially valuable asset during drug development as it can provide the pharmacokinetic input for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models. In this study we aimed to compare two translational modelling approaches which can be applied at the preclinical stage of development in ...
Pearce John L - - 2014
Development of exposure metrics that capture features of the multipollutant environment are needed to investigate health effects of pollutant mixtures. This is a complex problem that requires development of new methodologies. Present a self-organizing map (SOM) framework for creating ambient air quality classifications that group days with similar multipollutant profiles. ...
Yang Xiaodong - - 2014
Parametric probability models are common references for channel characterization. However, the limited number of samples and uncertainty of the propagation scenario affect the characterization accuracy of parametric models for body area networks. In this paper, we propose a sparse non-parametric probability model for body area wireless channel characterization. The path ...
Tomiyama A Janet AJ Department of Psychology, University of California, 1285 Franz Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Weight stigma is highly pervasive, but its consequences are understudied. This review draws from theory in social psychology, health psychology, and neuroendocrinology to construct an original, generative model called the cyclic obesity/weight-based stigma (COBWEBS) model. This model characterizes weight stigma as a "vicious cycle" - a positive feedback loop wherein ...
Didychuk C C *Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON, K0J 1J0, - - 2014
A radiological concern for workers at heavy water reactor nuclear facilities is the hazard presented by tritium (H) and C. Radioactive methane is one of many potential H and C containing chemicals to which Nuclear Energy Workers (NEWs) may be exposed. Current dosimetric models for H- and C-methane, recommended by ...
Chambers Sheridan S a Troy - - 2014
ABSTRACT Prior research has examined the relationship between various model characteristics (e.g., age, competence, similarity) and the likelihood that the observers will experience vicariously learned helplessness. However, no research in this area has investigated dominance as a relevant model characteristic. This study explored whether the vicarious acquisition of learned helplessness ...
Walters Seth H - - 2014
In vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry provides high fidelity recordings of electrically evoked dopamine release. The evoked responses are suitable targets for numerical modeling because the frequency and the duration of the stimulus are exactly known. Responses recorded in the dorsal and ventral striatum of the rat do not bear ...
Iwamasa Yuni Y Faculty of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, - - 2014
We explore the networks that yield the largest mean consensus time of voter models under different update rules. By analytical and numerical means, we show that the so-called lollipop graph, barbell graph, and double-star graph maximize the mean consensus time under the update rules called the link dynamics, voter model, ...
Masuda Naoki N Department of Engineering Mathematics, Merchant Venturers Building, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Clifton, Bristol BS8 1UB, United Kingdom and CREST, JST, 4-1-8, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, - - 2014
I examine the mean consensus time (i.e., exit time) of the voter model in the so-called two-clique graph. The two-clique graph is composed of two cliques interconnected by some links and considered as a toy model of networks with community structure or multilayer networks. I analytically show that, as the ...
Naik S R SR Department of Pharmacology, Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lonavala, Pune, Maharashtra, - - 2014
Animal models play a vital role in simplifying the complexity of pathogenesis and understanding the indefinable processes and diverse mechanisms involved in the progression of disease, and in providing new knowledge that may facilitate the drug development program. Selection of the animal models has to be carefully done, so that ...
Lin Wuhui W Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084, China; Lab of Marine Isotopic Technology and Environmental Risk Assessment, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, China; Key Lab of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, China; Third Institution of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, - - 2014
Due to increasing application of (210)Po/(210)Pb in studying particle dynamics, a consistent procedure and calculation to derive accurate and precise result of (210)Po and (210)Pb in seawater should be proposed in the framework of intercalibration by GEOTRACES. The associated uncertainty of radioactivity, which is a significant component of data report, ...
Dagnas Stéphane S L'Université Nantes Angers Le Mans, Oniris, Nantes F-44322 Cedex 3, - - 2014
The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of water activity, pH and storage temperature on the growth of Eurotium repens, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum, isolated from spoiled bakery products. Moreover, the behaviors of these three mold species were compared to assess whether a general modeling framework ...
Parrott Neil N Pharmaceutical Sciences, Roche Innovation Center Basel, Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Bau 70/130 Grenzacherstrasse, Basel, Switzerland, - - 2014
Bitopertin (RG1678) is a glycine reuptake inhibitor in phase 3 trials for treatment of schizophrenia. Its clinical oral pharmacokinetics is sensitive to changes in drug substance particle size and dosage form. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) absorption model simulations of the impact of changes in particle size and dosage form (either ...
Clear Robert R Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA, USA - - 2014
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ambient air quality guidelines are meant to limit long-term exposures of toxins to safe levels. Unfortunately, there is little guidance for what constitutes a safe level from a one-time (or very infrequent) short exposure(s). In the case of mercury, a review of the derivation of the ...
Misra Snigdha S Embryotoxicology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001, UP, India Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Lucknow 226001, UP, - - 2014
Men are at risk of becoming completely infertile due to innumerable environmental chemicals and pollutants. These xenobiotics, hence, should be tested for their potential adverse effects on male fertility. However, the testing load, a monumental challenge for employing conventional animal models, compels the pursuit of alternative models. Towards this direction, ...
Adam Iris K U - - 2014
Metabolism of a low-soluble substrate is limited by dissolution and availability and can hardly be determined. We developed a numerical model simultaneously calculating dissolution kinetics of such substrates, its metabolism and microbial growth (Monod kinetics with decay) and tested it with three aerobic phenanthrene (PHE) degraders: Novosphingobium pentaromativorans US6-1, Sphingomonas ...
Feng Zhonggang Z Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Fibroblast-mediated compaction of collagen gels attracts extensive attention in studies of wound healing, cellular fate processes, and regenerative medicine. However, the underlying mechanism and the cellular mechanical niche still remain obscure. This study examines the mechanical behaviour of collagen fibrils during the process of compaction from an alternative perspective on ...
Leach Derek - - 2014
Animals build structures to extend their control over certain aspects of the environment; e.g., orb-weaver spiders build webs to capture prey, etc. Inspired by this behaviour of animals, we attempt to develop robotics technology that allows a robot to automatically builds structures to help it accomplish certain tasks. In this ...
Snelder N N Division of Pharmacology, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Einsteinweg 55, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands; LAP&P Consultants BV, Leiden, The - - 2014
Previously, a systems pharmacology model was developed characterizing drug effects on the interrelationship between mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR). The present investigation aims to 1) extend the previously developed model by parsing CO into heart rate (HR) and stroke volume (SV) and 2) ...
Sulc Petr P Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP, United - - 2014
We present a new, nucleotide-level model for RNA, oxRNA, based on the coarse-graining methodology recently developed for the oxDNA model of DNA. The model is designed to reproduce structural, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of RNA, and the coarse-graining level aims to retain the relevant physics for RNA hybridization and the ...
Gao Xin X Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Tissue Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, United - - 2014
It is challenging to noninvasively determine the mechanical properties of biological soft tissues in vivo. In this study, based on the biphasic theory and the transport models, a new constitutive model for hydration-dependent mechanical properties in hydrated soft materials was derived: [Formula: see text] , where HA(=λ+2μ) is the aggregate ...
Vanreppelen Kenny K Research Group of Analytical and Applied Chemistry, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium Research Group of Nuclear Technology, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium - - 2014
Brewer's spent grain is a low cost residue generated by the brewing industry. Its chemical composition (high nitrogen content 4.35 wt.%, fibres, etc.) makes it very useful for the production of added value in situ nitrogenised activated carbon. The composition of brewer's spent grain revealed high amounts of cellulose (20.8 ...
Zhao Yongsheng Y Beijing Key Laboratory of Ionic Liquids Clean Process, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing, China; School of Material and Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, 450001 Zhengzhou, - - 2014
A comprehensive database on toxicity of ionic liquids (ILs) is established. The database includes over 4000 pieces of data. Based on the database, the relationship between IL's structure and its toxicity has been analyzed qualitatively. Furthermore, Quantitative Structure-Activity relationships (QSAR) model is conducted to predict the toxicities (EC50 values) of ...
Höhna Sebastian S Department of Mathematics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, Storer Hall, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA; Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA; Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Genomics, Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne, France; Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics, Swedish Museum of Natural History, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden; and Department of Biological Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia;Department of Mathematics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, Storer Hall, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA; Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA; Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Genomics, Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne, France; Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics, Swedish Museum of Natural History, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden; and Department of Biological Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; - - 2014
Recent years have seen a rapid expansion of the model space explored in statistical phylogenetics, emphasizing the need for new approaches to statistical model representation and software development. Clear communication and representation of the chosen model is crucial for: (i) reproducibility of an analysis, (ii) model development, and (iii) software ...
Qiao Mu M *Kinesiology Program, School of Nutrition and Health Promotion, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA; Department of Kinesiology, California State University, San Marcos, CA 92096, - - 2014
Locomotion in a complex environment is often not steady, but the mechanisms used by animals to power and control unsteady locomotion (stability and maneuverability) are not well understood. We use behavioral, morphological, and impulsive perturbations to determine the compensations used during unsteady locomotion. At the level both of the whole-body ...
Bright Jo-Anne JA ESR Ltd., Private Bag 92021, Auckland 1142, New Zealand; University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Electronic address: - - 2014
The effect of uncertainty in the number of contributors to a profile is a matter of some contention in forensic DNA interpretation. Interpretation methods are moving towards continuous models. Within this paper the effect of misspecification of the number of contributors to a profile caused by one artefactual peak, either ...
Wang Bo B J Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, - - 2014
Objective. Neurovascular coupling in epilepsy is poorly understood; its study requires simultaneous monitoring of hemodynamic changes and neural activity in the brain. Approach. Here for the first time we present a combined real-time 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and electrophysiology/electroencephalography (EEG) system for the study of neurovascular coupling in epilepsy, whose ...
Misiti Teresa M - - 2014
Aerobic biodegradation of naphthenic acids is of importance to the oil industry for the long-term management and environmental impact of process water and wastewater. The effect of structure, particularly the location of the alkyl side chain as well as cyclicity, on the aerobic biotransformation of ten model naphthenic acids (NAs) ...
Louisse Jochem J Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE, Wageningen, The Netherlands, - - 2014
The use of laboratory animals for toxicity testing in chemical safety assessment meets increasing ethical, economic and legislative constraints. The development, validation and application of reliable alternatives for in vivo toxicity testing are therefore urgently needed. In order to use toxicity data obtained from in vitro assays for risk assessment, ...
Orton Frances F Biosciences, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QD, UK, - - 2014
Amphibians are declining and fertility/fecundity are major drivers of population stability. The development of non-destructive methods to assess reproductive health are needed as destructive measures are fundamentally at odds with conservation goals for declining species. We investigated the utility of body size, nuptial pad size and forelimb width as non-destructive ...
Afara Isaac Oluwaseun IO School of Chemistry, Physics, and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for characterizing the health and degenerative state of articular cartilage based on the components of the Mankin score. Three models of osteoarthritic degeneration induced in laboratory rats by anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection, meniscectomy (MSX), ...
Symeou V V School of Agriculture Food and Rural Development,Newcastle University,Claremont Road,Newcastle upon Tyne,NE1 - - 2014
Low phosphorus (P) digestibility combined with intensive pig production can increase P diffuse pollution and environmental load. The aim of this paper was to develop a deterministic, dynamic model able to represent P digestion, retention and ultimately excretion in growing and finishing pigs of different genotypes, offered access to diets ...
Crosio Alessandro A Reconstructive Microsurgery Unit, Traumatology Department, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10100 Turin, - - 2014
Perineural fibrotic adhesions are among the major complications of peripheral nerve surgery. While different experimental models have been used for the pre-clinical testing of anti-adherential strategies, the methods used so far to induce scar tissue appear to be poorly standardized and reproducible. New Method: Thirty adult mice were used. Two ...
Rubak Tine Steen - - 2014
When conducting large scale epidemiologic studies, it is a challenge to obtain quantitative exposure estimates, which do not rely on self-report where estimates may be influenced by symptoms and knowledge of disease status. In this study we developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) for use in population studies of the ...
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