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Morgan M J MJ Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research, PO Box 41 06 29, Cologne 50866, Germany - - 2014
It has been suggested that numerosity is an elementary quality of perception, similar to colour. If so (and despite considerable investigation), its mechanism remains unknown. Here, we show that observers require on average a massive difference of approximately 40% to detect a change in the number of objects that vary ...
Wang Z J ZJ Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Kansas, 2120 Learned Hall, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA - - 2014
Most forecasts predict an annual airline traffic growth rate between 4.5 and 5% in the foreseeable future. To sustain that growth, the environmental impact of aircraft cannot be ignored. Future aircraft must have much better fuel economy, dramatically less greenhouse gas emissions and noise, in addition to better performance. Many ...
Chopard B B Department of Computer Science, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland - - 2014
We review a methodology to design, implement and execute multi-scale and multi-science numerical simulations. We identify important ingredients of multi-scale modelling and give a precise definition of them. Our framework assumes that a multi-scale model can be formulated in terms of a collection of coupled single-scale submodels. With concepts such ...
Liu Kevin K Department of Mathematics, UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK - - 2014
Repeated oblique impacts and rebounds of a solid body or bodies on horizontal shallow water are investigated through mathematical modelling. The inclinations from the horizontal are supposed small as the skimming evolves, for a thin typical body shape. The new formulation aimed at improved prediction as well as the background ...
Karade Vikas V OrthoCAD Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076, Maharashtra, India, - - 2014
PURPOSE :    Conventional methods for 3D bone model reconstruction from CT scans can require high-radiation dose, cost and time. A 3D model generated from 2D X-ray images may be a useful alternative. Reconfiguring a 3D template surface mesh model to match bone shape in orthogonal radiographs is a common technique for ...
Haldrup Kristoffer K Centre for Molecular Movies, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej 307, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark - - 2014
The development of new X-ray light sources, XFELs, with unprecedented time and brilliance characteristics has led to the availability of very large datasets with high time resolution and superior signal strength. The chaotic nature of the emission processes in such sources as well as entirely novel detector demands has also ...
Pazokifard Banafsheh B School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia, - - 2014
The costal cartilage is a prominent feature of the anterior chest wall that is subject to developmental and acquired abnormalities. A fully automatic algorithm to reconstruct the human costal cartilage from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images was developed and tested. The reconstruction algorithm includes three steps: (1) estimation of length, ...
Nakazawa Hisato H Department of Radiological Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daikominami Higashiku, Nagoya, Aichi, 461-8673, Japan, - - 2014
In this study, we assessed the geometric accuracy of an automated positioning system in Gamma Knife (GK) surgery. Specifically, we looked at the total spatial uncertainty over the entire treatment range of GK stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) procedures in both the GK model C and the Perfexion (PFX). An originally-developed phantom ...
Papagiannis Panagiotis P Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, National and Kapodestrian University of Athens, Mikras Asias 75, 115 27 Athens, - - 2014
Following literature contributions delineating the deficiencies introduced by the approximations of conventional brachytherapy dosimetry, different model based dosimetry algorithms have been incorporated to commercial systems for (192)Ir brachytherapy treatment planning. The calculation settings of these algorithms are preconfigured according to criteria established by their developers for optimizing computation speed versus ...
Wellek Stefan - - 2014
Abstract Reference limits are estimators for 'extreme' percentiles of the distribution of a quantitative diagnostic marker in the healthy population. In most cases, interest will be in the 90% or 95% reference intervals. The standard parametric method of determining reference limits consists of computing quantities of the form X̅±c·S. The ...
Mushthofa Mushthofa M Department of Applied Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S9), 9000 Ghent, - - 2014
Boolean network models are suitable to simulate gene regulatory networks (GRNs) in the absence of detailed kinetic information. However, reducing the biological reality implies making assumptions on how genes interact (interaction rules) and how their state is updated during the simulation (update scheme). The exact choice of the assumptions largely ...
Le Thuc Duy - - 2014
microRNAs (miRNAs) are important gene regulators. They control a wide range of biological processes and are involved in several types of cancers. Thus, exploring miRNA functions is important for diagnostics and therapeutics. To date, there are few feasible experimental techniques for discovering miRNA regulatory mechanisms. Alternatively, predictions of miRNA-mRNA regulatory ...
Skrzyński Witold W Department of Medical Physics, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre and Institute of Oncology, Roentgena 5, 02-781 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address: - - 2014
The aim of this work was to create a model of a wide-bore Siemens Somatom Sensation Open CT scanner for use with GMCTdospp, which is an EGSnrc-based software tool dedicated for Monte Carlo calculations of dose in CT examinations. The method was based on matching spectrum and filtration to half ...
Schwartz Carolyn E CE DeltaQuest Foundation, Inc, Concord, MA, USA, - - 2014
Missing data due to attrition or item non-response can result in biased estimates and loss of power in longitudinal quality-of-life (QOL) research. The impact of missing data on response shift (RS) detection is relatively unknown. This overview article synthesizes the findings of three methods tested in this special section regarding ...
Dombroski Colin E - - 2014
Custom foot orthoses are currently recognized as the gold standard for treatment of foot and lower limb pathology. While foam and plaster casting methods are most widely used in clinical practice, technology has emerged, permitting the use of 3D scanning, computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) for ...
Ender Andreas - - 2014
Objective: To investigate the accuracy of conventional and digital impression methods used to obtain full-arch impressions by using an in-vitro reference model. Method and Materials: Eight different conventional (polyether, POE; vinylsiloxanether, VSE; direct scannable vinylsiloxanether, VSES; and irreversible hydrocolloid, ALG) and digital (CEREC Bluecam, CER; CEREC Omnicam, OC; Cadent iTero, ...
Shim Vui Ann - - 2014
Inspired by biological evolution, a plethora of algorithms with evolutionary features have been proposed. These algorithms have strengths in certain aspects, thus yielding better optimization performance in a particular problem. However, in a wide range of problems, none of them are superior to one another. Synergetic combination of these algorithms ...
Wu Jia - - 2014
In this paper, we formulate a novel graph-based learning problem, multi-graph classification (MGC), which aims to learn a classifier from a set of labeled bags each containing a number of graphs inside the bag. A bag is labeled positive, if at least one graph in the bag is positive, and ...
Moradi Mahmoud M Department of Biochemistry, Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology, and Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Urbana, Illinois 61801, United - - 2014
Characterizing large-scale structural transitions in biomolecular systems poses major technical challenges to both experimental and computational approaches. On the computational side, efficient sampling of the configuration space along the transition pathway remains the most daunting challenge. Recognizing this issue, we introduce a knowledge-based computational approach toward describing large-scale conformational transitions ...
Fox Peter T PT Research Imaging Institute - - 2014
Spatial normalization-applying standardized coordinates as anatomical addresses within a reference space-was introduced to human neuroimaging research nearly 30 years ago. Over these three decades, an impressive series of methodological advances have adopted, extended, and popularized this standard. Collectively, this work has generated a methodologically coherent literature of unprecedented rigor, size, ...
Lindhiem Oliver O University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA - - 2014
This study adapts the Posterior Probability of Diagnosis (PPOD) Index for use with screening data. The original PPOD Index, designed for use in the context of comprehensive diagnostic assessments, is overconfident when applied to screening data. To correct for this overconfidence, we describe a simple method for adjusting the PPOD ...
Trevisan Diego D Department of Medical Physics, S. Chiara Hospital, APSS Trento, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Overranging or overscanning increases the dose delivered to patients undergoing helical Computed Tomography examinations. In order to reduce it, nowadays most of the multidetector tomographs close the X-ray beam aperture at the scan extremes. This technical innovation, usually referred to as dynamic or adaptive collimation, also influences the overranging assessment ...
Ott Julien G JG Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne University Hospital, Rue du Grand-Pré, 1-1007 Lausanne, - - 2014
The state of the art to describe image quality in medical imaging is to assess the performance of an observer conducting a task of clinical interest. This can be done by using a model observer leading to a figure of merit such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Using the non-prewhitening (NPW) ...
Papafaklis Michail I MI Department of Cardiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, - - 2014
Aims: To develop a simplified approach of virtual functional assessment of coronary stenosis from routine angiographic data and test it against fractional flow reserve using a pressure wire (wire-FFR). Methods and results: Three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D-QCA) was performed in 139 vessels (120 patients) with intermediate lesions assessed by wire-FFR ...
Wang Minjue M Key Laboratory of Advanced Control and Optimization for Chemical Processes, Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, PR - - 2014
P300 and steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) approaches have been widely used for brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. However, neither of these approaches can work for all subjects. Some groups have reported that a hybrid BCI that combines two or more approaches might provide BCI functionality to more users. Hybrid P300/SSVEP ...
Chen Binchao B Level 3 Communications, Broomfield, CO, USA, - - 2014
Compliance to evidenced-base practices, individually and in 'bundles', remains an important focus of healthcare quality improvement for many clinical conditions. The exact probability distribution of composite bundle compliance measures used to develop corresponding control charts and other statistical tests is based on a fairly large convolution whose direct calculation can ...
Johnson Kevin M KM 1 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 55 Lock St, New Haven, CT - - 2014
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to present a visual conceptual framework for important statistical concepts in radiology, and to provide an online application to facilitate this visualization. CONCLUSION. Statistical measures such as sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values are ubiquitous in medical literature, yet thinking fluidly about these concepts ...
Romao Joana - - 2014
We present a novel high throughput photocatalyst efficiency assessment method based on 96-well microplates and UV-Vis spectroscopy. We demonstrate the reproducibility of the method using methyl orange (MO) decomposition, and compare kinetic data obtained with those provided in the literature for large conventional photoreactors. To demonstrate the example of the ...
Xi Jinxiang J School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University , Mount Pleasant, MI , USA - - 2014
Abstract Context: How the facial interface affects particle inhalability and depositions within the airway is not well understood. Previous studies of inhalation dosimetry are limited to either inhalability or deposition, rather than the two studied in a systematic way. Objective: To systematically evaluate the effects of the facial interface on ...
Hagler Stuart - - 2014
Early and reliable detection of cognitive decline is one of the most important challenges of current healthcare. In this project, we developed an approach whereby a frequently played computer game can be used to assess a variety of cognitive processes and estimate the results of the pen-and-paper trail making test ...
Nitzken Matthew J - - 2014
The survey outlines and compares popular computational techniques for quantitative description of shapes of major structural parts of the human brain, including medial axis and skeletal analysis, geodesic distances, Procrustes analysis, deformable models, spherical harmonics, and deformation morphometry, as well as other less widely used techniques. Their advantages, drawbacks, and ...
Papafaklis Michail I MI Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2014
Aims: To develop a methodology that permits accurate 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction from FD-OCT and angiographic data enabling reliable evaluation of the ESS distribution, and to compare the FD-OCT-derived models against the established models based on angiography/IVUS. Methods and results: Fifteen patients (17 coronary arteries) who underwent angiography, FD-OCT and IVUS ...
Muegge Ingo I Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, 900 Ridgebury Road, Ridgefield, CT 06877-0368, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
A new method for 3D in silico screening of large virtual combinatorial chemistry spaces is described. The software PharmShape screens millions of individual compounds applying a multi-conformational pharmacophore and shape based approach. Its extension, PharmShapeCC, is capable of screening trillions of compounds from tens of thousands of combinatorial libraries. Key ...
Strona Giovanni G European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via E. Fermi 2749, 21027, Ispra, VA, Italy, - - 2014
Use of Z values to evaluate nestedness significance is a common procedure. An appealing alternative to the use of Z values is that of using a value of relative nestedness (RN). However, there is no agreement on the preferable procedures to generate the null matrices needed to compute both Z ...
Palem Krishna V KV Department of Computer Science and ECE, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, USA - - 2014
As pressures, notably from energy consumption, start impeding the growth and scale of computing systems, inevitably, designers and users are increasingly considering the prospect of trading accuracy or exactness. This paper is a perspective on the progress in embracing this somewhat unusual philosophy of innovating computing systems that are designed ...
Wedi Nils P NP ECMWF, Shinfield Road, Reading RG2 9AX, UK - - 2014
The steady path of doubling the global horizontal resolution approximately every 8 years in numerical weather prediction (NWP) at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts may be substan- tially altered with emerging novel computing architectures. It coincides with the need to appropriately address and determine forecast uncertainty with ...
Düben Peter D PD Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK - - 2014
Inexact hardware design, which advocates trading the accuracy of computations in exchange for significant savings in area, power and/or performance of computing hardware, has received increasing prominence in several error-tolerant application domains, particularly those involving perceptual or statistical end-users. In this paper, we evaluate inexact hardware for its applicability in ...
Skouteris D D Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa, - - 2014
We report the main features of a new general implementation of the Gaussian Multi-Configuration Time-Dependent Hartree model. The code allows effective computations of time-dependent phenomena, including calculation of vibronic spectra (in one or more electronic states), relative state populations, etc. Moreover, by expressing the Dirac-Frenkel variational principle in terms of ...
Janca Radek R Department of Circuit Theory, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech - - 2014
Interictal epileptiform discharges (spikes, IEDs) are electrographic markers of epileptic tissue and their quantification is utilized in planning of surgical resection. Visual analysis of long-term multi-channel intracranial recordings is extremely laborious and prone to bias. Development of new and reliable techniques of automatic spike detection represents a crucial step towards ...
Cauwels Vanessa V SCK·CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400, - - 2014
The SCK·CEN has carried out neutron field characterisation campaigns at several nuclear reactors. The main goal of these measurement campaigns was to evaluate the performance of different neutron personal dosemeters. To be able to evaluate the performance of neutron personal dosemeters in terms of Hp(10), knowledge of the directional distribution ...
Banas Krzysztof - - 2014
Assessment of the performance and up-to-date diagnostic of scientific equipment is one of the key components in contemporary laboratories. Most reliable checks are performed by real test experiments while varying the experimental conditions (typically, in case of infra-red spectroscopic measurements, size of the beam - aperture, duration of the experiment, ...
Majid Adnan A Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Division of Thoracic Surgery and Interventional Pulmonology, Boston, Massachusetts, United States ; - - 2014
Objective: Dynamic flexible bronchoscopy (DFB) is the "gold standard" for assessing changes in airway luminal size associated with tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) but the procedure has not been adequately validated. The present study was designed to test validity of diagnosing TBM by DFB through assessing inter- and intra-observer agreements in estimating degree ...
Mikulčić Hrvoje H Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia - - 2014
The use of waste wood biomass as fuel is increasingly gaining significance in the cement industry. The combustion of biomass and particularly co-firing of biomass and coal in existing pulverized-fuel burners still faces significant challenges. One possibility for the ex ante control and investigation of the co-firing process are computational ...
Magi Alberto A Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy albertomagi@gmail.com - - 2014
Runs of homozygosity (ROH) are sizable chromosomal stretches of homozygous genotypes, ranging in length from tens of kilobases to megabases. ROHs can be relevant for population and medical genetics, playing a role in predisposition to both rare and common disorders. ROHs are commonly detected by SNP microarrays, but attempts have ...
Usmani Muhammad Nauman MN Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-7 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, - - 2014
Technical developments in radiotherapy (RT) have created a need for systematic quality assurance (QA) to ensure that clinical institutions deliver prescribed radiation doses consistent with the requirements of clinical protocols. For QA, an ideal dose verification system should be independent of the treatment-planning system (TPS). This paper describes the development ...
Kim Sulgi S Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., - - 2014
Objectives: A particular approach to the visualization of descent of founder DNA copies in a pedigree has been suggested, which helps to understand haplotype sharing patterns among subjects of interest. However, the approach does not provide the information in an ideal format to show haplotype sharing patterns. Therefore, we aimed ...
Thill Serge S Interaction Lab, School of Informatics, University of - - 2014
The recent trend in cognitive robotics experiments on language learning, symbol grounding, and related issues necessarily entails a reduction of sensorimotor aspects from those provided by a human body to those that can be realized in machines, limiting robotic models of symbol grounding in this respect. Here, we argue that ...
Smith Timothy R TR Department of Neurological Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 676 N. St. Clair Street, Suite 2210, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Modern frameless stereotactic techniques utilize scalp fiducial markers for registration. Anecdotal reports from surgeons indicate a variety of methods for improving accuracy using different fiducial arrangements and registration sequences. The few published studies on registration accuracy do not provide a simple and systematic method for determining target accuracy. Nine different ...
Rahimi Alireza A UNSW, School of Public Health & Community Medicine, Sydney, Australia; Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Health Information Research Centre, Isfahan, Iran; UNSW, Asia-Pacific Ubiquitous Healthcare Research Centre, Sydney, - - 2014
Improving healthcare for people with chronic conditions requires clinical information systems that support integrated care and information exchange, emphasizing a semantic approach to support multiple and disparate Electronic Health Records (EHRs). Using a literature review, the Australian National Guidelines for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), SNOMED-CT-AU and input from health ...
Escalona Moran Miguel - - 2014
An adapted state-of-the-art method of processing information known as Reservoir Computing is used to show its utility on the open and time consuming problem of heartbeat classification. The MIT-BIH arrhythmia database is used following the guidelines of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). Our approach requires a ...
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