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Steinberg Idan - - 2014
ABSTRACT. The diffusion approximation is useful for many optical diagnostics modalities, such as near-infrared spectroscopy. However, the simple normal incidence, semi-infinite layer model may prove lacking in estimation of deep-tissue optical properties such as required for monitoring cerebral hemodynamics, especially in neonates. To answer this need, we present an analytical ...
Di Ieva Antonio A Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5B 1W8, - - 2014
The skull base represents a central and complex bone structure of the skull and forms the floor of the cranial cavity on which the brain lies. Anatomical knowledge of this particular region is important for understanding several pathologic conditions as well as for planning surgical procedures. Embryology of the cranial ...
Odabaee Maryam M The University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research (UQCCR) and Perinatal Research Centre, Royal Brisbane & Women's Hospital, Queensland, - - 2014
The potential improvements in spatial resolution of neonatal EEG used in source localization have been challenged by the insufficiencies in realistic neonatal head models. Our present study aimed at using empirical methods to indirectly estimate skull conductivity; the model parameter that is known to significantly affect the behavior of newborn ...
Custo Anna A Functional Brain Mapping Lab, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Relating measures of electroencephalography (EEG) back to the underlying sources is a long-standing inverse problem. Here we propose a new method to estimate the EEG sources of identified electrophysiological states that represent spontaneous activity, or are evoked by a stimulus, or caused by disease or disorder. Our method has the ...
Stam C J CJ Department of Clinical Neurophysiology and MEG Center, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
In recent years there has been a shift in focus from the study of local, mostly task-related activation to the exploration of the organization and functioning of large-scale structural and functional complex brain networks. Progress in the interdisciplinary field of modern network science has introduced many new concepts, analytical tools ...
Stewart Adam Michael AM ZENEREI Institute and the International Zebrafish Neuroscience Research Consortium (ZNRC), 309 Palmer Court, Slidell, LA 70458, USA; Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, A210 Langley Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, - - 2014
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is emerging as a new important species for studying mechanisms of brain function and dysfunction. Focusing on selected central nervous system (CNS) disorders (brain cancer, epilepsy, and anxiety) and using them as examples, we discuss the value of zebrafish models in translational neuroscience. We further evaluate ...
Callaghan Martina F MF Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United - - 2014
The longitudinal relaxation rate (R1 ) measured in vivo depends on the local microstructural properties of the tissue, such as macromolecular, iron, and water content. Here, we use whole brain multiparametric in vivo data and a general linear relaxometry model to describe the dependence of R1 on these components. We ...
Nili Hamed H MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, United - - 2014
Neuronal population codes are increasingly being investigated with multivariate pattern-information analyses. A key challenge is to use measured brain-activity patterns to test computational models of brain information processing. One approach to this problem is representational similarity analysis (RSA), which characterizes a representation in a brain or computational model by the ...
Llera A A Radboud University and Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen 6525 EZ, Netherlands - - 2014
We consider the problem of multiclass adaptive classification for brain-computer interfaces and propose the use of multiclass pooled mean linear discriminant analysis (MPMLDA), a multiclass generalization of the adaptation rule introduced by Vidaurre, Kawanabe, von Bünau, Blankertz, and Müller (2010) for the binary class setting. Using publicly available EEG data ...
Sporns Olaf O Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, - - 2014
The confluence of new approaches in recording patterns of brain connectivity and quantitative analytic tools from network science has opened new avenues toward understanding the organization and function of brain networks. Descriptive network models of brain structural and functional connectivity have made several important contributions; for example, in the mapping ...
Kunz Nicolas N Division of Development and Growth, Department of Pediatrics, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Brain white matter connections have become a focus of major interest with important maturational processes occurring in newborns. To study the complex microstructural developmental changes in-vivo, it is imperative that non-invasive neuroimaging approaches are developed for this age-group. Multi b-values diffusion weighted imaging data were acquired in 13 newborns, and ...
Rizzo Gaia G Department of Information Engineering (DEI), University of Padova, Padova, - - 2014
The positron emission tomography radioligand [(11)C]PBR28 targets translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) and is a potential marker of neuroinflammation. [(11)C]PBR28 binding is commonly quantified using a two-tissue compartment model and an arterial input function. Previous studies with [(11)C]-(R)-PK11195 demonstrated a slow irreversible binding component to the TSPO proteins localized in the ...
Maggioni Eleonora E Department of Electronics Information and Bioengineering (DEIB), Politecnico di Milano, Via C. Golgi, 39, 20133, Milan, Italy; Scientific Institute IRCCS E.Medea, Via Don Luigi Monza 20, 23842 Bosisio Parini, Lecco, - - 2014
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is used for exploring brain functionality, and recently it was applied for mapping the brain connection patterns. To give a meaningful neurobiological interpretation to the connectivity network, it is fundamental to properly define the network framework. In particular, the choice of the network nodes may ...
Teplitzky Benjamin A BA Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, - - 2014
Objective. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy currently relies on a transcranial neurosurgical technique to implant one or more electrode leads into the brain parenchyma. In this study, we used computational modeling to investigate the feasibility of using an endovascular approach to target DBS therapy. Approach. Image-based anatomical reconstructions of the ...
Li Yang Y Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, - - 2014
Brain connectivity network derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is becoming increasingly prevalent in the researches related to cognitive and perceptual processes. The capability to detect causal or effective connectivity is highly desirable for understanding the cooperative nature of brain network, particularly when the ultimate goal is to obtain ...
Haar P J PJ Department of Radiology - - 2014
Abstract Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) could have clinical applications in the delivery of neuroprotective agents in brain injury states, such as ischaemic stroke. For CED to be safe and effective, a physician must have accurate knowledge of how concentration distributions will be affected by catheter location, flow rate and other similar ...
Klimm Florian F Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America; Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Department of Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of - - 2014
Large-scale white matter pathways crisscrossing the cortex create a complex pattern of connectivity that underlies human cognitive function. Generative mechanisms for this architecture have been difficult to identify in part because little is known in general about mechanistic drivers of structured networks. Here we contrast network properties derived from diffusion ...
Andreotti Jennifer J University Hospital of Psychiatry / University of Bern, Department of Psychiatric Neurophysiology, Bolligenstrasse 111, Bern, Switzerland, 3060 ; - - 2014
Computational network analysis provides new methods to analyze the human connectome. Brain structural networks can be characterized by global and local metrics that recently gave promising insights for diagnosis and further understanding of neurological, psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. In order to ensure the validity of results in clinical settings the ...
Shehzad Zarrar Z Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, USA; Center for the Developing Brain, Child Mind Institute, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The identification of phenotypic associations in high-dimensional brain connectivity data represents the next frontier in the neuroimaging connectomics era. Exploration of brain- phenotype relationships remains limited by statistical approaches that are computationally intensive, depend on a priori hypotheses, or require stringent correction for multiple comparisons. Here, we propose a computationally ...
Koziol Leonard F LF a Private Practice , Arlington Heights , - - 2014
Abstract Nearly 25 years ago, Mirsky and colleagues proposed a multiple-component model of attention. It was proposed that attention was characterized by several distinct elements that were organized into a system. A putative neuroanatomical substrate of this model of attention was proposed. This functional anatomy was primarily based upon inferences ...
Moberget Torgeir T Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, 0317 Oslo, Norway, and Psychology Department, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California - - 2014
The striking homogeneity of cerebellar microanatomy is strongly suggestive of a corresponding uniformity of function. Consequently, theoretical models of the cerebellum's role in motor control should offer important clues regarding cerebellar contributions to cognition. One such influential theory holds that the cerebellum encodes internal models, neural representations of the context-specific ...
Park Hyunjin H School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Republic of - - 2014
Cortical features derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide important information to account for human intelligence. Cortical thickness, surface area, sulcal depth, and mean curvature were considered to explain human intelligence. One region of interest (ROI) of a cortical structure consisting of thousands of vertices contained thousands of measurements, and ...
Dittwald Piotr P College of Inter-faculty Individual Studies in Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland, - - 2014
Recently, an elegant iterative algorithm called BRAIN (Baffling Recursive Algorithm for Isotopic distributioN calculations) was presented. The algorithm is based on the classic polynomial method for calculating aggregated isotope distributions, and it introduces algebraic identities using Newton-Girard and Viète's formulae to solve the problem of polynomial expansion. Due to the ...
Huang Meiyan M School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
Brain extraction is an important procedure in brain image analysis. Although numerous brain extraction methods have been presented, enhancing brain extraction methods remain challenging because brain MRI images exhibit complex characteristics, such as anatomical variability and intensity differences across different sequences and scanners. To address this problem, we present a ...
Butler David D School of Psychology (McElwain Building), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, Australia, - - 2014
Differences in the psychological capacities of closely related species are likely due to differences in their brains. Here, we review neuroanatomical comparisons between hominids (i.e., great apes and humans) and their closest living relatives, the hylobatids (i.e., small apes). We report the differences in quantitative, as well as qualitative, neural ...
Sameni Reza R The School of Electrical & Computer Engineering,Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address: - - 2014
Electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements are always contaminated by non-cerebral signals, which disturb EEG interpretability. Among the different artifacts, ocular artifacts are the most disturbing ones. In previous studies, limited improvement has been obtained using frequency-based methods. Spatial decomposition methods have shown to be more effective for removing ocular artifacts from EEG ...
Kording Konrad Paul KP Rm 1483, 345 E Superior St, Chicago, IL 60611, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Analyzing data from experiments involves variables that we neuroscientists are uncertain about. Efficiently calculating with such variables usually requires Bayesian statistics. As it is crucial when analyzing complex data, it seems natural that the brain would "use" such statistics to analyze data from the world. And indeed, recent studies in ...
Kasabov Nikola K NK Knowledge Engineering and Discovery Research Institute, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1010, New Zealand. Electronic address: - - 2014
The brain functions as a spatio-temporal information processing machine. Spatio- and spectro-temporal brain data (STBD) are the most commonly collected data for measuring brain response to external stimuli. An enormous amount of such data has been already collected, including brain structural and functional data under different conditions, molecular and genetic ...
Chang Yu-Teng YT McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
A wealth of methods has been developed to identify natural divisions of brain networks into groups or modules, with one of the most prominent being modularity. Compared with the popularity of methods to detect community structure, only a few methods exist to statistically control for spurious modules, relying almost exclusively ...
Wanninger Andreas - - 2014
Representatives of the phylum Mollusca have long been important models in neurobiological research. Recently, the routine application of immunocytochemistry in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy has allowed fast generation of highly detailed reconstructions of neural structures of even the smallest multicellular animals, including early developmental stages. As a consequence, ...
Chew Kim Mey - - 2014
The study was conducted based on two objectives as framework. The first objective is to determine the point of microwave signal reflection while penetrating into the simulation models and, the second objective is to analyze the reflection pattern when the signal penetrate into the layers with different relative permittivity, εr. ...
Kheradpisheh Saeed Reza SR Department of Computer Science, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran ; School of Cognitive Sciences (SCS), Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, - - 2014
Nowadays, brain signals are employed in various scientific and practical fields such as Medical Science, Cognitive Science, Neuroscience, and Brain Computer Interfaces. Hence, the need for robust signal analysis methods with adequate accuracy and generalizability is inevitable. The brain signal analysis is faced with complex challenges including small sample size, ...
Chollet Madeleine B MB Center for Functional Anatomy and Evolution, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of - - 2014
Neuroanatomic phenotypes are often assessed using volumetric analysis. Although powerful and versatile, this approach is limited in that it is unable to quantify changes in shape, to describe how regions are interrelated, or to determine whether changes in size are global or local. Statistical shape analysis using coordinate data from ...
Ooki Syuichi S Department of Health Science, Ishikawa Prefectural Nursing University Kahoku, - - 2014
There has been a long-standing debate on the complex correlation between the development of human hand preference and brain lateralization. Handedness, used as a proxy for cerebral lateralization, is a topic of considerable importance because of its potential to reveal the mechanisms of the underlying pathophysiology of problems related to ...
Ko Ji Hyun JH Center for Neurosciences, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset, New York, United States of - - 2014
Multivariate analytical routines have become increasingly popular in the study of cerebral function in health and in disease states. Spatial covariance analysis of functional neuroimaging data has been used to identify and validate characteristic topographies associated with specific brain disorders. Voxel-wise correlations can be used to assess similarities and differences ...
Nichols B Nolan BN University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. - - 2014
The diverse set of human brain structure and function analysis methods represents a difficult challenge for reconciling multiple views of neuroanatomical organization. While different views of organization are expected and valid, no widely adopted approach exists to harmonize different brain labeling protocols and terminologies. Our approach uses the natural organizing ...
Sousa Joana R JR Centro de Investigação em Ciências Veterinárias, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologia, Campo Grande 376, 1749-024 Lisboa, - - 2014
The performance of the cerebral state index (CSI) in reflecting different levels of isoflurane anaesthesia was evaluated in ten cats subjected to four end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (EtIso), each maintained for 15 minutes (0.8%, 1.2%, 1.6%, or 2.0% EtIso). The CSI, hemodynamic data, ocular reflexes, and eye position were recorded for ...
Symonds Matthew R E MR Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, - - 2014
Increased encephalization has been linked to a range of behavioural traits and scenarios. However, studies of whole brain size in this context have been criticised for ignoring the role of specific brain areas in controlling behaviour. In birds, the response to potential threats is one such behaviour that may relate ...
Reiss Philip T PT Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, New York University ; Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric - - 2014
We propose a penalized spline approach to performing large numbers of parallel non-parametric analyses of either of two types: restricted likelihood ratio tests of a parametric regression model versus a general smooth alternative, and nonparametric regression. Compared with naïvely performing each analysis in turn, our techniques reduce computation time dramatically. ...
Saito Erin E 0000-0001-5276-4676 Neurology Division, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, 1124 West Carson Street, Torrance, CA 90502, - - 2014
Background. Given the dementia epidemic and the increasing cost of healthcare, there is a need to assess the economic benefit of community based dementia screening programs. Materials and Methods. Markov model simulations were generated using data obtained from a community based dementia screening program over a one-year period. The models ...
Hapuarachchi T T CoMPLEX, University College London, London, UK, - - 2014
We present a group analysis of the changes in cerebral haemodynamics, and the oxidation state of cytochrome-c-oxidase measured using broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and intracellular pH measured by phosphorous ((31)P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) during and after cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) in 15 piglets. We use a previously published computational model ...
Barone D G DG Department of Neurosurgery, The Walton Centre, Liverpool L9 7AL, - - 2014
The ability to measure reliably the changes in the physical and biochemical environment after a brain injury is of great value in the prevention, treatment, and understanding of the secondary injuries. Three categories of multimodal brain monitoring exist: direct signals which are monitored invasively; variables which may be monitored noninvasively; ...
Hoffmann Anke A Institute of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, - - 2014
Cerebrovascular diseases are significant causes of death and disability in humans. Improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches strongly rely on adequate gyrencephalic, large animal models being demanded for translational research. Ovine stroke models may represent a promising approach but are currently limited by insufficient knowledge regarding the venous system of ...
Potts Jonathan R JR Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Centre for Mathematical Biology, University of Alberta, , Edmonton, , Alberta, Canada , T6G 2G1, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, , Edmonton, , Alberta, Canada , T6G - - 2014
Territory formation is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. At the individual level, various behaviours attempt to exclude conspecifics from regions of space. At the population level, animals often segregate into distinct territorial areas. Consequently, it should be possible to derive territorial patterns from the underlying behavioural processes of animal movements ...
Abdelnour Farras F Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: - - 2013
The relationship between anatomic connectivity of large-scale brain networks and their functional connectivity is of immense importance and an area of active research. Previous attempts have required complex simulations which model the dynamics of each cortical region, and explore the coupling between regions as derived by anatomic connections. While much ...
Gramfort Alexandre A Institut Mines-Telecom, Telecom ParisTech, CNRS LTCI Paris, France ; Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical School Charlestown MA, USA ; NeuroSpin, CEA Saclay Gif-sur-Yvette, - - 2013
Magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography (M/EEG) measure the weak electromagnetic signals generated by neuronal activity in the brain. Using these signals to characterize and locate neural activation in the brain is a challenge that requires expertise in physics, signal processing, statistics, and numerical methods. As part of the MNE software suite, MNE-Python ...
Rooney James P K JP Academic Unit of Neurology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College, 152-160 Pearse Street, Dublin 2, Ireland. Electronic address: - - 2013
Reports from human case studies indicate a half-life for inorganic mercury in the brain of years - contradicting older radioisotope studies that estimated half-lives in the order of weeks to months in duration. This study systematically reviews available evidence on the retention time of inorganic mercury in humans and primates ...
Di Ieva Antonio A 1Division of Neurosurgery, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, - - 2013
It has been ascertained that the human brain is a complex system studied at multiple scales, from neurons and microcircuits to macronetworks. The brain is characterized by a hierarchical organization that gives rise to its highly topological and functional complexity. Over the last decades, fractal geometry has been shown as ...
Fujimoto Kyoko K Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 13th Street, Suite 2301, Charlestown, MA 02129, - - 2013
The Magnetization-Prepared 2 Rapid Acquisition Gradient Echoes (MP2RAGE) method achieves spatially uniform contrast across the entire brain between gray matter and surrounding white matter tissue and cerebrospinal fluid by rapidly acquiring data at two points during an inversion recovery, and then combining the two volumes so as to cancel out ...
Jin Xin - - 2013
The pia-arachnoid complex (PAC) covering the brain plays an important role in the mechanical response of the brain during impact or inertial loading. Recent studies have revealed the complicated material behavior of the PAC. In this study, the nonlinear viscoelastic, transversely isotropic material properties of the PAC were modeled as ...
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