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Rudgers Jennifer A - - 2012
One of the challenges to quantifying the costs and benefits of symbiosis is that symbionts can influence different components of host fitness. To improve understanding of the ecology of inherited symbionts, we developed general theory for a perennial host-hereditary symbiont interaction, in which symbionts can have independent and potentially opposing ...
Jiang Yueyang - - 2012
This study aims to assess how high-latitude vegetation may respond under various climate scenarios during the 21st century with a focus on analyzing model parameters induced uncertainty and how this uncertainty compares to the uncertainty induced by various climates. The analysis was based on a set of 10,000 Monte Carlo ...
De Vos Dirk - - 2012
Modelling and simulation are increasingly used as tools in the study of plant growth and developmental processes. By formulating experimentally obtained knowledge as a system of interacting mathematical equations, it becomes feasible for biologists to gain a mechanistic understanding of the complex behaviour of biological systems. In this review, the ...
Marom Gil - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the aortic annulus (AA) diameter in order to examine the performance metrics, such as maximum principal stress, strain energy density, coaptation area, and effective height in the aortic valve. METHODS: Six cases of aortic roots with an ...
Peltoniemi Mikko - - 2012
The maximum light use efficiency (LUE = gross primary production (GPP)/absorbed photosynthetic photon flux density (aPPFD)) of plant canopies has been reported to vary spatially and some of this variation has previously been attributed to plant species differences. The canopy nitrogen concentration [N] can potentially explain some of this spatial variation. However, ...
Cassin Bryce R - - 2012
This article discusses the limitations of root cause analysis (RCA) for surgical adverse events. Making sense of adverse events involves an appreciation of the unique features in a problematic situation, which resist generalization to other contexts. The top priority of adverse event investigations must be to inform the design of ...
Weston David J - - 2012
Network analysis is now a common statistical tool for molecular biologists. Network algorithms are readily used to model gene, protein and metabolic correlations providing insight into pathways driving biological phenomenon. One output from such an analysis is a candidate gene list that can be responsible, in part, for the biological ...
Evans Matthew R - - 2012
The world is changing at an unprecedented rate. In such a situation, we need to understand the nature of the change and to make predictions about the way in which it might affect systems of interest; often we may also wish to understand what might be done to mitigate the ...
Sutherland William J - - 2012
One of the aims of ecology is to aid policy makers and practitioners through the development of testable predictions of relevance to society. Here, we argue that this capacity can be improved in three ways. Firstly, by thinking more clearly about the priority issues using a range of methods including ...
Mulas M - - 2012
In this work we present and discuss the design of an array of soft-sensors to estimate the nitrate concentration in the denitrifying post-filtration unit at the Viikinmäki wastewater treatment plant in Helsinki (Finland). The developed sensors aim at supporting the existing hardware analyzers by providing a reliable back-up system in ...
Jenner William J WJ Centre for Clinical Pharmacology, Division of Medicine, University College London , London WC1E 6JF , - - 2012
The cantharidin blister model provides an in vivo assessment of the innate inflammatory response in humans. It allows researchers to profile the acute and resolving inflammatory response in healthy and diseased states and for the design of crossover trials for the testing of new treatments for acute inflammation. Below we ...
Puisto A - - 2012
The rheology of nanofiber suspensions is studied solving numerically the Population Balance Equations (PBE). To account for the anisotropic nature of nanofibers, a relation is proposed for their hydrodynamic volume. The suspension viscosity is calculated using the computed aggregate size distributions together with the Krieger-Dougherty constitutive equation. The model is ...
Sharma K R - - 2012
Chemicals are often dosed to control the production and accumulation of hydrogen sulfide in sewers. The biological and/or chemical actions of these chemicals have profound impacts on the composition of wastewater entering a WWTP, thereby affecting its performance. In this paper, an integrated modelling methodology for simultaneously investigating the effects ...
Ramalingam K - - 2012
New York City Environmental Protection is in the process of incorporating biological nitrogen removal (BNR) in its wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which entails operating the aeration tanks with higher levels of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) than a conventional activated sludge process. The objective of this paper is to discuss ...
Willson Stephen J SJ Department of Mathematics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 - - 2012
A phylogenetic network N has vertices corresponding to species and arcs corresponding to direct genetic inheritance from the species at the tail to the species at the head. Measurements of DNA are often made on species in the leaf set, and one seeks to infer properties of the network, possibly ...
Vankudavath Raju Naik - - 2012
During many biological experiments voluminous data is acquired, which can be best collected with -portable data acquisition devices and later analyzed with a personal computer (PC). Public domain software catering to data acquisition and analysis is currently limited. The necessity of phenotyping large plant populations led to the development of ...
Skinner Brian - - 2012
In basketball, every time the offense produces a shot opportunity the player with the ball must decide whether the shot is worth taking. In this article, I explore the question of when a team should shoot and when they should pass up the shot by considering a simple theoretical model ...
Serang Oliver - - 2012
The problem of genotyping polyploids is extremely important for the creation of genetic maps and assembly of complex plant genomes. Despite its significance, polyploid genotyping still remains largely unsolved and suffers from a lack of statistical formality. In this paper a graphical bayesian model for SNP genotyping data is introduced. ...
Li Rong-Ping - - 2012
Plant phenology models, especially leafing models, play critical roles in evaluating the impact of climate change on the primary production of temperate plants. Existing models based on temperature alone could not accurately simulate plant leafing in arid and semi-arid regions. The objective of the present study was to test the ...
Fernández I Martí Angel - - 2012
Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) is a mechanism in flowering plants, to prevent inbreeding and promote outcrossing. GSI is under the control of a specific locus, known as the S-locus, which contains at least two genes, the RNase and the SFB. Active S-RNases in the style are essential for rejection of haploid ...
Percoco Marco - - 2012
In this note I reply to the comments by Haimes et al. on my paper on the sensitivity analysis of the inoperability input-output model. I make the case for a moment-independent sensitivity analysis.
Liu Zhili - - 2012
Leaf area index (LAI) is an important variable in the study of forest ecosystem processes, but very few studies are designed to monitor LAI and the seasonal variability in a mixed forest using non-destructive sampling. In this study, first, true LAI from May 1(st) and November 15(th) was estimated by ...
Man Mao-Qiang - - 2012
Herbal medicines have been used in preventing and treating skin disorders for centuries. It has been demonstrated that systemic administration of chrysanthemum extract exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether topical applications of apigenin, a constituent of chrysanthemum extract, influence cutaneous inflammation is still unclear. In the present study, we first tested ...
Webb-Robertson Bobbie-Jo - - 2012
Recent years have seen an increase in the forensic interest associated with the poison ricin, which is extracted from the seeds of the Ricinus communis plant. Both light element (C, N, O, and H) and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios have previously been used to associate organic material with geographic regions ...
Matsen Frederick A - - 2012
Although taxonomy is often used informally to evaluate the results of phylogenetic inference and the root of phylogenetic trees, algorithmic methods to do so are lacking. In this paper we formalize these procedures and develop algorithms to solve the relevant problems. In particular, we introduce a new algorithm that solves ...
Wallington-Beddoe Craig T - - 2012
[This corrects the article on p. e36429 in vol. 7.].
Castle Matthew D - - 2012
Defining appropriate policies for controlling the spread of fungal disease in agricultural landscapes requires appropriate theoretical models. Most existing models for the fungicidal control of plant diseases do not explicitly include the dynamics of the fungicide itself, nor do they consider the impact of infection occurring during the host growth ...
Kim H H - - 2012
This paper reviews a 10-year experience in establishing a cryopreserved Allium germplasm collection at the genebank of the National Agrobiodiversity Center, Republic of Korea. A systematic approach to Allium cryopreservation included: 1. revealing the most critical factors that affected regeneration after cryostorage; 2. understanding the mechanisms of cryoprotection by analyzing ...
Tripathi Shuchi - - 2011
Background and Aim: The custom-made finger prosthesis is aesthetically acceptable and comfortable for use in patients with amputated fingers, resulting in psychological improvement and physiological well being. The success of the prosthesis depends on the precision of planning the prosthesis, making the impression, carving the model and choosing the material ...
Freidline S E - - 2011
The Zuttiyeh hominin craniofacial fossil was discovered in Israel in 1925. Radiometric dates and the archaeological context (Acheulo-Yabrudian) bracket the associated cave layers to between 200 and 500 ka (thousands of years ago), making it one of the earliest cranial fossils discovered in the Near East thus far. Its geographic position, ...
Pan Pujing - - 2012
It is important to know the initial time, or zero-time, of a nuclear event such as a nuclear weapon's test, a nuclear power plant accident or a nuclear terrorist attack (e.g. with an improvised nuclear device, IND). Together with relevant meteorological information, the calculated zero-time is used to help locate ...
Friston Karl K The Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK. - - 2013
Lohmann et al. (this issue) make three unremarkable observations about model selection and use them to critique dynamic causal modelling-a Bayesian model selection procedure based on causal models of dynamical systems (Marreiros et al., 2010). In this response, we unpack their misconceptions and try to answer their questions.
Yuan F - - 2011
AbstractIt is difficult to build an accurate and smooth liver vessel model due to the tiny size, noise and n-furcations of vessels. To overcome these problems, we propose an n-furcation vessel tree modeling method (nVTM). In this method, given a segmented volume and a point indicating the root of the ...
Ray Rajasri - - 2011
Predictive distribution modelling of Berberis aristata DC, a rare threatened plant with high medicinal values has been done with an aim to understand its potential distribution zones in Indian Himalayan region. Bioclimatic and topographic variables were used to develop the distribution model with the help of three different algorithms viz. ...
Xu Xiao X Cancer Biology Program and Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, - - 2011
The inherent simplicity of Caenorhabditis elegans and its extensive genetic toolkit make it ideal for studying complex biological processes. Recent developments further increase the usefulness of the worm, including new methods for: altering gene expression, altering physiology using optogenetics, manipulating large numbers of worms, automating laborious processes and processing high-resolution ...
Shorter Philip - - 2011
Rattle issues consistently rank as one of the top consumer complaints in initial quality surveys for many new products. Predicting the acoustics of rattle is complicated by the need to model the vibro-acoustic response of large complex structures across a broad frequency range. The complexity of the analysis can be ...
Skalevik Magne - - 2011
Looking around, one might get the impression that a canopy has become a "must have" in every new concert hall and a magic recipe in any refurbishment project. There are, however, cases where canopies would be unwanted, unnecessary, insufficient, inadequate, or even detrimental to the acoustics on stage or in ...
Pottage Alain - - 2011
Early US patent law was machine made. Before the Patent Office took on the function of examining patent applications in 1836, questions of novelty and priority were determined in court, within the forum of the infringement action. And at all levels of litigation, from the circuit courts up to the ...
Nassar Usama - - 2011
Pouring time of irreversible hydrocolloid impressions differs depending on the brand and intended use, either of which may result in variable dimensional stability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the available literature on dimensional stability of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials as a function of pouring time and disinfectant ...
Mauss Iris B - - 2011
Reports an error in "Can seeking happiness make people happy? Paradoxical effects of valuing happiness" by Iris B. Mauss, Maya Tamir, Craig L. Anderson and Nicole S. Savino (Emotion, 2011, np). There was an error in the title. The title of the article should read, "Can seeking happiness make people ...
Schüll Natasha Dow - - 2011
The young field of neuroeconomics converges around behavioral deviations from the model of the human being as Homo economicus, a rational actor who calculates his choices to maximize his individual satisfaction. In a historical moment characterized by economic, health, and environmental crises, policymakers have become increasingly concerned about a particular ...
Speekenbrink Maarten - - 2011
A central claim of Jones & Love's (J&L's) article is that Bayesian Fundamentalism is empirically unconstrained. Unless constraints are placed on prior beliefs, likelihood, and utility functions, all behaviour - it is proposed - is consistent with Bayesian rationality. Although such claims are commonplace, their basis is rarely justified. We ...
Taskinen Sara - - 2011
In allometry, bivariate techniques related to principal component analysis are often used in place of linear regression, and primary interest is in making inferences about the slope. We demonstrate that the current inferential methods are not robust to bivariate contamination, and consider four robust alternatives to the current methods - ...
- - 2011
Cover: A blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) raises its fluke before making a deep dive on its winter feeding grounds, Sea of Cortez, Baja California, Mexico. Although blue whales are the largest animals on Earth, they are rare, and their abundance is difficult to estimate. On pages 526-535, Williams et al. ...
Sulica Lucian - - 2011
Hoarseness is the colloquial expression for dysphonia ; these terms are often used interchangeably in medicine to refer to altered voice quality. Hoarseness may be both a symptom and a sign of dysfunction of the phonatory apparatus. It is never a diagnosis, despite having a corresponding International Classification of Diseases ...
Bozzaro Salvatore - - 2011
The use of simple hosts such as Dictyostelium discoideum in the study of host pathogen interactions offers a number of advantages and has steadily increased in recent years. Infection-specific genes can often only be studied in a very limited way in man and even in the mouse model their analysis ...
Wang Hongliang - - 2011
The process of stomatogenesis in peritrich ciliates is still incompletely understood. Previous studies on the stomatogenesis of four species of peritrichs, Telotrochidium sp., Carchesium polypinum, Opercularia coarctata, and Astylozoon pyriforme conflict with one another in some cases and omit details of events in others. We described the entire process of ...
Murray Rosalind L - - 2011
Sperm count evolution is driven by sexual selection, with an added role of selection on gamete resource allocation for hermaphrodite spermatogenesis. However, self-fertilization by hermaphrodites retards sexual selection and results in the evolution of reduced investment in sperm or pollen. In contrast to reproduction limited by female gametes (Bateman's Principle), ...
Stone Graham N - - 2011
How do we quantify patterns (such as responses to local selection) sampled across multiple populations within a single species? Key to this question is the extent to which populations within species represent statistically independent data points in our analysis. Comparative analyses across species and higher taxa have long recognized the ...
Januchowski-Hartley Stephanie - - 2011
Often ecologists and natural resource managers can easily access data on invasive species occurrence across a region. Yet, collecting species abundance data over a large area is arguably more important for decision making, but inherently costly, so methods which can provide robust information at low-cost are particularly valuable. Studies of ...
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