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Fattore Liana L CNR National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Neuroscience-Cagliari, Cagliari, - - 2015
The inability to maintain drug abstinence is often referred to as relapse and consists of a process by which an abstaining individual slips back into old behavioral patterns and substance use. Animal models of relapse have been developed and validated over the last decades, and significantly contributed to shed light ...
Muroi Carl C Department of Neuropharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan, - - 2015
Experiments using genetically engineered mice are regarded as indispensable to gaining a better understanding of the molecular pathophysiology in neuronal injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therefore, mouse SAH models are becoming increasingly important. The circle of Willis perforation (cWp) model is the most frequently used mouse SAH model. We report ...
Sehba Fatima A FA Departments of Neurosurgery and Neurosciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY, 10029, USA, - - 2015
The rat endovascular perforation model is considered the closest replica of human condition. Since its development, this model has been extensively used to study early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, like any other animal model, it has advantages and limitations. The following is a brief review of the ...
Kikkawa Yuichiro Y Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan, - - 2015
In recent years, the shift of research interest in the pathological condition after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from delayed cerebral vasospasm to early brain injury and the development of molecular genetic approaches in animal experiments has resulted in a diversification of animal SAH models. The properties of each animal SAH model ...
Fathi Ali Reza AR Department of Neurosurgery, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland, - - 2015
Despite ongoing extensive and promising research to prevent and treat cerebrovascular vasospasm and delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), clinical outcomes remain unsatisfying. Neuroprotective strategies developed in basic science research laboratories need to be translated from bench-to-bedside using appropriate animal models. While a primate model is ...
Bhat Akshay A Mosaiques-Diagnostics GmbH, Mellendorfer Straße 7-9, D-30625, Hannover, Germany, - - 2015
Understanding disease mechanisms often requires complex and accurate integration of cellular pathways and molecular networks. Systems biology offers the possibility to provide a comprehensive map of the cell's intricate wiring network, which can ultimately lead to decipher the disease phenotype. Here, we describe what biological pathways are, how they function ...
Psiha Maria M Department of Informatics, BiHELab, Ionian University, Plateia Tsirigoti 7, 49100, Corfu, Greece, - - 2015
Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by abnormal neural activity of the basal ganglia which are connected to the cerebral cortex in the brain surface through complex neural circuits. For a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of PD, it is important to identify the underlying PD neural circuits, and to ...
Shah Najaf A NA Genomics and Computational Biology Graduate Group, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, - - 2015
The inability to rationally design and construct circuits that robustly enable complex behaviors is perhaps the most fundamental challenge in synthetic biology. While systems modeling can aid this process and help reduce the space of design strategies, the unavailability and dynamic variability of kinetic parameters limits the utility of such ...
Madsen Curtis C School of Computing, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA, - - 2015
This chapter describes new analysis and verification techniques for synthetic genetic circuits. In particular, it applies stochastic model checking techniques to models of genetic circuits in order to ensure that they behave correctly and are as robust as possible for a variety of different inputs and parameter settings. In addition ...
Mischiati Matteo M Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, - - 2014
Sensorimotor control in vertebrates relies on internal models. When extending an arm to reach for an object, the brain uses predictive models of both limb dynamics and target properties. Whether invertebrates use such models remains unclear. Here we examine to what extent prey interception by dragonflies (Plathemis lydia), a behaviour ...
Fitzpatrick Martin A - - 2014
BackgroundMetabolomics is a systems approach to the analysis of cellular processes through small-molecule metabolite profiling. Standardisation of sample handling and acquisition approaches has contributed to reproducibility. However, the development of robust methods for the analysis of metabolomic data is a work-in-progress. The tools that do exist are often not well ...
Schwabe Tobias T Center for Bioinformatics and Physical Chemistry Institute, Bundesstraße 43, D-22148 Hamburg, Germany. - - 2014
Using the chromophore of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), the performance of a hybrid RI-CC2/polarizable embedding (PE) model is tested against a quantum chemical cluster approach. Moreover, the effect of the rest of the protein environment is studied by systematically increasing the size of the cluster and analyzing the convergence ...
Bobyn Justin D JD Orthopaedic Research & Biotechnology Unit, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, Australia; Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, - - 2014
Multiple techniques designed to induce scoliotic deformity have been applied across many animal species. We have undertaken a review of the literature regarding experimental models of scoliosis in animals and to discuss their utility in comprehending disease aetiology and treatment. Models of scoliosis in animals can be broadly divided into ...
Lockley Robert R Warwick Systems Biology Centre, Senate House, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, United - - 2014
A key feature of directed cell movement is the ability of cells to reorient quickly in response to changes in the direction of an extracellular stimulus. Mathematical models have suggested quite different regulatory mechanisms to explain reorientation, raising the question of how we can validate these models in a rigorous ...
Lewalle Alexandre A London Centre for Nanotechnology , University College London , 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH , - - 2014
The integration of protein function studied in vitro in a dynamic system like the cell lamellipodium remains a significant challenge. One reason is the apparent contradictory effect that perturbations of some proteins can have on the overall lamellipodium dynamics, depending on exact conditions. Theoretical modelling offers one approach for understanding ...
Dervaux Julien J Center for Studies in Physics and Biology , The Rockefeller University , New York, NY 10065 , - - 2014
A general feature of mature biofilms is their highly heterogeneous architecture that partitions the microbial city into sectors with specific micro-environments. To understand how this heterogeneity arises, we have investigated the formation of a microbial community of the model organism Bacillus subtilis. We first show that the growth of macroscopic ...
Zhou Zhongkun Z Centre for Advanced Solutions (C-fACS), Lincoln University, Christchurch, New - - 2014
A prototype chemical sensor named Wasp hound(®) that utilises five classically-conditioned parasitoid wasps, Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), to detect volatile odours was successfully implemented in a previous study. To improve the odour-detecting ability of Wasp Hound(®) , searching behaviours of an individual wasp in a confined area are studied ...
Yaesoubi Maziar M The Mind Research Network, 1101 Yale Blvd NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106; Dept. of ECE, MSC01 1100, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131. Electronic address: - - 2014
Functional connectivity analysis of the human brain is an active area in fMRI research. It focuses on identifying meaningful brain networks that have coherent activity either during a task or in the resting state. These networks are generally identified either as collections of voxels whose time series correlate strongly with ...
Coşkun Mustafa M Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Balikesir University, 10145, Cagis, Balikesir, - - 2015
The spectrum of EEG has been studied to predict the depth of anesthesia using variety of signal processing methods up to date. Those standard models have used the full spectrum of EEG signals together with the systolic-diastolic pressure and pulse values. As it is generally agreed today that the brain ...
Rebic Matus - - 2014
We present a Coarse Grain (CG) model of human telomeric G-quadruplex, obtained using Inverse Monte Carlo (IMC) and Iterative Boltzmann Inversion (IBI) techniques implemented within the software package called MagiC. As a starting point the 2HY9 human telomeric [3+1] hybrid, a 26 nucleobases sequence, was modelled performing a 1s long ...
Thura David D Groupe de Recherche sur le Système Nerveux Central, Département de Neurosciences, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H3T 1J4 Canada - - 2014
Speed-accuracy tradeoffs (SATs) exist in both decision-making and movement control, and are generally studied separately. However, in natural behavior animals are free to adjust the time invested in deciding and moving so as to maximize their reward rate. Here, we investigate whether shared mechanisms exist for SAT adjustment in both ...
Yravedra José J Department of Prehistory, Complutense University, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
There is increasing evidence that Neanderthals had a diverse and flexible diet. They exploited a wide range of resources from large proboscideans to small animals like turtles, rabbits, and marine species. Here, we discuss the importance of ibex and chamois in Neanderthal hunting strategies. The exploitation of both animals has ...
Oña-Ruales Jorge O - - 2014
The location, number, and migrating behavior of the sextets in the cata-condensed benzenoid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with available bay regions have been determined by a new proposed topological methodology called the extended Y-rule. The precursor of this rule is the well-known Y-rule method for determining sextets in peri-condensed polycyclic aromatic ...
Jorfi Mehdi M Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Rte de l'Ancienne Papeterie, CH-1723 Marly, - - 2014
To ensure long-term consistent neural recordings, next-generation intracortical microelectrodes are being developed with an increased emphasis on reducing the neuro-inflammatory response. The increased emphasis stems from the improved understanding of the multifaceted role that inflammation may play in disrupting both biologic and abiologic components of the overall neural interface circuit. ...
Ji Songbai S Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, NH, 03755, USA, - - 2014
Finite element models of the human head play an important role in investigating the mechanisms of traumatic brain injury, including sports concussion. A critical limitation, however, is that they incur a substantial computational cost to simulate even a single impact. Therefore, current simulation schemes significantly hamper brain injury studies based ...
Pârvu Ovidiu - - 2014
BackgroundComputational models play an increasingly important role in systems biology for generating predictions and in synthetic biology as executable prototypes/designs. For real life (clinical) applications there is a need to scale up and build more complex spatio-temporal multiscale models; these could enable investigating how changes at small scales reflect at ...
Mc Carthy David J DJ Pharmacodelivery group, School of Pharmacy, Cavanagh Pharmacy Building,, University College Cork,, Cork, - - 2014
The blood-brain barrier is a unique cell-based restrictive barrier that prevents the entry of many substances, including most therapeutics, into the central nervous system. A wide range of nanoparticulate delivery systems have been investigated with the aim of targeting therapeutics (drugs, nucleic acids, proteins) to the brain following administration by ...
Eckhert Erik E University of California, Berkeley/University of California, San Francisco Joint Medical Program, Berkeley, California; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, - - 2014
Myxococcus xanthus is a Gram-negative, soil-dwelling bacterium that glides on surfaces, reversing direction approximately once every 6 min. Motility in M. xanthus is governed by the Che-like Frz pathway and the Ras-like Mgl pathway, which together cause the cell to oscillate back and forth. Previously, Igoshin et al. (2004) suggested that the cellular ...
Olaya-C M M Department of Pathology, The Medical School, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana- San Ignacio University Hospital, Bogotá, - - 2014
Umbilical cord (UC) alterations are involved in fetal and neonatal complications, and even deaths. Abnormal length has been recognized as the most important UC feature linked to unfavorable results. However, how can the UC be accurately measured in cases in which there is an overriding need for intravenous intervention, urgent ...
Ba Demba D Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139; Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114; - - 2014
Classical nonparametric spectral analysis uses sliding windows to capture the dynamic nature of most real-world time series. This universally accepted approach fails to exploit the temporal continuity in the data and is not well-suited for signals with highly structured time-frequency representations. For a time series whose time-varying mean is the ...
Sandler Roman R Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Neural information processing involves a series of nonlinear dynamical input/output transformations between the spike trains of neurons/neuronal ensembles. Understanding and quantifying these transformations is critical both for understanding neural physiology such as short-term potentiation and for developing cognitive neural prosthetics. A novel method for estimating Volterra kernels for systems with ...
Budday Silvia S Chair of Applied Mechanics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Erlangen / Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen, - - 2014
Convolutions are a classical hallmark of most mammalian brains. Brain surface morphology is often associated with intelligence and closely correlated to neurological dysfunction. Yet, we know surprisingly little about the underlying mechanisms of cortical folding. Here we identify the role of the key anatomic players during the folding process: cortical ...
Skuta Ctibor C Laboratory of Informatics and Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technická 5, CZ-166 28 Prague, Czech Republic ; CZ-OPENSCREEN, Institute of Molecular Genetics of the ASCR, v. v. i, Vídeňská 1083, CZ-142 20 Prague, Czech - - 2014
Hierarchical clustering is an exploratory data analysis method that reveals the groups (clusters) of similar objects. The result of the hierarchical clustering is a tree structure called dendrogram that shows the arrangement of individual clusters. To investigate the row/column hierarchical cluster structure of a data matrix, a visualization tool called ...
Allouni Ammar A Plastic Surgery Department, University Hospital of North Durham, North Road, Durham, DH1 5TW - - 2014
Microsurgery continues to be a fundamental technique in many surgical subspecialties. In the past, many models have been utilized for microsurgery training. We are proposing the human umbilical cord as a training model, which is cheap, available and practical. This model can be used both for junior trainees to achieve ...
Cui Zhen - - 2014
Domain adaptation has shown promising results in computer vision applications. In this paper, we propose a new unsupervised domain adaptation method called domain adaptation by shifting covariance (DASC) for object recognition without requiring any labeled samples from the target domain. By characterizing samples from each domain as one covariance matrix, ...
Castillo-Cagigal Manuel - - 2014
Division of labor is a widely studied aspect of colony behavior of social insects. Division of labor models indicate how individuals distribute themselves in order to perform different tasks simultaneously. However, models that study division of labor from a dynamical system point of view cannot be found in the literature. ...
Breen Dorothy D Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Cork University Hospital, - - 2014
In recent years there has been a move towards a competency-based model for assessing the performance of practical procedures in clinical medicine rather than the traditional assumption that competency is achieved with increasing experience. For such an assessment to be valid, the necessary competencies comprising that skill must be identified. ...
Wu Zheng-Guang - - 2014
This paper investigates the problem of sampled-data stabilization for neural-network-based control systems with an optimal guaranteed cost. Using time-dependent Lyapunov functional approach, some novel conditions are proposed to guarantee the closed-loop systems exponentially stable, which fully use the available information about the actual sampling pattern. Based on the derived conditions, ...
Liu Zhi - - 2014
This paper investigates the fusion of unknown direction hysteresis model with adaptive neural control techniques in face of time-delayed continuous time nonlinear systems without strict-feedback form. Compared with previous works on the hysteresis phenomenon, the direction of the modified Bouc-Wen hysteresis model investigated in the literature is unknown. To reduce ...
Johnson Graham T GT 1] Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA. [2] Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA. [3] California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences (QB3), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, - - 2014
cellPACK assembles computational models of the biological mesoscale, an intermediate scale (10-100 nm) between molecular and cellular biology scales. cellPACK's modular architecture unites existing and novel packing algorithms to generate, visualize and analyze comprehensive three-dimensional models of complex biological environments that integrate data from multiple experimental systems biology and structural ...
Wernet Mathias F MF Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA; New York University Abu Dhabi, Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi 129188, United Arab Emirates; Department of Biology, New York University, New York, New York 10003, - - 2014
The visual system is a powerful model for probing the development, connectivity, and function of neural circuits. Two genetically tractable species, mice and flies, are together providing a great deal of understanding of these processes. Current efforts focus on integrating knowledge gained from three cross-fostering fields of research: (1) understanding ...
Prenger Rilana R Department of Psychology, Health & Technology, University of Twente, The - - 2014
Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of incorporating cognitive parameters of behavior change in ...
Vértes Petra E PE Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, - - 2014
We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network organization across a range of experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion ...
Namjoshi Dhananjay R - - 2014
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health care concern that currently lacks any effective treatment. Despite promising outcomes from many preclinical studies, clinical evaluations have failed to identify effective pharmacological therapies, suggesting that the translational potential of preclinical models may require improvement. Rodents continue to be the most widely ...
Müller Herde Adrienne A Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences (D-CHAB), ETH Zurich, CH-8093, Zurich, - - 2014
Imaging the density of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in brain by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is of interest in relation to several brain disorders. We have recently introduced [(18) F]PSS232, an F-18 labeled analog of the mGluR5-targeting [(11) C]ABP688. Quantitative PET requires kinetic modeling with an input function (IF) ...
Rezaei-Darzi Ehsan E 1)Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 2)Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Science Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, tehran, - - 2014
This study aimed to evaluate and compare the prediction accuracy of two data mining techniques, including decision tree and neural network models in labeling diagnosis to gastrointestinal prescriptions in Iran. This study was conducted in three phases: data preparation, training phase, and testing phase. A sample from a database consisting ...
Jiménez David D Department of Mathematics, University of Costa Rica, San Pedro Montes de Oca, San José, Republic of Costa Rica, - - 2014
Centerline tracing in dendritic structures acquired from confocal images of neurons is an essential tool for the construction of geometrical representations of a neuronal network from its coarse scale up to its fine scale structures. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for centerline extraction that is both highly accurate ...
Aliabadi Mohsen M Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Science, Hamadan, Iran, - - 2014
Prediction of hearing loss in noisy workplaces is considered to be an important aspect of hearing conservation program. Artificial intelligence, as a new approach, can be used to predict the complex phenomenon such as hearing loss. Using artificial neural networks, this study aims to present an empirical model for the ...
Schmitt Oliver O Department of Anatomy, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany, - - 2014
The basal ganglia of the laboratory rat consist of a few core regions that are specifically interconnected by efferents and afferents of the central nervous system. In nearly 800 reports of tract-tracing investigations the connectivity of the basal ganglia is documented. The readout of connectivity data and the collation of ...
Ayali A A Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel, - - 2014
The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, provides a successful model for the study of legged locomotion. Sensory regulation and the relative importance of sensory feedback vs. central control in animal locomotion are key aspects in our understanding of locomotive behavior. Here we introduce the cockroach model and describe the basic characteristics ...
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