Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 2958
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Marske Katharine A - - 2011
Mitochondrial DNA (cox1) sequence data and recently developed coalescent phylogeography models were used to construct geo-spatial histories for the New Zealand fungus beetles Epistranus lawsoni and Pristoderus bakewelli (Zopheridae). These methods utilize continuous-time Markov chains and Bayesian stochastic search variable selection incorporated in BEAST to identify historical dispersal patterns via ...
U─čurlu Emin - - 2011
The genus Quercus is one of the most important tree species in Turkey. However, little is known on the ecological preferences of Turkish oak species regarding climate. We analyzed species response curves using a HOF-model approach to describe the general pattern of oak distributions along climatic gradients and to identify ...
Di Franco Antonio - - 2011
Estimates of early-life traits of fishes (e.g. pelagic larval duration (PLD) and spawning date) are essential for investigating and assessing patterns of population connectivity. Such estimates are available for a large number of both tropical and temperate fish species, but few studies have assessed their variability in space, especially across ...
Fram Miranda S - - 2011
We use data from 1626 groundwater samples collected in California, primarily from public drinking water supply wells, to investigate the distribution of perchlorate in deep groundwater under natural conditions. The wells were sampled for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Priority Basin Project. We develop a logistic regression model ...
Siler Cameron D - - 2011
The spectacular, virtually endemic radiation of Philippine semi-fossorial skinks of the genus Brachymeles represent one of the few radiations of scincid lizards to possess both fully limbed and limbless species. And yet, nothing is known of the phylogenetic relationships of this exceptional group. Morphologically similar body plans have made it ...
Lyon James E - - 2011
Infanticide by newly immigrated or newly dominant males is reported among a variety of taxa, such as birds, rodents, carnivores and primates. Here we present a game theoretical model to explain the presence and prevalence of infanticide in primate groups. We have formulated a three-player game involving two males and ...
Yu Yun - - 2011
Analyses of the increasingly available genomic data continue to reveal the extent of hybridization and its role in the evolutionary diversification of various groups of species. We show, through extensive coalescent-based simulations of multilocus data sets on phylogenetic networks, how divergence times before and after hybridization events can result in ...
Alström Per - - 2011
The phylogeny of most of the species in the avian passerine family Locustellidae is inferred using a Bayesian species tree approach (Bayesian Estimation of Species Trees, BEST), as well as a traditional Bayesian gene tree method (MrBayes), based on a dataset comprising one mitochondrial and four nuclear loci. The trees ...
Tan May Lynn - - 2011
State agencies face many challenges in creating sport fish consumption advisories that can be readily understood by diverse populations. In this study, our objectives were to identify barriers to understanding consumption advisories and recommend more effective approaches for communicating advisory concepts. We conducted key informant interviews with demographically diverse consumers ...
Castellano Sergio - - 2011
Mate choice depends on mating preferences and on the manner in which mate-quality information is acquired and used to make decisions. We present a model that describes how these two components of mating decision interact with each other during a comparative evaluation of prospective mates. The model, with its well-explored ...
Godbold J A - - 2011
Much of what we know about the role of biodiversity in mediating ecosystem processes and function stems from manipulative experiments, which have largely been performed in isolated, homogeneous environments that do not incorporate habitat structure or allow natural community dynamics to develop. Here, we use a range of habitat configurations ...
Yu Hsiao-Hsuan - - 2011
Biological and physical processes operate collaboratively through spatial or temporal scales to form ecological patterns, which are considered as a key element for understanding the natural liens within an ecosystem. Given the importance of scaling in ecological inference, this study elucidates how physical and biological variables under or within scales ...
Benard Michael F - - 2011
Phenotype is often correlated with resource use, which suggests that as phenotypic variation in a population increases, intraspecific competition will decrease. However, few studies have experimentally tested the prediction that increased intraspecific phenotypic variation leads to reduced competitive effects (e.g., on growth rate, survival or reproductive rate). We investigated this ...
Olbricht Klaus - - 2011
Volatile metabolites are a basis for sensory and resistance traits of Fragaria × ananassa . Stability of expression is important for the selection of cultivars. For the first time, the stability of volatiles in a strawberry population after cross-combination of two distinct cultivars ('Mieze Schindler' × 'Elsanta') has been investigated. ...
Cassini Marcelo H - - 2011
The ideal free distribution model incorporating the Allee effect was published by Fretwell and Lucas (1970), but went almost unnoticed within the ecological literature. The model is relevant to populations distributed among patchy habitats. It predicts a sporadic but substantial decline in populations at high densities, which in turn induces ...
Meixler Marcia S - - 2011
Several models have been developed to assess the biological integrity of aquatic systems using fish community data. One of these, the target fish community (TFC) model, has been used primarily to assess the biological integrity of larger, mainstem rivers in southern New England with basins characterized by dispersed human activities. ...
Boto L - - 2011
This study explores the effects of microsatellite size homoplasies on the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships and estimates of population parameters as the fixation index (F(ST) ) using as a case study a truncated microsatellite from the picote splitfin Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis. The results suggest that the use of imperfect microsatellites may ...
Obaza A - - 2011
A method to estimate speed of free-ranging fishes using a passive sampling device is described and illustrated with data from the Everglades, U.S.A. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) from minnow traps embedded in drift fences was treated as an encounter rate and used to estimate speed, when combined with an ...
Oldmeadow Christopher - - 2011
MOTIVATION: The analysis of multiple sequence alignments is allowing researchers to glean valuable insights into evolution, as well as identify genomic regions that may be functional, or discover novel classes of functional elements. Understanding the distribution of conservation levels that constitutes the evolutionary landscape is crucial to distinguishing functional regions ...
Mathys Blake A - - 2011
Species that have been introduced to islands experience novel and strong selection pressures after establishment. There is evidence that exotic species diverge from their native source populations; further, a few studies have demonstrated adaptive divergence across multiple exotic populations of a single species. Exotic birds provide a good study system, ...
Stevenson Tyler J - - 2011
Seasonal breeding in the temperate zone is a dramatic example of a naturally occurring change in physiology and behaviour. Cues that predict periods of environmental amelioration favourable for breeding must be processed by the brain so that the appropriate responses in reproductive physiology can be implemented. The neural integration of ...
Puurtinen Mikael - - 2011
Mating between related individuals results in inbreeding depression, and this has been thought to select against incestuous matings. However, theory predicts that inbreeding can also be adaptive if it increases the representation of genes identical by descent in future generations. Here, I recapitulate the theory of inclusive fitness benefits of ...
Grant Peter R - - 2011
The genetic basis of variation in fitness of many organisms has been studied in the laboratory, but relatively little is known of fitness variation in natural environments or its causes. Lifetime fitness (recruitment) may be determined solely by producing many offspring, modified by stochastic effects on their subsequent survival up ...
Irie Naoki N Laboratory for Evolutionary Morphology, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan. - - 2011
One of the central issues in evolutionary developmental biology is how we can formulate the relationships between evolutionary and developmental processes. Two major models have been proposed: the 'funnel-like' model, in which the earliest embryo shows the most conserved morphological pattern, followed by diversifying later stages, and the 'hourglass' model, ...
Than Cuong V - - 2011
Methods for inferring species trees from sets of gene trees need to account for the possibility of discordance among the gene trees. Assuming that discordance is caused by incomplete lineage sorting, species tree estimates can be obtained by finding those species trees that minimize the number of "deep" coalescence events ...
De Laender Frederik - - 2011
In an international collaborative effort, an impact analysis tool is being developed to predict the effect of accidental oil spills on recruitment and production of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the Barents Sea. The tool consisted of three coupled ecological models that describe (1) plankton biomass dynamics, (2) cod larvae ...
Dale Jonathan J - - 2011
Empirical data on the abundance and habitat preferences of coral reef top predators are needed to evaluate their ecological impacts and guide management decisions. We used longline surveys to quantify the shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals (FFS) atoll from May to August 2009. Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline ...
Morales Sergio E - - 2011
A major goal in microbial ecology is to link specific microbial populations to environmental processes (e.g. biogeochemical transformations). The cultivation and characterization of isolates using genetic, biochemical and physiological tests provided direct links between organisms and their activities, but did not provide an understanding of the process networks in situ. ...
McCarthy Michael A - - 2011
Studies of ecological responses to climate change have often analysed species independently of each other, yet interactions between species are fundamental aspects of ecology. Mutshinda, O'Hara & Woiwod (2011) used light-trapping data for Lepidoptera (moths) to examine population responses to intraspecific effects and effects of winter rainfall and temperature. They ...
Herridge Rowan P - - 2011
Arabidopsis thaliana is a useful model organism for deciphering the genetic determinants of seed size; however the small size of its seeds makes measurements difficult. Bulk seed weights are often used as an indicator of average seed size, but details of individual seed is obscured. Analysis of seed images is ...
Schneider Kristan A - - 2011
In this article, we study the influence of dominance on the evolution of assortative mating. We perform a population-genetic analysis of a two-locus two-allele model. We consider a quantitative trait that is under a mixture of frequency-independent stabilizing selection and density- and frequency-dependent selection caused by intraspecific competition for a ...
Gogol-Prokurat Melanie - - 2011
If species distribution models (SDMs) can rank habitat suitability at a local scale, they may be a valuable conservation planning tool for rare, patchily distributed species. This study assessed the ability of Maxent, an SDM reported to be appropriate for modeling rare species, to rank habitat suitability at a local ...
Morin James G - - 2011
This issue's featured article; Based on a review of the data, use of the term 'cypridinid' solves the Cypridina/Vargula dilemma for naming the constituents of the luminescent system of ostracods in the family Cypridinidae is authored by Jim Morin of Cornell University. The cover graphic indicates the evolutionary relationships among ...
Norghauer Julian M - - 2011
Seed dispersal by wind is a critical yet poorly understood process in tropical forest trees. How tree size and fecundity affect this process at the population level remains largely unknown because of insufficient replication across adults. We measured seed dispersal by the endangered neotropical timber species big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla ...
Scrosati Ricardo A - - 2011
One of the most studied macroecological patterns is the interspecific abundance-occupancy relationship, which relates species distribution and abundance across space. Interspecific relationships between temporal distribution and abundance, however, remain largely unexplored. Using data for a natural assemblage of tabanid flies measured daily during spring and summer in Nova Scotia, we ...
McMahon Sean M - - 2011
Theoretical models indicate that trade-offs between growth and survival strategies of tree species can lead to coexistence across life history stages (ontogeny) and physical conditions experienced by individuals. There exist predicted physiological mechanisms regulating these trade-offs, such as an investment in leaf characters that may increase survival in stressful environments ...
Steinmetz Robert - - 2011
Ecologically similar species often coexist by partitioning use of habitats or resources. Such partitioning can occur through divergent or shared niches. We investigated overlap in habitat use and spatial co-occurrence by sympatric Asiatic black bears and sun bears in three habitats in Thailand, and thereby assessed which niche model best ...
Sallam Hesham M - - 2011
Gaudeamus is an enigmatic hystricognathous rodent that was, until recently, known solely from fragmentary material from early Oligocene sites in Egypt, Oman, and Libya. Gaudeamus' molars are similar to those of the extant cane rat Thryonomys, and multiple authorities have aligned Gaudeamus with Thryonomys to the exclusion of other living ...
Miller Joshua H - - 2011
Natural accumulations of skeletal material (death assemblages) have the potential to provide historical data on species diversity and population structure for regions lacking decades of wildlife monitoring, thereby contributing valuable baseline data for conservation and management strategies. Previous studies of the ecological and temporal resolutions of death assemblages from terrestrial ...
Etienne Rampal S - - 2011
The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography is increasingly accepted as an informative null model of community composition and dynamics. It has successfully produced macro-ecological patterns such as species-area relationships and species abundance distributions. However, the models employed make many unrealistic auxiliary assumptions. For example, the popular spatially implicit ...
Grantham Hedley S - - 2011
Pelagic ecosystems support a significant and vital component of the ocean's productivity and biodiversity. They are also heavily exploited and, as a result, are the focus of numerous spatial planning initiatives. Over the past decade, there has been increasing enthusiasm for protected areas as a tool for pelagic conservation, however, ...
Hector Andy - - 2011
The idea that species diversity can influence ecosystem functioning has been controversial and its importance relative to compositional effects hotly debated. Unfortunately, assessing the relative importance of different explanatory variables in complex linear models is not simple. In this paper we assess the relative importance of species richness and species ...
Pérez-Guerrero Sergio - - 2011
Local species abundance is related to range size, habitat characteristics, distribution type, body size, and life-history variables. In general, habitat generalists and polyphagous species are more abundant in broad geographical areas. Underlying this, local abundance may be explained from the interactions between life-history traits, chorological pattern, and the local habitat ...
Van Wassenbergh Sam - - 2011
The body shape of seahorses resembles the head and neck of horses because of their curved trunk, their ventrally bent head and their long snout. Seahorses evolved from ancestral, pipefish-like species, which have a straight body. Here, we use a biomechanical analysis and show that the seahorse's peculiar head, neck ...
Evans Harry C - - 2011
Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (Clavicipitaceae: Hypocreales) is a fungal pathogen specific to ants of the tribe Camponotini (Formicinae: Formicidae) with a pantropical distribution. This so-called zombie or brain-manipulating fungus alters the behaviour of the ant host, causing it to die in an exposed position, typically clinging onto and biting into the adaxial ...
Ibáñez A L - - 2011
This study gives the first record of Mugil hospes distributed in the Gulf of Mexico. This species previously has been confused with its congener Mugil curema and can be easily differentiated by the shape of the ctenii on their scales.
Klie Sebastian - - 2011
With the development of high-throughput metabolic technologies, a plethora of primary and secondary compounds have been detected in the plant cell. However, there are still major gaps in our understanding of the plant metabolome. This is especially true with regards to the compartmental localization of these identified metabolites. Non-aqueous fractionation ...
Doyle Jacqueline M - - 2011
Many animals, such as crustaceans, insects, and salamanders, package their sperm into spermatophores, and the number of spermatozoa contained in a spermatophore is relevant to studies of sexual selection and sperm competition. We used two molecular methods, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and spectrophotometry, to estimate sperm numbers from ...
Smith Craig S CS Biosecurity Sciences Laboratory, Department of Employment, Biosecurity Queensland, Economic Development & Innovation, Coopers Plains, Queensland, - - 2011
Understanding the long-distance movement of bats has direct relevance to studies of population dynamics, ecology, disease emergence, and conservation. We developed and trialed several collar and platform terminal transmitter (PTT) combinations on both free-living and captive fruit bats (Family Pteropodidae: Genus Pteropus). We examined transmitter weight, size, profile and comfort ...
Almeida Carina - - 2011
Our current understanding of biofilms indicates that these structures are typically composed of many different microbial species. However, the lack of reliable techniques for the discrimination of each population has meant that studies focusing on multi-species biofilms are scarce and typically generate qualitative rather than quantitative data. We employ peptide ...
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