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Fattore Liana L CNR National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Neuroscience-Cagliari, Cagliari, - - 2015
The inability to maintain drug abstinence is often referred to as relapse and consists of a process by which an abstaining individual slips back into old behavioral patterns and substance use. Animal models of relapse have been developed and validated over the last decades, and significantly contributed to shed light ...
Budday Silvia S Chair of Applied Mechanics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Erlangen / Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen, - - 2014
Convolutions are a classical hallmark of most mammalian brains. Brain surface morphology is often associated with intelligence and closely correlated to neurological dysfunction. Yet, we know surprisingly little about the underlying mechanisms of cortical folding. Here we identify the role of the key anatomic players during the folding process: cortical ...
Skuta Ctibor C Laboratory of Informatics and Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technická 5, CZ-166 28 Prague, Czech Republic ; CZ-OPENSCREEN, Institute of Molecular Genetics of the ASCR, v. v. i, Vídeňská 1083, CZ-142 20 Prague, Czech - - 2014
Hierarchical clustering is an exploratory data analysis method that reveals the groups (clusters) of similar objects. The result of the hierarchical clustering is a tree structure called dendrogram that shows the arrangement of individual clusters. To investigate the row/column hierarchical cluster structure of a data matrix, a visualization tool called ...
Satoh Noriyuki N Marine Genomics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan norisky@oist.jp - - 2014
Traditional metazoan phylogeny classifies the Vertebrata as a subphylum of the phylum Chordata, together with two other subphyla, the Urochordata (Tunicata) and the Cephalochordata. The Chordata, together with the phyla Echinodermata and Hemichordata, comprise a major group, the Deuterostomia. Chordates invariably possess a notochord and a dorsal neural tube. Although ...
Scales Kylie L KL Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Plymouth PL1 3DH, UK - - 2014
The oceanographic drivers of marine vertebrate habitat use are poorly understood yet fundamental to our knowledge of marine ecosystem functioning. Here, we use composite front mapping and high-resolution GPS tracking to determine the significance of mesoscale oceanographic fronts as physical drivers of foraging habitat selection in northern gannets Morus bassanus. ...
Bhattacharya Kunal K http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4943-3814 Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031, India - - 2014
Animals foraging alone are hypothesized to optimize the encounter rates with resources through Lévy walks. However, the issue of how the interactions between multiple foragers influence their search efficiency is still not completely understood. To address this, we consider a model to study the optimal strategy for a group of ...
Wang Liyu L Bio-Inspired Robotics Lab, Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, ETH Zurich, Leonhardstrasse 27, Zurich 8092, Switzerland - - 2014
Tool manufacture and use are observed not only in humans but also in other animals such as mammals, birds and insects. Manufactured tools are used for biomechanical functions such as effective control of fluids and small solid objects and extension of reaching. These tools are passive and used with gravity ...
Koechlin Etienne E Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 29 rue d'Ulm, 75005 Paris, France - - 2014
The prefrontal cortex subserves executive control and decision-making, that is, the coordination and selection of thoughts and actions in the service of adaptive behaviour. We present here a computational theory describing the evolution of the prefrontal cortex from rodents to humans as gradually adding new inferential Bayesian capabilities for dealing ...
Friston Karl K The Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK - - 2014
This paper considers goal-directed decision-making in terms of embodied or active inference. We associate bounded rationality with approximate Bayesian inference that optimizes a free energy bound on model evidence. Several constructs such as expected utility, exploration or novelty bonuses, softmax choice rules and optimism bias emerge as natural consequences of ...
Kachergis George G Institute for Psychological Research Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, 2333 AK Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands - - 2014
Action selection, planning and execution are continuous processes that evolve over time, responding to perceptual feedback as well as evolving top-down constraints. Existing models of routine sequential action (e.g. coffee- or pancake-making) generally fall into one of two classes: hierarchical models that include hand-built task representations, or heterarchical models that ...
Lisman John J Biology Department and Volen Center for Complex Systems, Brandeis University, 415 South Street-MS 008, Waltham, MA 02454-9110, USA - - 2014
In this article, I point out that simple one-phase models of the role of the basal ganglia in action selection have a problem. Furthermore, I suggest a solution with major implications for the organization of the action-selection and motor systems. In current models, the striatum evaluates multiple potential actions by ...
Milford Michael M School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia - - 2014
Mobile robots and animals alike must effectively navigate their environments in order to achieve their goals. For animals goal-directed navigation facilitates finding food, seeking shelter or migration; similarly robots perform goal-directed navigation to find a charging station, get out of the rain or guide a person to a destination. This ...
Daw Nathaniel D ND http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5029-1430 Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place Suite 888, New York, NY 10003, - - 2014
Despite many debates in the first half of the twentieth century, it is now largely a truism that humans and other animals build models of their environments and use them for prediction and control. However, model-based (MB) reasoning presents severe computational challenges. Alternative, computationally simpler, model-free (MF) schemes have been ...
Romero-Reyes Marcela M Orofacial and Head Pain Service, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Radiology and Medicine, New York University College of Dentistry, 345 East 24th Street, New York, NY, 10010, USA, - - 2014
Migraine is a severe and debilitating disorder of the brain that involves a constellation of neurological symptoms alongside head pain. Its pathophysiology is only beginning to be understood, and is thought to involve activation and sensitization of trigeminovascular nociceptive pathways that innervate the cranial vasculature, and activation of brain stem ...
Guo Zhenyuan - - 2014
This paper presents new theoretical results on the passivity and passification of a class of memristor-based recurrent neural networks (MRNNs) with time-varying delays. The casual assumptions on the boundedness and Lipschitz continuity of neuronal activation functions are relaxed. By constructing appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals and using the characteristic function technique, passivity ...
Yang Chenguang - - 2014
In this paper, automatic motion control is investigated for one of wheeled inverted pendulum (WIP) models, which have been widely applied for modeling of a large range of two wheeled modern vehicles. First, the underactuated WIP model is decomposed into a fully actuated second order subsystem Σa consisting of planar ...
Fernandez-Navarro Francisco - - 2014
Ordinal regression (OR) is an important branch of supervised learning in between the multiclass classification and regression. In this paper, the traditional classification scheme of neural network is adapted to learn ordinal ranks. The model proposed imposes monotonicity constraints on the weights connecting the hidden layer with the output layer. ...
Martínez-García Ricardo R IFISC (CSIC-UIB), Instituto de Física Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos, Campus Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, - - 2014
The minimal ecological requirements for the fomation of regular vegetation patterns in semiarid systems have been recently questioned. Against the general belief that a combination of facilitative and competitive interactions is necessary, recent theoretical studies suggest that, under broad conditions, non-local competition among plants alone may induce patterns. In this ...
Rosjat Nils - - 2014
Recent experimental results suggest that impairment of auditory information processing in the thalamo-cortical loop is crucially related to schizophrenia. Large differences between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls were found in the cortical EEG signals. We derive a phenomenological mathematical model, based on coupled phase oscillators with continuously distributed frequencies to ...
Hosey Geoff G Biology, University of Bolton, Bolton, United - - 2014
Human-animal interactions (HAI), which may lead to human-animal relationships (HAR), may be positive, neutral, or negative in nature. Zoo studies show that visitors may be stressful, may have no effect, or may be enriching. There is also evidence that good HARs set up between animals and their keepers can have ...
Rodríguez-Rodríguez C C Medicinal Inorganic Chemistry Group, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada. crisrod@chem.ubc.ca - - 2014
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological disease of confusing causation with no cure or prevention available. The definitive diagnosis is made postmortem, in part through the presence of amyloid-beta plaques in the brain tissue, which can be done with the small molecule thioflavin-T (). Plaques are also found to contain ...
Köhling Rüdiger R Oscar-Langendorff-Institute of Physiology, Rostock University Medical School, Rostock, - - 2014
There is no doubt that seizures change processes in neuronal networks which themselves impact on seizure susceptibility, and reports on such changes probably account for the majority of studies in experimental epileptology. As much as there is no doubt about this general fact, there is, to date, quite some disagreement ...
Hellwig Michael M Research Center Process and Product Engineering, Vorarlberg University of Applied Sciences, Dornbirn, 6850, Austria - - 2014
Abstract This paper investigates constraint handling techniques used in non-elitist single parent evolution strategies for the problem of maximizing a linear function with a single linear constraint. Two repair mechanisms are considered and the analytical results are compared to those of earlier repair approaches in the same fitness environment. The ...
Wang Fang F Departments of aOrthopaedics bRadiology, School of Medicine, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, - - 2014
Four different spinal cord injury (SCI) models (hemisection, contusion, transection, and segment resection) were produced in male Sprague-Dawley rats to determine the most suitable animal model of SCI by analyzing the changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters both qualitatively and quantitatively in vivo. Radiological examinations were performed before surgery ...
Weber Romann M RM California Institute of Technology, MC 228-77, Pasadena, CA, 91125, USA, - - 2014
A major focus of research on visually guided action is the identification of control strategies that map optical information to actions. The traditional approach has been to test the behavioral predictions of a few hypothesized strategies against subject behavior in environments in which various manipulations of available information have been ...
Buono Pietro-Luciano PL Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St. North, Oshawa, ON, L1H 7K4, Canada, - - 2014
The study of self-organised collective animal behaviour, such as swarms of insects or schools of fish, has become over the last decade a very active research area in mathematical biology. Parabolic and hyperbolic models have been used intensively to describe the formation and movement of various aggregative behaviours. While both ...
Fu Xingang - - 2014
This paper investigates how to train a recurrent neural network (RNN) using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm as well as how to implement optimal control of a grid-connected converter (GCC) using an RNN. To successfully and efficiently train an RNN using the LM algorithm, a new forward accumulation through time (FATT) ...
Mazzatenta Andrea A Sensorial Physiology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Imaging, "G. d'Annunzio" University of Chieti-Pescara, 66013, Chieti, Italy, - - 2014
Anosmia is a model to study the interaction among chemoreception systems. In the head injury, the traumatic irreversible anosmia caused by damage to olfactory nerve fibers and brain regions is of enviable research interest. In this study, psychophysiological tests for a comprehensive assessment of olfactory function were utilized to investigate ...
Kolesar Ivan - - 2014
Research in cell biology is steadily contributing new knowledge about many aspects of physiologicalprocesses, both with respect to the involved molecular structures as well as their related function.Illustrations of the spatio-temporal development of such processes are not only used in biomedicaleducation, but also can serve scientists as an additional platform ...
Tao Jianmin J Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323, - - 2014
Due to size-dependent non-additivity, the van der Waals interaction (vdW) between nanostructures remains elusive. Here we first develop a model dynamic multipole polarizability for an inhomogeneous system that allows for a cavity. The model recovers the exact zero- and high-frequency limits and respects the paradigms of condensed matter physics (slowly ...
Vyas Bhargav Y - - 2014
This paper presents the Chebyshev neural network (ChNN) as an improved artificial intelligence technique for power system protection studies and examines the performances of two ChNN learning algorithms for fault classification of series compensated transmission line. The training algorithms are least-square Levenberg-Marquardt (LSLM) and recursive least-square algorithm with forgetting factor ...
Hunt Laurence T LT 0000000283938533 1] Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, London, UK. [2] Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience, University College London, London, - - 2014
Valuation is a key tenet of decision neuroscience, where it is generally assumed that different attributes of competing options are assimilated into unitary values. Such values are central to current neural models of choice. By contrast, psychological studies emphasize complex interactions between choice and valuation. Principles of neuronal selection also ...
Dietrich Arne A Department of Psychology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, 1107-2020, Lebanon, - - 2014
Creative thinking is arguably the pinnacle of cerebral functionality. Like no other mental faculty, it has been omnipotent in transforming human civilizations. Probing the neural basis of this most extraordinary capacity, however, has been doggedly frustrated. Despite a flurry of activity in cognitive neuroscience, recent reviews have shown that there ...
Bambini-Junior Victorio V Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Research Group in Neuroglial Plasticity at the Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Health's Basic Science, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Translational Research Group in Autism Spectrum Disorders (GETTEA), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. - - 2014
Tyzio et al. (Reports, 7 February 2014, p. 675) reported that bumetanide restored the impaired oxytocin-mediated γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) excitatory-inhibitory shift during delivery in animal models of autism, ameliorating some autistic-like characteristics in the offspring. However, standard practices in the study of these models, such as the use of sex-dimorphic ...
Smith Robert E RE The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Diffusion MRI streamlines tractography is increasingly being used to characterise and assess the structural connectome of the human brain. However, issues pertaining to quantification of structural connectivity using streamlines reconstructions are well-established in the field, and therefore the validity of any conclusions that may be drawn from these analyses remains ...
Bod'ová Katarína K Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria), Am Campus 1, Klosterneuburg A-3400, Austria. Electronic address: - - 2014
Understanding the dynamics of noisy neurons remains an important challenge in neuroscience. Here, we describe a simple probabilistic model that accurately describes the firing behavior in a large class (type II) of neurons. To demonstrate the usefulness of this model, we show how it accurately predicts the interspike interval (ISI) ...
Klamer Silke S Department of Neurology and Epileptology, Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076, Tuebingen, Germany, - - 2014
Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are widely used to localize brain activity and their spatial resolutions have been compared in several publications. While most clinical studies demonstrated higher accuracy of MEG source localization, simulation studies suggested a more accurate EEG than MEG localization for the same number of channels. However, ...
He Honglin H Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
Both the amounts of data describing the site-scale carbon flux at a high temporal and spatial resolution collected in China and the number of eddy covariance flux towers have been increasing during the last decade. To correctly upscale these fluxes to the regional and global level, the representativeness of the ...
Li Yuan-Long - - 2014
Utilizing cumulative correlation information already existing in an evolutionary process, this paper proposes a predictive approach to the reproduction mechanism of new individuals for differential evolution (DE) algorithms. DE uses a distributed model (DM) to generate new individuals, which is relatively explorative, whilst evolution strategy (ES) uses a centralized model ...
Corradi Federico - - 2014
The vestibular system plays a crucial role in the sense of balance and spatial orientation in mammals. It is a sensory system that detects both rotational and translational motion of the head, via its semicircular canals and otoliths respectively. In this work, we propose a real-time hardware model of an ...
Kuebrich Benjamin B Neuroscience Doctoral Program and Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia - - 2014
Songbirds provide a powerful animal model for investigating how the brain uses sensory feedback to correct behavioral errors. Here, we review a recent study in which we used online manipulations of auditory feedback to quantify the relationship between sensory error size, motor variability, and vocal plasticity. We found that although ...
Retico Alessandra A From the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa, - - 2014
Decision-making systems trained on structural magnetic resonance imaging data of subjects affected by the Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy controls (CTRL) are becoming widespread prognostic tools for subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study compares the performances of three classification methods based on support vector machines (SVMs), using as ...
Retico A - - 2014
Classification methods based on machine learning (ML) techniques are becoming widespread analysis tools in neuroimaging studies. They have the potential to enhance the diagnostic power of brain data, by assigning a predictive index, either of pathology or of treatment response, to the single subject's acquisition. ML techniques are currently finding ...
Bilal Erhan E IBM Research, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA - - 2014
Animal models are very important tools in drug discovery and for understanding human biology in general. However many drugs that initially show promising results in rodents fail in later stages of clinical trials. Understanding the commonalities and differences between human and rat cell signaling networks can lead to better experimental ...
Smedema Susan Miller - - 2014
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate a motivational model of core self-evaluations (CSE), hope (agency and pathways thinking), participation, and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injuries. Design: A cross-sectional, correlational design with path analysis was used to evaluate the model. Participants: 187 adults with spinal ...
Siljić Aleksandra A Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11120, Belgrade, - - 2014
Biological oxygen demand (BOD) is the most significant water quality parameter and indicates water pollution with respect to the present biodegradable organic matter content. European countries are therefore obliged to report annual BOD values to Eurostat; however, BOD data at the national level is only available for 28 of 35 ...
Casci Ian I Department of Pediatrics, Child Neurology and Neurobiology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15224; Human Genetics Graduate Program, University of Pittsburgh School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, - - 2014
For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this ...
Fukushima Makoto M Graduate School of Information Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara, Japan; ATR Neural Information Analysis Laboratories, Kyoto, - - 2014
We present an MEG source reconstruction method that simultaneously reconstructs source amplitudes and identifies source interactions across the whole brain. In the proposed method, a full multivariate autoregressive (MAR) model formulates directed interactions (i.e., effective connectivity) between sources. The MAR coefficients (the entries of the MAR matrix) are constrained by ...
Sandwell David T DT Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. - - 2014
Gravity models are powerful tools for mapping tectonic structures, especially in the deep ocean basins where the topography remains unmapped by ships or is buried by thick sediment. We combined new radar altimeter measurements from satellites CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 with existing data to construct a global marine gravity model that ...
Elbasiouny Sherif M SM Wright State University - - 2014
In large network and single 3D neuron simulations, high computing speed dictates using reduced cable models to simulate neuronal firing behaviors. However, these models are unwarranted under active conditions and lack accurate representation of dendritic active conductances that greatly shape neuronal firing. Here, realistic 3D (R3D) models (which contain full ...
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