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Budday Silvia S Chair of Applied Mechanics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Erlangen / Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen, - - 2014
Convolutions are a classical hallmark of most mammalian brains. Brain surface morphology is often associated with intelligence and closely correlated to neurological dysfunction. Yet, we know surprisingly little about the underlying mechanisms of cortical folding. Here we identify the role of the key anatomic players during the folding process: cortical ...
Scales Kylie L KL Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Plymouth PL1 3DH, UK - - 2014
The oceanographic drivers of marine vertebrate habitat use are poorly understood yet fundamental to our knowledge of marine ecosystem functioning. Here, we use composite front mapping and high-resolution GPS tracking to determine the significance of mesoscale oceanographic fronts as physical drivers of foraging habitat selection in northern gannets Morus bassanus. ...
Bhattacharya Kunal K http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4943-3814 Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031, India - - 2014
Animals foraging alone are hypothesized to optimize the encounter rates with resources through Lévy walks. However, the issue of how the interactions between multiple foragers influence their search efficiency is still not completely understood. To address this, we consider a model to study the optimal strategy for a group of ...
Wang Liyu L Bio-Inspired Robotics Lab, Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, ETH Zurich, Leonhardstrasse 27, Zurich 8092, Switzerland - - 2014
Tool manufacture and use are observed not only in humans but also in other animals such as mammals, birds and insects. Manufactured tools are used for biomechanical functions such as effective control of fluids and small solid objects and extension of reaching. These tools are passive and used with gravity ...
Jacobs Brittany Y BY J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, PO Box 116131, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA, - - 2014
Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) primarily seek treatment due to pain and disability, yet the primary endpoints for rodent OA models tend to be histological measures of joint destruction. The discrepancy between clinical and preclinical evaluations is problematic, given that radiographic evidence of OA in humans does not always correlate to ...
Khan Aftab - - 2014
We propose four variants of a novel hierarchical hidden Markov models strategy for rule induction in the context of automated sports video annotation including a multilevel Chinese takeaway process (MLCTP) based on the Chinese restaurant process and a novel Cartesian product label-based hierarchical bottom-up clustering (CLHBC) method that employs prior ...
Philips Thomas T Johns Hopkins University, Brain Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, - - 2014
The discovery of the causative mutations and many of the predisposing risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease (HD), has led to the development of a large number of genetic animal models of disease. In the case of HD, for example, over ...
Pluta Ryszard M RM Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA, - - 2014
Aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is relatively rare form of hemorrhagic stroke, which produces significant social and medical challenges. As it affects people in their high productivity age and leaves 50 % of them dead and almost 70 % of survivors disabled, many of them severely, the reasons of such a dismal outcome ...
Hellweger Ferdi L FL Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2014
A key question in ecology and evolution is the relative role of natural selection and neutral evolution in producing biogeographic patterns. We quantify the role of neutral processes by simulating division, mutation, and death of 100,000 individual marine bacteria cells with full 1 million-base-pair genomes in a global surface ocean ...
Hosseini Vardei Mahla M Department of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, - - 2014
Population growth, during the twentieth century, has increased demand for new farmlands. Accordingly, road networks have rapidly been developed to facilitate and accelerate human access to the essential resources resulted in extensive land use changes. The present study aims at assessing cumulative effects of developed road network on tree cover ...
Teixeira Andre - - 2014
The ability to maintain state awareness in the face of unexpected and unmodeled errors and threats is a defining feature of a resilient control system. Therefore, in this paper, we study the problem of distributed fault detection and isolation (FDI) in large networked systems with uncertain system models. The linear ...
Knipl D H DH MTA-SZTE Analysis and Stochastic Research Group, University of Szeged, Aradi vértanúk tere 1, Szeged, 6720, Hungary. Electronic address: - - 2014
We show that disease transmission models in a spatially heterogeneous environment can have a large number of coexisting endemic equilibria. A general compartmental model is considered to describe the spread of an infectious disease in a population distributed over several patches. For disconnected regions, many boundary equilibria may exist with ...
Morel-Seytoux Hubert J HJ Hydroprose International Consulting, 328 Beech Avenue, Santa Rosa, CA, 95409. - - 2014
Analytical and numerical approaches have their own distinct domains of merit and application. Unfortunately there has been a tendency to use either one or the other even when their domains overlap. Yet there is definite advantage in combining the two approaches. Being relatively new this emerging technique of combining the ...
Streng Tomi T Division of Genetics and Physiology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland; Turku Center for Disease Modeling (TCDM), University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland; Department of Pharmacology, Drug Development and Therapeutics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, Turku University Hospital, FI-20014 Turku, Finland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Locomotor activity recordings are widely used in different physiological and pharmacological studies. There are two mainly used methods - radiotelemetry and photobeam recording systems. To our knowledge, these methods have not previously been directly and simultaneously compared. The current study consisted of a comparison of locomotor activity data gained simultaneously ...
Kline Joshua C JC Boston - - 2014
Decomposition of the EMG signal into constituent action potentials and identifying individual firing instances of each motor unit in the presence of ambient noise is an inherently probabilistic process -whether performed manually or with automated algorithms. Consequently it is subject to errors. We set out to classify and reduce these ...
Khosravi Abbas - - 2014
This brief proposes an efficient technique for the construction of optimized prediction intervals (PIs) by using the bootstrap technique. The method employs an innovative PI-based cost function in the training of neural networks (NNs) used for estimation of the target variance in the bootstrap method. An optimization algorithm is developed ...
Ellegood J J Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, - - 2014
Autism is a heritable disorder, with over 250 associated genes identified to date, yet no single gene accounts for >1-2% of cases. The clinical presentation, behavioural symptoms, imaging and histopathology findings are strikingly heterogeneous. A more complete understanding of autism can be obtained by examining multiple genetic or behavioural mouse ...
Mento Giovanni G University of - - 2014
Temporal prediction (TP) is a flexible and dynamic cognitive ability. Depending on the internal or external nature of information exploited to generate TP, distinct cognitive and brain mechanisms are engaged with the same final goal of reducing uncertainty about the future. In this study, we investigated the specific brain mechanisms ...
Clarke Alex A Centre for Speech, Language and the Brain, Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, - - 2014
To respond appropriately to objects, we must process visual inputs rapidly and assign them meaning. This involves highly dynamic, interactive neural processes through which information accumulates and cognitive operations are resolved across multiple time scales. However, there is currently no model of object recognition which provides an integrated account of ...
Wu Xing - - 2014
Single-layer feedforward networks (SLFNs) have been proven to be a universal approximator when all the parameters are allowed to be adjustable. It is widely used in classification and regression problems. The SLFN learning involves two tasks: determining network size and training the parameters. Most current algorithms could not be satisfactory ...
Drechsel Nils J D NJ Computational Biochemistry and Biophysics Laboratory, Research Unit on Biomedical Informatics, Universitat Pompeu Fabra , C/Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain ; Laufer Center for Physical and Quantitative Biology, Stony Brook University , Stony Brook, New York 11794-5252, United States ; Department of Chemistry, Oklahoma State University , Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, United - - 2014
We present a new approach to the calculation of solvent-accessible surface areas of molecules with potential application to surface area based methods for determination of solvation free energies. As in traditional analytical and statistical approaches, this new algorithm, called TRIFORCE, reports both component areas and derivatives as a function of ...
- - 2014
The ongoing difficulty in understanding how Centruroides sculpturatus (Ewing) uses the built environment has prompted this study in exploring refuge choices in a school environment and in laboratory behavioral assays. Radio telemetry tags were used at an urban site heavily populated with C. sculpturatus to track scorpions for a period ...
Aru Juhan J Max-Planck Institute for Brain Research, Frankfurt am Main 60528, Germany; École Normale Supérieure de Lyon (UMPA), Lyon 69364, - - 2014
Cross-frequency coupling (CFC) has been proposed to coordinate neural dynamics across spatial and temporal scales. Despite its potential relevance for understanding healthy and pathological brain function, the standard CFC analysis and physiological interpretation come with fundamental problems. For example, apparent CFC can appear because of spectral correlations due to common ...
van Hemmen J Leo JL Physik Department T35 and BCCN - Munich, Technische Universität München, 85747 , Garching bei München, Germany, - - 2014
This article analyzes the question of whether neuroscience allows for mathematical descriptions and whether an interaction between experimental and theoretical neuroscience can be expected to benefit both of them. It is argued that a mathematization of natural phenomena never happens by itself. First, appropriate key concepts must be found that ...
Farr Rachel H RH Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 135 Hicks Way, Amherst, MA, 01003, USA, - - 2014
Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The ...
Spahn Philipp N PN Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, United - - 2014
Glycosylation serves essential functions on many proteins produced in biopharmaceutical manufacturing, making it mandatory to thoroughly consider its biogenesis during the production process. Glycoengineering efforts involve the rational design of glycosylation through adjustments in culturing conditions or genetic modifications. Computational models have been developed to aid this process, aiming to ...
Ziegler Erik E Cyclotron Research Centre, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
We present a finite element modeling (FEM) implementation for solving the forward problem in electroencephalography (EEG). The solution is based on Helmholtz's principle of reciprocity which allows for dramatically reduced computational time when constructing the leadfield matrix. The approach was validated using a 4-shell spherical model and shown to perform ...
Khoobi Asma A Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan , Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, I.R. - - 2014
Multivariate curve resolution by alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) was used for voltammetric determination of dopamine (DA) in the presence of epinephrine (EP) at a gold nanoparticles chemically modified carbon paste electrode (AuNPs/CPE). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques were applied for characterization of the ...
Cheng Guang - - 2014
A novel adaptation of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) was recently introduced in literature for simultaneous multi-tensor estimation and fiber tractography from diffusion MRI. This technique has the advantage over other tractography methods in terms of computational efficiency, due to the fact that the UKF simultaneously estimates the diffusion tensors ...
Soher Brian J BJ Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27710, - - 2014
Concentration of the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a quantitative metric for the health and density of neurons, is currently obtained by integration of the manually defined peak in whole-head proton ((1) H)-MRS. Our goal was to develop a full spectral modeling approach for the automatic estimation of the whole-brain NAA ...
Shaw Kendrick M KM Department of Biology and Medical Scientist Training Program, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA, - - 2014
Many behaviors require reliably generating sequences of motor activity while adapting the activity to incoming sensory information. This process has often been conceptually explained as either fully dependent on sensory input (a chain reflex) or fully independent of sensory input (an idealized central pattern generator, or CPG), although the consensus ...
Thoma Michael M Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, - - 2014
Most naturally occurring olfactory signals do not consist of monomolecular odorants but, rather, are mixtures whose composition and concentration ratios vary. While there is ample evidence for the relevance of complex odor blends in ecological interactions and for interactions of chemicals in both peripheral and central neuronal processing, a fine-scale ...
Li Zhijun - - 2014
In this brief, the utilization of robust model-based predictive control is investigated for the problem of missile interception. Treating the target acceleration as a bounded disturbance, novel guidance law using model predictive control is developed by incorporating missile inside constraints. The combined model predictive approach could be transformed as a ...
Ramírez Fernando M FM Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10115 Berlin, Germany, Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, 10099 Berlin, Germany, and Berlin Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10115 Berlin, Germany - - 2014
Humans recognize faces and objects with high speed and accuracy regardless of their orientation. Recent studies have proposed that orientation invariance in face recognition involves an intermediate representation where neural responses are similar for mirror-symmetric views. Here, we used fMRI, multivariate pattern analysis, and computational modeling to investigate the neural ...
Lei Zhipeng Z 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Human-Centric Design Research Laboratory, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, - - 2014
In a respirator fit test, a subject is required to perform a series of exercises that include moving the head up and down and rotating the head left and right. These head movements could affect respirator sealing properties during the fit test and consequently affect fit factors. In a model-based ...
McColgan Thomas T Humboldt-Universität zu - - 2014
Inputs from the two sides of the brain interact to create maps of interaural time difference (ITD) in the nucleus laminaris of birds. How inputs from each side are matched with high temporal precision in ITD sensitive circuits is unknown, given the differences in input path lengths from each side. ...
Fang Zhuyuan Z Jiangsu Province Hospital of TCM, Nanjing, 210029, - - 2014
Correlation analysis and processing of massive medical information can be implemented through big data technology to find the relevance of different factors in the life cycle of a disease and to provide the basis for scientific research and clinical practice. This paper explores the concept of constructing a big medical ...
Gooch Clifton L CL Department of Neurology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, - - 2014
Objective: Numerous methods for motor unit number estimation (MUNE) have been developed. The objective of this article is to summarize and compare the major methods and the available data regarding their reproducibility, validity, application, refinement, and utility. Methods: Using specified search criteria, a systematic review of the literature was performed. ...
Nahmias Eddy E Department of Philosophy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 3994, Atlanta, GA 30302, United States; Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5030, Atlanta, GA 30302, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
In recent years, a number of prominent scientists have argued that free will is an illusion, appealing to evidence demonstrating that information about brain activity can be used to predict behavior before people are aware of having made a decision. These scientists claim that the possibility of perfect prediction based ...
Hildebrandt Anna Katharina AK Center for Bioinformatics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbrücken, Germany - - 2014
Web-based workflow systems have gained considerable momentum in sequence-oriented bioinformatics. In structural bioinformatics, however, such systems are still relatively rare: while commercial stand-alone workflow applications are common in the pharmaceutical industry, academic researchers often still rely on command-line scripting to glue individual tools together. In this work, we address the ...
Fachinger Uwe U Department of Economics and Demography, Institute of Gerontology, University of Vechta , Vechta , - - 2014
AAL systems require, in addition to sophisticated and reliable technology, adequate business models for their launch and sustainable establishment. This paper presents the basic features of alternative business models for a sensor-based fall recognition system which was developed within the context of the "Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments ...
Blanche Erna Imperatore EI Erna Imperatore Blanche, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA, is Clinical Associate Professor, Division of Occupational Science and Therapy, University of Southern California, 1540 Alcazar Street, CHP 133, Los Angeles, CA 90089; - - 2014
This article describes the development of the Adult Sensory Processing Scale (ASPS), a sensory processing questionnaire for adults. The ASPS measures self-reported responses to input from distinct sensory systems and is intended to be sensitive to individual differences in the adult population. ASPS construction involved two phases: item development and ...
Curley J Lowry JL Lindy Boggs Bldg., Suite 500, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, - - 2014
The direct effect of guidance cues on developing and regenerating axons in vivo is not fully understood, as the process involves a multiplicity of attractive and repulsive signals, presented both as soluble and membrane-bound ligands. A better understanding of axon guidance is critical to functional recovery following injury to the ...
Zentall Thomas R TR University of Kentucky. Electronic address: - - 2014
Humans tend to value rewards more if they have had to work hard to obtain them (justification of effort). Similarly they tend to persist in a task even when they would be better off beginning a new one (sunk cost). Humans also often give greater value to objects of good ...
Colleoni Silvia S Avantea srl, Laboratory of Reproductive Technologies, Via Porcellasco 7f, 26100 Cremona, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
A number of in vitro toxicity assays based on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are under development in order to provide alternative methods for the screening of chemicals and drugs and to reduce the number of animals needed for developmental toxicity assessment. The major challenge is to demonstrate the reliability ...
Bernardo-Faura Marti M Division of Theoretical Bioinformatics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany; Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology (IPMB), Bioquant, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, - - 2014
The majority of melanomas have been shown to harbor somatic mutations in the RAS-RAF-MEK-MAPK and PI3K-AKT pathways, which play a major role in regulation of proliferation and survival. The prevalence of these mutations makes these kinase signal transduction pathways an attractive target for cancer therapy. However, tumors have generally shown ...
Chen Xing - - 2014
Aiming at the difficulty for existent biomechanical models of skeletal muscle to implement real-time prediction of contraction status that is particularly significant to biomechanical and biomedical engineering, this paper proposed a decoupled scheme of the links involved in the working process of sarcomere and established a semi-phenomenological model integrating both ...
Mordey A A The Cabin Chiang Mai, - - 2014
In light of recent research into the neurobiology of addiction (Volkow, Wolfe et al) the evidence is becoming clearer that addiction is a primary, chronic and progressive brain disease which encompasses not just the abuse of substances but also a number of destructive and addictive dopamine reinforcing 'behaviours' or 'processes.' ...
Modi Gyan G Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences (EACPHS), Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201. - - 2014
To gain insights into the structural requirements for dopamine D2 and D3 agonists in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to elucidate the basis of selectivity for D3 over D2 (D2/D3), 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) investigations using CoMFA (comparative molecular field analysis) and CoMSIA (comparative molecular similarity ...
Park Il Memming IM 1] Center for Perceptual Systems, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA. [2] Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA. [3] Institute for Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, - - 2014
It has been suggested that the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of macaques plays a fundamental role in sensorimotor decision-making. We examined the neural code in LIP at the level of individual spike trains using a statistical approach based on generalized linear models. We found that LIP responses reflected a combination ...
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