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Alali Aziz S AS 1Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON, Canada. 2Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. 3Division of Neurosurgery, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada. 4Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. 5Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. 6Department of Critical Care, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON, Canada. 7Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. 8Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada. 9Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, - - 2014
Decompressive craniectomy and barbiturate coma are often used as second-tier strategies when intracranial hypertension following severe traumatic brain injury is refractory to first-line treatments. Uncertainty surrounds the decision to choose either treatment option. We investigated which strategy is more economically attractive in this context. We performed a cost-utility analysis. A ...
Clenet Harold H EPSL, Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 3, CH-1015 Lausanne, - - 2014
The asteroid 4 Vesta was recently found to have two large impact craters near its south pole, exposing subsurface material. Modelling suggested that surface material in the northern hemisphere of Vesta came from a depth of about 20 kilometres, whereas the exposed southern material comes from a depth of 60 to 100 kilometres. ...
Michmizos Konstantinos P KP Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA, USA, - - 2014
Reaction time (RT) is one of the most commonly used measures of neurological function and dysfunction. Despite the extensive studies on it, no study has ever examined the RT in the ankle. Twenty-two subjects were recruited to perform simple, 2- and 4-choice RT tasks by visually guiding a cursor inside ...
Troebinger Luzia L Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging at UCL, 12 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Typically MEG source reconstruction is used to estimate the distribution of current flow on a single anatomically derived cortical surface model. In this study we use two such models representing superficial and deep cortical laminae. We establish how well we can discriminate between these two different cortical layer models based ...
Ewald Arne A Dept. of Neurophysiology and Pathophysiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg; Berlin Institute of Technology, Machine Learning Laboratory, Franklinstr 28/29, 10587 Berlin; NIRx Medizintechnik GmbH, Baumbachstr. 17, 13189 Berlin. Electronic address: - - 2014
We introduce a novel method to estimate bivariate synchronization, i.e. interacting brain sources at a specific frequency or band, from MEG or EEG data robust to artifacts of volume conduction. The data driven calculation is solely based on the imaginary part of the cross-spectrum as opposed to the imaginary part ...
Morishige Ken-Ichi KI Department of Intelligent Systems Design Engineering, Toyama Prefectural University, 5180 Kurokawa, Imizu-shi, Toyama 939-0398, Japan; Cognitive Mechanisms Laboratories, Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International, 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto 619-0288, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
One of the major obstacles in estimating cortical currents from MEG signals is the disturbance caused by magnetic artifacts derived from extra-cortical current sources such as heartbeats and eye movements. To remove the effect of such extra-brain sources, we improved the hybrid hierarchical variational Bayesian method (hyVBED) proposed by Fujiwara ...
Strobbe Gregor G Ghent University - iMinds, Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, De Pintelaan 185, Building BB floor 5, 9000, Ghent, Belgium; iMinds Medical IT department, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
We revisit the multiple sparse priors (MSP) algorithm implemented in the statistical parametric mapping software (SPM) for distributed EEG source reconstruction (Friston et al., 2008). In the present implementation, multiple cortical patches are introduced as source priors based on a dipole source space restricted to a cortical surface mesh. In ...
Bateman A W AW Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK; Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Canada; Kalahari Meerkat Project, Kuruman River Reserve, Northern Cape, South - - 2014
Multiple approaches exist to model patterns of space use across species, among them resource selection analysis, statistical home range modelling, and mechanistic movement modelling. Mechanistic home-range models combine the benefits of these approaches, describing emergent territorial patterns based on fine-scale individual- or group-movement rules and incorporating interactions with neighbours and ...
Gardner Justin L JL Laboratory for Human Systems Neuroscience, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Can the human brain itself serve as a model for a systems neuroscience approach to understanding the human brain? After all, how the brain is able to create the richness and complexity of human behavior is still largely mysterious. What better choice to study that complexity than to study it ...
Janssen Stein J SJ Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hand and Upper Extremity Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, - - 2014
To determine whether there is a measurable and reproducible relationship between the articular surface size of the middle phalanx base and the size of the middle phalanx head and proximal phalanx length of the same finger. Size of the articular surface of the middle phalanx base, size of the middle ...
Steinberg Idan - - 2014
ABSTRACT. The diffusion approximation is useful for many optical diagnostics modalities, such as near-infrared spectroscopy. However, the simple normal incidence, semi-infinite layer model may prove lacking in estimation of deep-tissue optical properties such as required for monitoring cerebral hemodynamics, especially in neonates. To answer this need, we present an analytical ...
Liu Ying - - 2014
In many neuroscience applications, one is interested in identifying the functional brain modules from multichannel, multiple subject neuroimaging data. However, most of the existing network community structure detection algorithms are limited to single undirected networks and cannot reveal the common community structure for a collection of directed networks. In this ...
Lüders Hans H Neurology, Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, - - 2014
There are at least five types of alterations of consciousness that occur during epileptic seizures: auras with illusions or hallucinations, dyscognitive seizures, epileptic delirium, dialeptic seizures, and epileptic coma. Each of these types of alterations of consciousness has a specific semiology and a distinct pathophysiologic mechanism. In this proposal we ...
Hua Wen-Yu WY Department of Statistics, Penn State University, State College, PA 16802, USA - - 2014
Recent research in neuroimaging has focused on assessing associations between genetic variants that are measured on a genomewide scale and brain imaging phenotypes. A large number of works in the area apply massively univariate analyses on a genomewide basis to find single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence brain structure. In this ...
Shao Hao-Chiang - - 2014
Brain research requires a standardized brain atlas to describe both the variance and invariance in brain anatomy and neuron connectivity. In this study, we propose a system to construct a standardized 3D Drosophila brain atlas by integrating labeled images from different preparations. The 3D fly brain atlas consists of standardized ...
Kaufmann Elke G EG Lutheran Diakoniewerk Neuendettelsau, - - 2014
The topic of well-being is becoming increasingly significant as a key outcome measure in dementia care. Previous work on personhood of individuals with dementia suggests that their subjective well-being can be described in terms of comfort, inclusion, identity, occupation and attachment. The study aimed to examine Tom Kitwood's model of ...
Grillner Sten S Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: - - 2014
Several recent megascale neuroscience efforts in the U.S. and Europe are concerned with developing infrastructure for tools, modeling, or neuroinformatics. It may seem surprising that they are not instead focused directly on gaining fundamental new insights into brain function.
Andrzejak Ralph G RG Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, - - 2014
In patients diagnosed with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy, cerebral areas responsible for seizure generation can be defined by performing implantation of intracranial electrodes. The identification of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is based on visual inspection of the intracranial electroencephalogram (IEEG) performed by highly qualified neurophysiologists. New computer-based quantitative EEG analyses have been ...
Grout Gwyn G Consultant Nurse (Dementia), Red & Yellow - - 2014
Dementia currently affects more than 800,000 people in the UK, and it is estimated that, by 2021, this number will have increased to around 1 million (NHS Choices, 2013).
Friedman Eric J EJ International Computer Science Institute , 947 Center St #600 , Berkeley, California, United States, 94713 ; - - 2014
This paper introduces a new approach in brain connectomics aimed at characterizing the temporal spread in the brain of pathologies like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main instrument is the development of "directed progression networks" (DPNets), wherein one constructs directed edges between nodes based on (weakly) inferred directions of the temporal ...
Batalle Dafnis D Fetal and Perinatal Medicine Research Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
Characterization of brain changes produced by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is among the main challenges of modern fetal medicine and pediatrics. This condition affects 5-10% of all pregnancies and is associated with a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders. Better understanding of the brain reorganization produced by IUGR opens a window ...
Xu Peng - - 2014
Discriminating psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) from epilepsy is challenging, and a reliable and automatic classification remains elusive. In this study, we develop an approach for discriminating between PNES and epilepsy using the common spatial pattern extracted from the brain network topology (SPN). The study reveals that 92% accuracy, 100% sensitivity, ...
Aurich Lucas Alves LA Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute of Curitiba, Curitiba, PR, - - 2014
This paper proposes a practical model of microneurosurgical training using a nonliving swine head. Fresh porcine heads were obtained from butchery and dissected at our Laboratory of Microsurgery. Brain and skull base surgery were trained under microscopic magnification. Several neurosurgical procedures could be simulated in the nonliving pig model, including ...
Kochunov Peter P Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. - - 2014
Schizophrenia is a disorder of cerebral disconnectivity whose lifetime course is modeled as both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative. The neurodevelopmental models attribute schizophrenia to alterations in the prenatal-to-early adolescent development. The neurodegenerative models identify progressive neurodegeneration as its core attribute. Historically, the physiology, pharmacology, and treatment targets in schizophrenia were conceptualized ...
Zubler Frederic F Department of Neurology, Inselspital Bern, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, - - 2014
Quantitative EEG (qEEG) has modified our understanding of epileptic seizures, shifting our view from the traditionally accepted hyper-synchrony paradigm toward more complex models based on re-organization of functional networks. However, qEEG measurements are so far rarely considered during the clinical decision-making process. To better understand the dynamics of intracranial EEG ...
Muroi Carl C Department of Neuropharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University , Fukuoka , - - 2014
Objective. Mouse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models are becoming increasingly important. We aimed to report and discuss the detailed technical-surgical approach and difficulties associated with the circle of Willis perforation (cWp) model, with reference to the existing literature. Methods. First, the cWp model was reproduced using ddY mice following scarification at ...
Uludağ Kâmil K Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Maastricht Brain Imaging Centre (MBIC), Faculty of Psychology & Neuroscience, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Multimodal neuroimaging has become a mainstay of basic and cognitive neuroscience in humans and animals, despite challenges to consider when acquiring and combining non-redundant imaging data. Multimodal data integration can yield important insights into brain processes and structures in addition to spatiotemporal resolution complementarity, including: a comprehensive physiological view on ...
Loo Colleen K CK From the *School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales (UNSW), Black Dog Institute; †Department of Psychiatry, St George Hospital; ‡Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UNSW; §School of Psychiatry, UNSW; ∥Black Dog Institute; and ¶Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UNSW, Sydney, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effects of frontoparietal electrode placement, an alternative montage for right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), with the commonly used temporoparietal montage. In a single patient who received alternate treatments with the abovementioned right unilateral montages, within a treatment course of ECT, ...
Bhanpuri Nasir H NH 1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore MD, - - 2014
Cerebellar damage results in uncoordinated, variable and dysmetric movements known as ataxia. Here we show that we can reliably model single-joint reaching trajectories of patients (n = 10), reproduce patient-like deficits in the behaviour of controls (n = 11), and apply patient-specific compensations that improve reaching accuracy (P < 0.02). ...
Mokin Maxim M Department of Neurosurgery, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, - - 2014
Artificial stroke models can be used for testing various thrombectomy devices. To determine the value of combined stentriever-aspiration thrombectomy compared with the stentriever-alone approach. We designed an in vitro model of the intracranial circulation with a focus on the middle cerebral artery (MCA) that closely resembles the human intracranial circulation. ...
Gershman Samuel J SJ Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
This paper extends earlier work on spatial modeling of fMRI data to the temporal domain, providing a framework for analyzing high temporal resolution brain imaging modalities such as electroencapholography (EEG). The central idea is to decompose brain imaging data into a covariate-dependent superposition of functions defined over continuous time and ...
Köppl T T Institute for Numerical Mathematics, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 3, D-85748 Garching b. München, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
We study the impact of varying degrees of unilateral stenoses of an carotid artery on pulsatile blood flow and oxygen transport from the heart to the brain. For the numerical simulation a model reduction approach is used involving non-linear 1-D transport equation systems, linear 1-D transport equations and 0-D models. ...
Roldan-Valadez Ernesto E Magnetic Resonance Unit, Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation, Mexico City, - - 2014
Histological behavior of glioblastoma multiforme suggests it would benefit more from a global rather than regional evaluation. A global (whole-brain) calculation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived tensor metrics offers a valid method to detect the integrity of white matter structures without missing infiltrated brain areas not seen in conventional ...
Rutkowski Tomasz M TM Life Science Center of TARA, University of Tsukuba, Japan; RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
The paper presents a report on the recently developed BCI alternative for users suffering from impaired vision (lack of focus or eye-movements) or from the so-called "ear-blocking-syndrome" (limited hearing). We report on our recent studies of the extents to which vibrotactile stimuli delivered to the head of a user can ...
Di Ieva Antonio A Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5B 1W8, - - 2014
The skull base represents a central and complex bone structure of the skull and forms the floor of the cranial cavity on which the brain lies. Anatomical knowledge of this particular region is important for understanding several pathologic conditions as well as for planning surgical procedures. Embryology of the cranial ...
Odabaee Maryam M The University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research (UQCCR) and Perinatal Research Centre, Royal Brisbane & Women's Hospital, Queensland, - - 2014
The potential improvements in spatial resolution of neonatal EEG used in source localization have been challenged by the insufficiencies in realistic neonatal head models. Our present study aimed at using empirical methods to indirectly estimate skull conductivity; the model parameter that is known to significantly affect the behavior of newborn ...
Custo Anna A Functional Brain Mapping Lab, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Relating measures of electroencephalography (EEG) back to the underlying sources is a long-standing inverse problem. Here we propose a new method to estimate the EEG sources of identified electrophysiological states that represent spontaneous activity, or are evoked by a stimulus, or caused by disease or disorder. Our method has the ...
Stam C J CJ Department of Clinical Neurophysiology and MEG Center, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
In recent years there has been a shift in focus from the study of local, mostly task-related activation to the exploration of the organization and functioning of large-scale structural and functional complex brain networks. Progress in the interdisciplinary field of modern network science has introduced many new concepts, analytical tools ...
Stewart Adam Michael AM ZENEREI Institute and the International Zebrafish Neuroscience Research Consortium (ZNRC), 309 Palmer Court, Slidell, LA 70458, USA; Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, A210 Langley Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, - - 2014
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is emerging as a new important species for studying mechanisms of brain function and dysfunction. Focusing on selected central nervous system (CNS) disorders (brain cancer, epilepsy, and anxiety) and using them as examples, we discuss the value of zebrafish models in translational neuroscience. We further evaluate ...
Callaghan Martina F MF Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United - - 2014
The longitudinal relaxation rate (R1 ) measured in vivo depends on the local microstructural properties of the tissue, such as macromolecular, iron, and water content. Here, we use whole brain multiparametric in vivo data and a general linear relaxometry model to describe the dependence of R1 on these components. We ...
Nili Hamed H MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, United - - 2014
Neuronal population codes are increasingly being investigated with multivariate pattern-information analyses. A key challenge is to use measured brain-activity patterns to test computational models of brain information processing. One approach to this problem is representational similarity analysis (RSA), which characterizes a representation in a brain or computational model by the ...
Llera A A Radboud University and Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen 6525 EZ, Netherlands - - 2014
We consider the problem of multiclass adaptive classification for brain-computer interfaces and propose the use of multiclass pooled mean linear discriminant analysis (MPMLDA), a multiclass generalization of the adaptation rule introduced by Vidaurre, Kawanabe, von Bünau, Blankertz, and Müller (2010) for the binary class setting. Using publicly available EEG data ...
Sporns Olaf O Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, - - 2014
The confluence of new approaches in recording patterns of brain connectivity and quantitative analytic tools from network science has opened new avenues toward understanding the organization and function of brain networks. Descriptive network models of brain structural and functional connectivity have made several important contributions; for example, in the mapping ...
Kunz Nicolas N Division of Development and Growth, Department of Pediatrics, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Brain white matter connections have become a focus of major interest with important maturational processes occurring in newborns. To study the complex microstructural developmental changes in-vivo, it is imperative that non-invasive neuroimaging approaches are developed for this age-group. Multi b-values diffusion weighted imaging data were acquired in 13 newborns, and ...
Rizzo Gaia G Department of Information Engineering (DEI), University of Padova, Padova, - - 2014
The positron emission tomography radioligand [(11)C]PBR28 targets translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) and is a potential marker of neuroinflammation. [(11)C]PBR28 binding is commonly quantified using a two-tissue compartment model and an arterial input function. Previous studies with [(11)C]-(R)-PK11195 demonstrated a slow irreversible binding component to the TSPO proteins localized in the ...
Maggioni Eleonora E Department of Electronics Information and Bioengineering (DEIB), Politecnico di Milano, Via C. Golgi, 39, 20133, Milan, Italy; Scientific Institute IRCCS E.Medea, Via Don Luigi Monza 20, 23842 Bosisio Parini, Lecco, - - 2014
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is used for exploring brain functionality, and recently it was applied for mapping the brain connection patterns. To give a meaningful neurobiological interpretation to the connectivity network, it is fundamental to properly define the network framework. In particular, the choice of the network nodes may ...
Teplitzky Benjamin A BA Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, - - 2014
Objective. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy currently relies on a transcranial neurosurgical technique to implant one or more electrode leads into the brain parenchyma. In this study, we used computational modeling to investigate the feasibility of using an endovascular approach to target DBS therapy. Approach. Image-based anatomical reconstructions of the ...
Li Yang Y Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, - - 2014
Brain connectivity network derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is becoming increasingly prevalent in the researches related to cognitive and perceptual processes. The capability to detect causal or effective connectivity is highly desirable for understanding the cooperative nature of brain network, particularly when the ultimate goal is to obtain ...
Haar P J PJ Department of Radiology - - 2014
Abstract Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) could have clinical applications in the delivery of neuroprotective agents in brain injury states, such as ischaemic stroke. For CED to be safe and effective, a physician must have accurate knowledge of how concentration distributions will be affected by catheter location, flow rate and other similar ...
Klimm Florian F Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America; Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Department of Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of - - 2014
Large-scale white matter pathways crisscrossing the cortex create a complex pattern of connectivity that underlies human cognitive function. Generative mechanisms for this architecture have been difficult to identify in part because little is known in general about mechanistic drivers of structured networks. Here we contrast network properties derived from diffusion ...
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