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Fattore Liana L CNR National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Neuroscience-Cagliari, Cagliari, - - 2015
The inability to maintain drug abstinence is often referred to as relapse and consists of a process by which an abstaining individual slips back into old behavioral patterns and substance use. Animal models of relapse have been developed and validated over the last decades, and significantly contributed to shed light ...
Muroi Carl C Department of Neuropharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan, - - 2015
Experiments using genetically engineered mice are regarded as indispensable to gaining a better understanding of the molecular pathophysiology in neuronal injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therefore, mouse SAH models are becoming increasingly important. The circle of Willis perforation (cWp) model is the most frequently used mouse SAH model. We report ...
Sehba Fatima A FA Departments of Neurosurgery and Neurosciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY, 10029, USA, - - 2015
The rat endovascular perforation model is considered the closest replica of human condition. Since its development, this model has been extensively used to study early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, like any other animal model, it has advantages and limitations. The following is a brief review of the ...
Kikkawa Yuichiro Y Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan, - - 2015
In recent years, the shift of research interest in the pathological condition after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from delayed cerebral vasospasm to early brain injury and the development of molecular genetic approaches in animal experiments has resulted in a diversification of animal SAH models. The properties of each animal SAH model ...
Fathi Ali Reza AR Department of Neurosurgery, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland, - - 2015
Despite ongoing extensive and promising research to prevent and treat cerebrovascular vasospasm and delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), clinical outcomes remain unsatisfying. Neuroprotective strategies developed in basic science research laboratories need to be translated from bench-to-bedside using appropriate animal models. While a primate model is ...
Bhat Akshay A Mosaiques-Diagnostics GmbH, Mellendorfer Straße 7-9, D-30625, Hannover, Germany, - - 2015
Understanding disease mechanisms often requires complex and accurate integration of cellular pathways and molecular networks. Systems biology offers the possibility to provide a comprehensive map of the cell's intricate wiring network, which can ultimately lead to decipher the disease phenotype. Here, we describe what biological pathways are, how they function ...
Budday Silvia S Chair of Applied Mechanics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Erlangen / Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen, - - 2014
Convolutions are a classical hallmark of most mammalian brains. Brain surface morphology is often associated with intelligence and closely correlated to neurological dysfunction. Yet, we know surprisingly little about the underlying mechanisms of cortical folding. Here we identify the role of the key anatomic players during the folding process: cortical ...
Skuta Ctibor C Laboratory of Informatics and Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technická 5, CZ-166 28 Prague, Czech Republic ; CZ-OPENSCREEN, Institute of Molecular Genetics of the ASCR, v. v. i, Vídeňská 1083, CZ-142 20 Prague, Czech - - 2014
Hierarchical clustering is an exploratory data analysis method that reveals the groups (clusters) of similar objects. The result of the hierarchical clustering is a tree structure called dendrogram that shows the arrangement of individual clusters. To investigate the row/column hierarchical cluster structure of a data matrix, a visualization tool called ...
Otero Muras Irene - - 2014
BackgroundWithin cells, stimuli are transduced into cell responses by complex networks of biochemical reactions. In many cell decision processes the underlying networks behave as bistable switches, converting graded stimuli or inputs into all or none cell responses. Observing how systems respond to different perturbations, insight can be gained into the ...
Anderson David F DF Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA, - - 2014
In this paper we provide two representations for stochastic ion channel kinetics, and compare the performance of exact simulation with a commonly used numerical approximation strategy. The first representation we present is a random time change representation, popularized by Thomas Kurtz, with the second being analogous to a "Gillespie" representation. ...
Goerigk Lars - - 2014
We demonstrate the importance of properly accounting for London-dispersion and basis-set superposition-error (BSSE) in quantum-chemical optimizations of protein structures, factors that are often still neglected in contemporary applications. We optimize a portion of an ensemble of conformationally flexible lysozyme structures obtained from highly accurate X-ray crystallography data that serves as ...
Venzi Marcello M Neuroscience Division, School of Bioscience, Cardiff University, Cardiff, - - 2014
Typical absence seizures (ASs) are nonconvulsive epileptic events which are commonly observed in pediatric and juvenile epilepsies and may be present in adults suffering from other idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of ASs has been greatly advanced by the availability of genetic and pharmacological models, in ...
Goode Jack Antony - - 2014
Biosensors are ideally portable, low-cost tools for the rapid detection of pathogens, proteins and other analytes. The global biosensor market is currently worth over ten billion dollars annually and represents a burgeoning field of interdisciplinary research and development which is hailed as a potential revolution in consumer, healthcare and industrial ...
Adibzadeh Fatemeh F Erasmus MC-Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Hyperthermia Unit, Rotterdam, The - - 2014
Among various possible health effects of mobile phone radiation, the risk of inducing cancer has the strongest interest of laymen and health organizations. Recently, the Interphone epidemiological study investigated the association between the estimated Radio Frequency (RF) dose from mobile phones and the risk of developing a brain tumor. Their ...
D'Archivio Angelo Antonio AA Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università degli Studi dell'Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67010, L'Aquila, Italy, - - 2014
A multilayer artificial neural network (ANN) is used to model the reversed-phase liquid chromatography retention times of 16 selected compounds, including purines, pyrimidines and nucleosides. The analysed data, taken from literature, were collected in acetonitrile-water eluents under the application of 16 different multilinear gradients. The parameters describing the gradient profile ...
Morrison James P JP Charles River Pathology Associates, Durham, North Carolina, - - 2014
A half-day Society of Toxicologic Pathology continuing education course on "Fundamentals of Translational Neuroscience in Toxicologic Pathology" presented some current major issues faced when extrapolating animal data regarding potential neurological consequences to assess potential human outcomes. Two talks reviewed functional-structural correlates in rodent and nonrodent mammalian brains needed to predict ...
Stanimirovic Danica B DB Human Health Therapeutics Portfolio, National Research Council of Canada , 1200 Montreal Road, Bldg M-54 Ottawa, ON K4P 1R7 , Canada +1 613 993 3730 ; +1 613 941 4475 ; - - 2014
Introduction: The majority of therapeutics, small molecule or biologics, developed for the CNS do not penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) sufficiently to induce pharmacologically meaningful effects on CNS targets. To improve the efficiency of CNS drug discovery, several in vitro models of the BBB have been used to aid early ...
Paulina Szatkowska - - 2014
Acridinone derivatives as imidazoacridinones and triazoloacridinones are the new potent antitumor agents characterized by different mechanisms of action related to their ability to interact with DNA. The analysis undertaken in this study involves searching of QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) and QSRR (Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship) models, which would allow to predict ...
Jankowska Marta M MM 1Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego 2Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern - - 2014
Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are increasingly applied in activity studies, yet significant theoretical and methodological challenges remain. This paper presents a framework for integrating GPS data with other technologies to create dynamic representations of behaviors in context. Utilizing more accurate and sensitive measures to link behavior and environmental exposures allows ...
Hsu Wei-Yen WY Department of Information Management, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-tech Innovations, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan shenswy@gmail.com - - 2014
In this study, we propose an analysis system combined with feature selection to further improve the classification accuracy of single-trial electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Acquiring event-related brain potential data from the sensorimotor cortices, the system comprises artifact and background noise removal, feature extraction, feature selection, and feature classification. First, the artifacts ...
Hoyle J J Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, - - 2014
There are multiple methods of assessing the height of block before caesarean section under regional anaesthesia, and surveys of practice suggest considerable variation in practice. So far, little emphasis has been placed on the guidance to be gained from published research literature or textbooks. We therefore set out to investigate ...
Kikkawa Yuichiro Y Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan, - - 2014
Over the past 30 years, the rabbit subarachnoid hemorrhage model (SAH) has been used for investigating the post-hemorrhage pathology, especially with respect to understanding of the mechanisms of cerebral vasospasm. However, the molecular mechanisms of cerebral vasospasm remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, it is not clear whether the rabbit SAH model ...
Satoh Noriyuki N Marine Genomics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan norisky@oist.jp - - 2014
Traditional metazoan phylogeny classifies the Vertebrata as a subphylum of the phylum Chordata, together with two other subphyla, the Urochordata (Tunicata) and the Cephalochordata. The Chordata, together with the phyla Echinodermata and Hemichordata, comprise a major group, the Deuterostomia. Chordates invariably possess a notochord and a dorsal neural tube. Although ...
Harrison Matthew T MT Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, U.S.A. - - 2014
The collective dynamics of neural ensembles create complex spike patterns with many spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the statistical structure of these patterns can help resolve fundamental questions about neural computation and neural dynamics. Spatiotemporal conditional inference (STCI) is introduced here as a semiparametric statistical framework for investigating the nature ...
Vargas-Irwin Carlos E CE Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, U.S.A. - - 2014
Increased emphasis on circuit level activity in the brain makes it necessary to have methods to visualize and evaluate large-scale ensemble activity beyond that revealed by raster-histograms or pairwise correlations. We present a method to evaluate the relative similarity of neural spiking patterns by combining spike train distance metrics with ...
Oates C J CJ Department of Statistics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, U.K. - - 2014
Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and associated probability models are widely used to model neural connectivity and communication channels. In many experiments, data are collected from multiple subjects whose connectivities may differ but are likely to share many features. In such circumstances, it is natural to leverage similarity among subjects to ...
Scales Kylie L KL Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Plymouth PL1 3DH, UK - - 2014
The oceanographic drivers of marine vertebrate habitat use are poorly understood yet fundamental to our knowledge of marine ecosystem functioning. Here, we use composite front mapping and high-resolution GPS tracking to determine the significance of mesoscale oceanographic fronts as physical drivers of foraging habitat selection in northern gannets Morus bassanus. ...
Bhattacharya Kunal K http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4943-3814 Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031, India - - 2014
Animals foraging alone are hypothesized to optimize the encounter rates with resources through Lévy walks. However, the issue of how the interactions between multiple foragers influence their search efficiency is still not completely understood. To address this, we consider a model to study the optimal strategy for a group of ...
Wang Liyu L Bio-Inspired Robotics Lab, Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, ETH Zurich, Leonhardstrasse 27, Zurich 8092, Switzerland - - 2014
Tool manufacture and use are observed not only in humans but also in other animals such as mammals, birds and insects. Manufactured tools are used for biomechanical functions such as effective control of fluids and small solid objects and extension of reaching. These tools are passive and used with gravity ...
Kachergis George G Institute for Psychological Research Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, 2333 AK Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands - - 2014
Action selection, planning and execution are continuous processes that evolve over time, responding to perceptual feedback as well as evolving top-down constraints. Existing models of routine sequential action (e.g. coffee- or pancake-making) generally fall into one of two classes: hierarchical models that include hand-built task representations, or heterarchical models that ...
Lisman John J Biology Department and Volen Center for Complex Systems, Brandeis University, 415 South Street-MS 008, Waltham, MA 02454-9110, USA - - 2014
In this article, I point out that simple one-phase models of the role of the basal ganglia in action selection have a problem. Furthermore, I suggest a solution with major implications for the organization of the action-selection and motor systems. In current models, the striatum evaluates multiple potential actions by ...
Milford Michael M School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia - - 2014
Mobile robots and animals alike must effectively navigate their environments in order to achieve their goals. For animals goal-directed navigation facilitates finding food, seeking shelter or migration; similarly robots perform goal-directed navigation to find a charging station, get out of the rain or guide a person to a destination. This ...
Daw Nathaniel D ND http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5029-1430 Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place Suite 888, New York, NY 10003, - - 2014
Despite many debates in the first half of the twentieth century, it is now largely a truism that humans and other animals build models of their environments and use them for prediction and control. However, model-based (MB) reasoning presents severe computational challenges. Alternative, computationally simpler, model-free (MF) schemes have been ...
Francois Jessica - - 2014
A forest growth model was coupled to a model of combined heat and power (CHP) production in a gasification plant developed in Aspen Plus. For a given production, this integrated forest-to-energy model made it possible to predict the annual flows in wood biomass, carbon and nutrients, including N, S, P ...
Peterson Adam J AJ Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, 39118 Magdeburg, - - 2014
In mammalian auditory systems, the spiking characteristics of each primary afferent (type I auditory-nerve fiber; ANF) are mainly determined by a single ribbon synapse in a single receptor cell (inner hair cell; IHC). ANF spike trains therefore provide a window into the operation of these synapses and cells. It was ...
Koechlin Etienne E Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 29 rue d'Ulm, 75005 Paris, France - - 2014
The prefrontal cortex subserves executive control and decision-making, that is, the coordination and selection of thoughts and actions in the service of adaptive behaviour. We present here a computational theory describing the evolution of the prefrontal cortex from rodents to humans as gradually adding new inferential Bayesian capabilities for dealing ...
Friston Karl K The Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK - - 2014
This paper considers goal-directed decision-making in terms of embodied or active inference. We associate bounded rationality with approximate Bayesian inference that optimizes a free energy bound on model evidence. Several constructs such as expected utility, exploration or novelty bonuses, softmax choice rules and optimism bias emerge as natural consequences of ...
Wang Xueying X a Department of Mathematics , Washington State University , Pullman , WA 99164 , - - 2014
In this work, we propose novel epidemic models (named, susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible-bacteria) for cholera dynamics by incorporating a general formulation of bacteria growth and spatial variation. In the first part, a generalized ordinary differential equation (ODE) model is presented and it is found that bacterial growth contributes to the increase in the ...
Thomas Cibu C Program on Pediatric Imaging and Tissue Sciences, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, 20892; Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814; - - 2014
Tractography based on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is widely used for mapping the structural connections of the human brain. Its accuracy is known to be limited by technical factors affecting in vivo data acquisition, such as noise, artifacts, and data undersampling resulting from scan time constraints. It generally is assumed that ...
Romero-Reyes Marcela M Orofacial and Head Pain Service, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Radiology and Medicine, New York University College of Dentistry, 345 East 24th Street, New York, NY, 10010, USA, - - 2014
Migraine is a severe and debilitating disorder of the brain that involves a constellation of neurological symptoms alongside head pain. Its pathophysiology is only beginning to be understood, and is thought to involve activation and sensitization of trigeminovascular nociceptive pathways that innervate the cranial vasculature, and activation of brain stem ...
Guo Zhenyuan - - 2014
This paper presents new theoretical results on the passivity and passification of a class of memristor-based recurrent neural networks (MRNNs) with time-varying delays. The casual assumptions on the boundedness and Lipschitz continuity of neuronal activation functions are relaxed. By constructing appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals and using the characteristic function technique, passivity ...
Yang Chenguang - - 2014
In this paper, automatic motion control is investigated for one of wheeled inverted pendulum (WIP) models, which have been widely applied for modeling of a large range of two wheeled modern vehicles. First, the underactuated WIP model is decomposed into a fully actuated second order subsystem Σa consisting of planar ...
Fernandez-Navarro Francisco - - 2014
Ordinal regression (OR) is an important branch of supervised learning in between the multiclass classification and regression. In this paper, the traditional classification scheme of neural network is adapted to learn ordinal ranks. The model proposed imposes monotonicity constraints on the weights connecting the hidden layer with the output layer. ...
Butts Thomas T MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, UK School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS, - - 2014
The cerebellum is a pre-eminent model for the study of neurogenesis and circuit assembly. Increasing interest in the cerebellum as a participant in higher cognitive processes and as a locus for a range of disorders and diseases make this simple yet elusive structure an important model in a number of ...
Schostek Sebastian S Division Diagnostic Systems, Ovesco Endoscopy AG, Dorfackerstr. 26, 72074, Tuebingen, Germany, - - 2014
The OTSC clip is used in endoscopic management of gastrointestinal lesions. In rare cases, the removal of the OTSC clip might be desirable. The objective of the study is to investigate feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a novel endoscopic instrument system for removal of the OTSC clip. The study series ...
Khaligh-Razavi Seyed-Mahdi SM Medical Research Council, Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, United - - 2014
Inferior temporal (IT) cortex in human and nonhuman primates serves visual object recognition. Computational object-vision models, although continually improving, do not yet reach human performance. It is unclear to what extent the internal representations of computational models can explain the IT representation. Here we investigate a wide range of computational ...
Einat Haim H From the School of Behavioral Sciences, Tel Aviv-Yaffo Academic College, Tel-Aviv, - - 2014
There is a well-known deficiency in valid animal models for bipolar disorder. Developing the single ideal model for the disorder-one that will represent its full scope-will probably not be possible until we have a much better understanding of the underlying pathology. Yet, intermediate models, even with partial validity, are critical ...
Marner Michael R - - 2014
Spatial augmented reality applies the concepts of spatial user interfaces to large-scale, projector-based augmented reality. Such virtual environments have interesting characteristics. They deal with large physical objects, the projection surfaces are nonplanar, the physical objects provide natural passive haptic feedback, and the systems naturally support collaboration between users. The article ...
Elias Leonardo Abdala LA Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, Escola Politécnica, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, - - 2014
Several models have been employed to study human postural control during upright quiet stance. Most have adopted an inverted pendulum approximation to the standing human and theoretical models to account for the neural feedback necessary to keep balance. The present study adds to the previous efforts in focusing more closely ...
Schmidt Helmut H College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, United - - 2014
Graph theory has evolved into a useful tool for studying complex brain networks inferred from a variety of measures of neural activity, including fMRI, DTI, MEG and EEG. In the study of neurological disorders, recent work has discovered differences in the structure of graphs inferred from patient and control cohorts. ...
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