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Rezende Carla Ferreira - - 2010
The Mato Grosso is a typical Atlantic Forest stream located on the East coast of Brazil, approximately 70 km from Rio de Janeiro city. From its source at about 800m a.s.l, the stream drains a 30km2 area of the Northwestern part of the municipality of Saquarema, state of Rio de ...
Betts M G - - 2010
Recent declines in broadleaf-dominated, early-seral forest globally as a function of intensive forest management and/or fire suppression have raised concern about the viability of populations dependent on such forest types. However, quantitative information about the strength and direction of species associations with broadleaf cover at landscape scales are rare. Uncovering ...
Soufbaf Mahmoud - - 2010
The effects of 10 commercial canola, Brassica napus L., cultivars widely grown in Iran--'SLM(046),' 'Opera,' 'Okapi,' 'RGS(003),' 'Modena,' 'Sarigol,' 'Zarfam,' 'Licord,' 'Hayula(420),' and 'Talaye'--on the demographic parameters of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera-Plutellidae), were determined. The experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, ...
Gray David R - - 2010
As global trade increases so too does the probability of introduction of alien species to new locations. Estimating the probability of an alien species introduction and establishment following introduction is a necessary step in risk estimation (probability of an event times the consequences, in the currency of choice, of the ...
Morris William F WF Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. - - 2011
In a stochastic environment, long-term fitness can be influenced by variation, covariation, and serial correlation in vital rates (survival and fertility). Yet no study of an animal population has parsed the contributions of these three aspects of variability to long-term fitness. We do so using a unique database that includes ...
Hall Brenda L - - 2010
The phasing of millennial-scale oscillations in Antarctica relative to those elsewhere in the world is important for discriminating among models for abrupt climate change, particularly those involving the Southern Ocean. However, records of millennial-scale variability from Antarctica dating to the last glacial maximum are rare and rely heavily on data ...
Black Emily - - 2010
Anthropogenic changes in precipitation pose a serious threat to society-particularly in regions such as the Middle East that already face serious water shortages. However, climate model projections of regional precipitation remain highly uncertain. Moreover, standard resolution climate models have particular difficulty representing precipitation in the Middle East, which is modulated ...
Hemming Debbie - - 2010
The projection of robust regional climate changes over the next 50 years presents a considerable challenge for the current generation of climate models. Water cycle changes are particularly difficult to model in this area because major uncertainties exist in the representation of processes such as large-scale and convective rainfall and ...
Jin Fengjun - - 2010
Water cycle components over the Mediterranean for both a current run (1979-2007) and a future run (2075-2099) are studied with the Japan Meteorological Agency's 20 km grid global climate model. Results are compared with another study using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 ensemble model (hereafter, the Mariotti model). ...
Brayshaw David James - - 2010
The winter climate of Europe and the Mediterranean is dominated by the weather systems of the mid-latitude storm tracks. The behaviour of the storm tracks is highly variable, particularly in the eastern North Atlantic, and has a profound impact on the hydroclimate of the Mediterranean region. A deeper understanding of ...
Beirão J - - 2010
The evaluation of the motility data obtained with a CASA system, applying a Two-Step Cluster analysis, identified in seabream sperm 3 different sperm subpopulations that correlated differently with embryo hatching rates. Hence, we designed an experiment to understand the effect of the application of different cryopreservation protocols in these sperm ...
Bunnefeld Nils - - 2011
1. Animal migration has long intrigued scientists and wildlife managers alike, yet migratory species face increasing challenges because of habitat fragmentation, climate change and over-exploitation. Central to the understanding migratory species is the objective discrimination between migratory and nonmigratory individuals in a given population, quantifying the timing, duration and distance of ...
Liao Chung-Min - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to use a risk-based integrated-scale toxicological model to examine the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium (Cd) toxicity on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) susceptibility appraised with recent published data. A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. The dose-response models were ...
Domingues M V - - 2010
The marine-derived stingrays of Potamotrygonidae, endemic to South American river systems, host an interesting parasite fauna equally related to marine lineages. Among those lineages, the diversity and phylogenetic relationships within Potamotrygonocotyle - a monocotylid monogenoidean specific to potamotrygonids - are poorly known, since 9 of 10 species attributed to this ...
Hanski Ilkka I Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland. - - 2011
We construct a model that combines extinction-colonization dynamics with the dynamics of local adaptation in a network of habitat patches of dissimilar qualities. We derive a deterministic approximation for the stochastic model that allows the calculation of patch-specific incidences of occupancy and levels of adaptation at steady state. Depending on ...
Okuyama Toshinori - - 2011
Individual variation is a ubiquitous and important factor that affects ecological dynamics. This study examined individual variation in the nest-use pattern of the jumping spider Phidippus audax. Although the jumping spider is a diurnal species, field observations in this study revealed that the majority of individuals remained in their nests ...
Metzger Marc C - - 2010
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and analyze statistical shapes of the outer mandible contour of Caucasian and Chinese people, offering data for the production of preformed mandible reconstruction plates. METHODS: A CT-database of 925 Caucasians (male: n=463, female: n=462) and 960 Chinese (male: n=469, female: n=491) ...
Bater Christopher W - - 2011
Critical to habitat management is the understanding of not only the location of animal food resources, but also the timing of their availability. Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) diets, for example, shift seasonally as different vegetation species enter key phenological phases. In this paper, we describe the use of a network ...
Joppa Lucas N - - 2011
Protected areas (PAs) dominate conservation efforts. They will probably play a role in future climate policies too, as global payments may reward local reductions of loss of natural land cover. We estimate the impact of PAs on natural land cover within each of 147 countries by comparing outcomes inside PAs ...
Miguntanna Nadeeka S - - 2010
This paper presents the outcomes of a research project, which focused on developing a set of surrogate parameters to evaluate urban stormwater quality using simulated rainfall. Use of surrogate parameters has the potential to enhance the rapid generation of urban stormwater quality data based on on-site measurements and thereby reduce ...
Blonder Benjamin - - 2011
Ecology Letters (2011) 14: 91-100 ABSTRACT: The leaf economics spectrum describes biome-invariant scaling functions for leaf functional traits that relate to global primary productivity and nutrient cycling. Here, we develop a comprehensive framework for the origin of this leaf economics spectrum based on venation-mediated economic strategies. We define a standardized ...
Rosenblum Erica Bree - - 2010
Understanding the factors that promote or inhibit species formation remains a central focus in evolutionary biology. It has been difficult to make generalities about the process of ecological speciation in particular given that each example is somewhat idiosyncratic. Here we use a case study of replicated ecological speciation in the ...
Kylafis Grigoris - - 2011
Ecology Letters (2011) 14: 82-90 ABSTRACT: Ecological niche construction, the process whereby an organism improves its environment to enhance its growth and persistence, is an important missing element of niche theory. Niche theory has mainly focused on niche-deteriorating processes, such as resource consumption, predation and competition, which have negative effects ...
van Veelen Matthijs - - 2011
This is a reply to "Queller's rule ok: Comment on van Veelen 'when inclusive fitness is right and when it can be wrong' " by James Marshall in the Journal of Theoretical Biology, in this issue. In order to circumvent the disagreement about the Price equation and focus on the ...
Stähli Manfred - - 2011
Long-term data on precipitation and runoff are essential to draw firm conclusions about the behavior and trends of hydrological catchments that may be influenced by land use and climate change. Here the longest continuous runoff records from small catchments (<1 km(2)) in Switzerland (and possibly worldwide) are reported. The history of ...
Pyron R Alexander - - 2010
The superfamily Colubroidea (>2500 species) includes the majority of snake species and is one of the most conspicuous and well-known radiations of terrestrial vertebrates. However, many aspects of the phylogeny of the group remain contentious, and dozens of genera have yet to be included in molecular phylogenetic analyses. We present ...
Israfil H - - 2011
According to recent taxonomic reclassification, the primate family Hylobatidae contains four genera (Hoolock, Nomascus, Symphalangus, and Hylobates) and between 14 and 18 species, making it by far the most species-rich group of extant hominoids. Known as the "small apes", these small arboreal primates are distributed throughout Southeast, South and East ...
Borderías Antonio J - - 2011
First processing steps of fish are species-dependent and have common practices for wild and for farmed fish. Fish farming does, however, have certain advantages over traditional fisheries in that the processor can influence postmortem biochemistry and various quality parameters. This review summarizes information about the primary processing of fish based ...
Chebud Yirgalem - - 2011
The Watershed Assessment Model was used to simulate the runoff volume, peak flows, and non-point source phosphorus loadings from the 5870 km(2) Lake Okeechobee watershed as a case study. The results were compared to on-site monitoring to verify the accuracy of the method and to estimate the observed/simulated error. In ...
Cheng Yongcun - - 2011
Oil spills are a major contributor to marine pollution. The objective of this work is to simulate the oil spill trajectory of oil released from a pipeline leaking in the Gulf of Mexico with the GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment) model. The model was developed by NOAA (National Oceanic ...
Ennen Joshua - - 2010
Abstract The distribution of the gopher tortoise tick (Amblyomma tuberculatum) has been considered intrinsically linked to the distribution of its primary host, gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). However, the presence of G. polyphemus does not always equate to the presence of A. tuberculatum. There is a paucity of data on the ...
Boon Katy A - - 2010
Classification of contaminated land is important for risk assessment and so it is vital to understand and quantify all of the uncertainties that are involved in the assessment of contaminated land. This paper uses a case study to compare two methods for assessing the uncertainty in site investigations (uncertainty of ...
Schädler S - - 2011
We describe the development of an integrated assessment model which evaluates redevelopment options of large contaminated brownfields and we present the application of the model in a case study. Aiming to support efficient and sustainable revitalization and communication between stakeholders, the presented assessment model integrates three pinnacles of brownfield revitalization: ...
Sanyal Jibonananda - - 2010
Numerical weather prediction ensembles are routinely used for operational weather forecasting. The members of these ensembles are individual simulations with either slightly perturbed initial conditions or different model parameterizations, or occasionally both. Multi-member ensemble output is usually large, multivariate, and challenging to interpret interactively. Forecast meteorologists are interested in understanding ...
Whitehouse Richard J S - - 2011
Analysis and interpretation of monitoring data for the seabed bathymetry local to offshore windfarm foundations has shown how the scour develops in time and highlighted variations between sites with different seabed sediment characteristics, i.e. sands and clays. Results from European offshore windfarms have generated a unique dataset for comparison with ...
Rivrud Inger Maren - - 2010
1. There is a rapidly growing literature on how climate affects populations of vertebrates. For large herbivorous mammals, most attention has been paid to demographic responses to climate variation. Much less information is available regarding how climate affects animal behaviour, i.e. the climate mechanisms. Further, the appropriate measurement scale of ...
Beier Brooke D - - 2010
Confocal Raman microspectroscopy is used to discriminate between different species of bacteria grown in biofilms. Tests are performed using two bacterial species, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans, which are major components of oral plaque and of particular interest due to their association with healthy and cariogenic plaque, respectively. Dehydrated biofilms ...
Sienkiewicz Julian - - 2010
We extend a model of community isolation in the d-dimensional lattice to a case with an imposed imbalance between the birth rates of competing communities. We provide analytical and numerical evidences that in the asymmetric two-species model there exists a well-defined value of the asymmetry parameter when the emergence of ...
Siepielski Adam M - - 2010
A major challenge in ecology is to understand how the millions of species on Earth are organized into biological communities. Mechanisms promoting coexistence are one such class of organizing processes, which allow multiple species to persist in the same trophic level of a given web of species interactions. If some ...
Schock Danna M - - 2010
Pathogens can cause serious declines in host species, and knowing where pathogens associated with host declines occur facilitates understanding host-pathogen ecology. Suspected drivers of global amphibian declines include infectious diseases, with 2 pathogens in particular, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranaviruses, causing concern. We explored the host range and geographic distribution ...
Bowles Ann E - - 2010
Ultrasonic coded transmitters (UCTs) producing frequencies of 69-83 kHz are used increasingly to track fish and invertebrates in coastal and estuarine waters. To address concerns that they might be audible to marine mammals, acoustic properties of UCTs were measured off Mission Beach, San Diego, and at the U.S. Navy TRANSDEC ...
Hostetler Jeffrey A - - 2010
Estimates of survival for the young of a species are critical for population models. These models can often be improved by determining the effects of management actions and population abundance on this demographic parameter. We used multiple sources of data collected during 1982-2008 and a live recapture-dead recovery modeling framework ...
Péron Guillaume - - 2010
Researchers often rely on capture-mark-recapture (CMR) data to study animal dispersal in the wild. Yet their spatial coverage often does not encompass the entire dispersal range of the study individuals, sometimes producing misleading results. Information contained in population surveys and variation in population spatial structure can be used to overcome ...
Ulrich Werner - - 2010
The influence of negative species interactions has dominated much of the literature on community assembly rules. Patterns of negative covariation among species are typically documented through null model analyses of binary presence/absence matrices in which rows designate species, columns designate sites, and the matrix entries indicate the presence (1) or ...
Gomiero L M - - 2010
The growth and mortality parameters were estimated through the analysis of length frequency distribution for species of Cichla spp. introduced into a lake in Leme (SP), and in Volta Grande reservoir (SP-MG). In Leme, Cichla kelberi presented larger frequency in the inferior classes of lengths, larger instantaneous rate of natural ...
Edwards Kyle F - - 2010
For competing species limited by one or few resources, diversity is thought to be maintained by trade-offs that allow niche differentiation without resource partitioning. However, few studies have quantified multiple key traits for each species in a guild and shown that trade-offs among these traits apply across the guild. Here ...
Dias Fernando M S - - 2010
The present note aims to describe two alternative methods for observing genitalia in Lepidoptera. The first one provides means to examine both male and female genitalia without spoiling the scales of the abdomen, preserving it attached to the thorax and aesthetically similar to an unexamined specimen. The second one provides ...
Hanson Niklas - - 2010
A signal from a biological endpoint can be considered evidence of environmental impact only if it is known that similar signals are unlikely to occur naturally. Using multiple reference sites, the normal range can be estimated. This can be defined as the span that includes 95% of the reference sites. ...
Matuszewski Szymon - - 2011
The succession of insects on pig carrion was monitored in spring, summer and autumn, in three forest types and 2 years in Western Poland (Central Europe). In most forensically useful taxa, significant differences between seasons, forests and years in time of appearance on carrion were found. The lowest values of ...
Haitjema Henk - - 2010
Horizontal wells or radial collector wells are used in shallow aquifers to enhance water withdrawal rates. Groundwater flow patterns near these wells are three-dimensional (3D), but difficult to represent in a 3D numerical model because of the high degree of grid refinement needed. However, for the purpose of designing water ...
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