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Fattore Liana L CNR National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Neuroscience-Cagliari, Cagliari, - - 2015
The inability to maintain drug abstinence is often referred to as relapse and consists of a process by which an abstaining individual slips back into old behavioral patterns and substance use. Animal models of relapse have been developed and validated over the last decades, and significantly contributed to shed light ...
Budday Silvia S Chair of Applied Mechanics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Erlangen / Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen, - - 2014
Convolutions are a classical hallmark of most mammalian brains. Brain surface morphology is often associated with intelligence and closely correlated to neurological dysfunction. Yet, we know surprisingly little about the underlying mechanisms of cortical folding. Here we identify the role of the key anatomic players during the folding process: cortical ...
Skuta Ctibor C Laboratory of Informatics and Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technická 5, CZ-166 28 Prague, Czech Republic ; CZ-OPENSCREEN, Institute of Molecular Genetics of the ASCR, v. v. i, Vídeňská 1083, CZ-142 20 Prague, Czech - - 2014
Hierarchical clustering is an exploratory data analysis method that reveals the groups (clusters) of similar objects. The result of the hierarchical clustering is a tree structure called dendrogram that shows the arrangement of individual clusters. To investigate the row/column hierarchical cluster structure of a data matrix, a visualization tool called ...
Satoh Noriyuki N Marine Genomics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan norisky@oist.jp - - 2014
Traditional metazoan phylogeny classifies the Vertebrata as a subphylum of the phylum Chordata, together with two other subphyla, the Urochordata (Tunicata) and the Cephalochordata. The Chordata, together with the phyla Echinodermata and Hemichordata, comprise a major group, the Deuterostomia. Chordates invariably possess a notochord and a dorsal neural tube. Although ...
Scales Kylie L KL Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Plymouth PL1 3DH, UK - - 2014
The oceanographic drivers of marine vertebrate habitat use are poorly understood yet fundamental to our knowledge of marine ecosystem functioning. Here, we use composite front mapping and high-resolution GPS tracking to determine the significance of mesoscale oceanographic fronts as physical drivers of foraging habitat selection in northern gannets Morus bassanus. ...
Bhattacharya Kunal K http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4943-3814 Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031, India - - 2014
Animals foraging alone are hypothesized to optimize the encounter rates with resources through Lévy walks. However, the issue of how the interactions between multiple foragers influence their search efficiency is still not completely understood. To address this, we consider a model to study the optimal strategy for a group of ...
Wang Liyu L Bio-Inspired Robotics Lab, Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, ETH Zurich, Leonhardstrasse 27, Zurich 8092, Switzerland - - 2014
Tool manufacture and use are observed not only in humans but also in other animals such as mammals, birds and insects. Manufactured tools are used for biomechanical functions such as effective control of fluids and small solid objects and extension of reaching. These tools are passive and used with gravity ...
Koechlin Etienne E Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 29 rue d'Ulm, 75005 Paris, France - - 2014
The prefrontal cortex subserves executive control and decision-making, that is, the coordination and selection of thoughts and actions in the service of adaptive behaviour. We present here a computational theory describing the evolution of the prefrontal cortex from rodents to humans as gradually adding new inferential Bayesian capabilities for dealing ...
Friston Karl K The Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK - - 2014
This paper considers goal-directed decision-making in terms of embodied or active inference. We associate bounded rationality with approximate Bayesian inference that optimizes a free energy bound on model evidence. Several constructs such as expected utility, exploration or novelty bonuses, softmax choice rules and optimism bias emerge as natural consequences of ...
Kachergis George G Institute for Psychological Research Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, 2333 AK Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands - - 2014
Action selection, planning and execution are continuous processes that evolve over time, responding to perceptual feedback as well as evolving top-down constraints. Existing models of routine sequential action (e.g. coffee- or pancake-making) generally fall into one of two classes: hierarchical models that include hand-built task representations, or heterarchical models that ...
Lisman John J Biology Department and Volen Center for Complex Systems, Brandeis University, 415 South Street-MS 008, Waltham, MA 02454-9110, USA - - 2014
In this article, I point out that simple one-phase models of the role of the basal ganglia in action selection have a problem. Furthermore, I suggest a solution with major implications for the organization of the action-selection and motor systems. In current models, the striatum evaluates multiple potential actions by ...
Milford Michael M School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia - - 2014
Mobile robots and animals alike must effectively navigate their environments in order to achieve their goals. For animals goal-directed navigation facilitates finding food, seeking shelter or migration; similarly robots perform goal-directed navigation to find a charging station, get out of the rain or guide a person to a destination. This ...
Daw Nathaniel D ND http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5029-1430 Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place Suite 888, New York, NY 10003, - - 2014
Despite many debates in the first half of the twentieth century, it is now largely a truism that humans and other animals build models of their environments and use them for prediction and control. However, model-based (MB) reasoning presents severe computational challenges. Alternative, computationally simpler, model-free (MF) schemes have been ...
Romero-Reyes Marcela M Orofacial and Head Pain Service, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Radiology and Medicine, New York University College of Dentistry, 345 East 24th Street, New York, NY, 10010, USA, - - 2014
Migraine is a severe and debilitating disorder of the brain that involves a constellation of neurological symptoms alongside head pain. Its pathophysiology is only beginning to be understood, and is thought to involve activation and sensitization of trigeminovascular nociceptive pathways that innervate the cranial vasculature, and activation of brain stem ...
Guo Zhenyuan - - 2014
This paper presents new theoretical results on the passivity and passification of a class of memristor-based recurrent neural networks (MRNNs) with time-varying delays. The casual assumptions on the boundedness and Lipschitz continuity of neuronal activation functions are relaxed. By constructing appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals and using the characteristic function technique, passivity ...
Yang Chenguang - - 2014
In this paper, automatic motion control is investigated for one of wheeled inverted pendulum (WIP) models, which have been widely applied for modeling of a large range of two wheeled modern vehicles. First, the underactuated WIP model is decomposed into a fully actuated second order subsystem Σa consisting of planar ...
Fernandez-Navarro Francisco - - 2014
Ordinal regression (OR) is an important branch of supervised learning in between the multiclass classification and regression. In this paper, the traditional classification scheme of neural network is adapted to learn ordinal ranks. The model proposed imposes monotonicity constraints on the weights connecting the hidden layer with the output layer. ...
Butts Thomas T MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, UK School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS, - - 2014
The cerebellum is a pre-eminent model for the study of neurogenesis and circuit assembly. Increasing interest in the cerebellum as a participant in higher cognitive processes and as a locus for a range of disorders and diseases make this simple yet elusive structure an important model in a number of ...
Khorasani Abed A Biomedical Engineering Department, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, 16846-13114, Tehran, - - 2014
The central nervous system (CNS) plays an important role in regulation of human gait. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease that may cause neurophysiologic change in the CNS and as a result change the gait cycle duration (stride interval). This article used the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) with ...
Ríos Juvenal A JA Centro de Envejecimiento y Regeneración (CARE), Departamento de Biología Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, - - 2014
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the leading cause of age-related dementia worldwide. Several models for AD have been developed to provide information regarding the initial changes that lead to degeneration. Transgenic mouse models recapitulate many, but not all, of the features of AD, most likely ...
Barbieri Francesca F Institute for Scientific Interchange, 10133, Torino, Italy, Unit of Neuroscience Information and Complexity, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Propre de Recherche-3293, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, - - 2014
The local field potential (LFP) captures different neural processes, including integrative synaptic dynamics that cannot be observed by measuring only the spiking activity of small populations. Therefore, investigating how LFP power is modulated by external stimuli can offer important insights into sensory neural representations. However, gaining such insight requires developing ...
Martínez-García Ricardo R IFISC (CSIC-UIB), Instituto de Física Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos, Campus Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, - - 2014
The minimal ecological requirements for the fomation of regular vegetation patterns in semiarid systems have been recently questioned. Against the general belief that a combination of facilitative and competitive interactions is necessary, recent theoretical studies suggest that, under broad conditions, non-local competition among plants alone may induce patterns. In this ...
Sato Miwa - - 2014
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a pharmaceutically important protein family because they mediate numerous physiological functions. The crystal structures of several GPCR subtypes have been determined recently, encouraging efforts to apply Structure Based Virtual Screening (SBVS) along with Ligand Based Virtual Screening (LBVS) to improve the hit rate of active ...
Lichtman Jeff W JW 1] Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. [2] Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, - - 2014
The structure of the nervous system is extraordinarily complicated because individual neurons are interconnected to hundreds or even thousands of other cells in networks that can extend over large volumes. Mapping such networks at the level of synaptic connections, a field called connectomics, began in the 1970s with a the ...
Rodriguez Carlos A CA GRIPE (Grupo Investigador de Problemas en Enfermedades Infecciosas), Department of Pharmacology & - - 2014
Negligible in vivo growth of enterococci and high dispersion of data has led to inaccurate estimation of antibiotic pharmacodynamics (PD). Here, we improved an in vivo model apt for PD studies by optimizing the in vitro culture conditions of enterococci. The PD of vancomycin (VAN), ampicillin-sulbactam (SAM) and piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) ...
Everitt Jeffrey I JI GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA - - 2014
Animal models have provided an important tool to help make the decision to take potential therapies from preclinical studies to humans. In the past several years, the strong reliance of the pharmaceutical discovery and development process on the use of animal models has come under increasing scrutiny for ethical and ...
Li Anyang - - 2014
An accurate full-dimensional global potential energy surface (PES) is developed for the title reaction. The PES was based on ~30,000 points at the Davidson corrected multi-reference configuration interaction level with the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set (MRCI+Q/AVQZ). The ab initio points were fitted using the permutation invariant polynomial-neural network (PIP-NN) method with ...
Santos José J Department of Computer Science, University of A Coruña , A Coruña, Spain - - 2014
Abstract We used cellular automata (CA) for the modeling of the temporal folding of proteins. Unlike the focus of the vast research already done on the direct prediction of the final folded conformations, we will model the temporal and dynamic folding process. To reduce the complexity of the interactions and ...
Kooijmans H H Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The - - 2014
This study assessed whether self-propelled wheelchair driving can be validly detected by a new method using a set of two commonly used accelerometers.In a rehabilitation centre, 10 wheelchair-bound persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) (aged 29-63 years) performed a series of representative daily activities according to a protocol including self-propelled wheelchair ...
Ahmad K - - 2014
Neurodegenerative disorders are due to excessive neuronal apoptosis and the caspase-3 plays a key role in the apoptotic pathway. The caspase-3 inhibition may be a validated therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative disorders and an interesting target for molecular modeling studies using both Ligand and structure based approaches. In view of the ...
Tsukahara Atsushi - - 2014
This paper proposes a novel gait intention estimator for an exoskeleton-wearer who needs gait support owing to walking impairment. The gait intention estimator not only detects the intention related to the start of the swing leg based on the behavior of the center of ground reaction force (CoGRF), but also ...
Lordan Jaume J IRTA - Fruitcentre,Parc Científic i Tecnològic Agroalimentari de Lleida. Parc de Gardeny, edifici Fruitcentre, 25003 - - 2014
A multilateral approach that includes both biotic and climatic data was developed to detect the main variables that affect the ecology and population dynamics of woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann). Crawlers migrated up and down the trunk mainly from spring to autumn and horizontal migration through the canopy was ...
Ma Liangsuo L Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Radiology, Richmond, Virginia, United States ; - - 2014
The present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to study the effective (directional) neuronal connectivity underlying inhibitory behavioral control. fMRI data was acquired from 15 healthy subjects while they performed a Go/NoGo task with two levels of NoGo difficulty (Easy and Hard NoGo conditions) ...
Lavine Laura L Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164; email: - - 2014
Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size the surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles (Lucanidae), the claspers of praying mantids (Mantidae), the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Caelifera), and the giant heads of soldier ants (Formicidae) and ...
Tam Shu K E SK Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, University of Oxford, Level 5-6 West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Oxford, OX3 9DU, - - 2014
Behavioral findings suggest that the dorsal hippocampus (DHPC) plays a role in timing of appetitive conditioned responding. The present article explored the relationship between the extent of DHPC damage and timing ability, in a pooled analysis of three published studies from our laboratory. Initial analyses of variance confirmed our previous ...
Pavão Rodrigo R Brain Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, - - 2014
The search for biological causes of mental disorders has up to now met with limited success, leading to growing dissatisfaction with diagnostic classifications. However, it is questionable whether most clinical syndromes should be expected to correspond to specific microscale brain alterations, as multiple low-level causes could lead to similar symptoms ...
Rosjat Nils - - 2014
Recent experimental results suggest that impairment of auditory information processing in the thalamo-cortical loop is crucially related to schizophrenia. Large differences between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls were found in the cortical EEG signals. We derive a phenomenological mathematical model, based on coupled phase oscillators with continuously distributed frequencies to ...
Hosey Geoff G Biology, University of Bolton, Bolton, United - - 2014
Human-animal interactions (HAI), which may lead to human-animal relationships (HAR), may be positive, neutral, or negative in nature. Zoo studies show that visitors may be stressful, may have no effect, or may be enriching. There is also evidence that good HARs set up between animals and their keepers can have ...
Rodríguez-Rodríguez C C Medicinal Inorganic Chemistry Group, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada. crisrod@chem.ubc.ca - - 2014
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological disease of confusing causation with no cure or prevention available. The definitive diagnosis is made postmortem, in part through the presence of amyloid-beta plaques in the brain tissue, which can be done with the small molecule thioflavin-T (). Plaques are also found to contain ...
Köhling Rüdiger R Oscar-Langendorff-Institute of Physiology, Rostock University Medical School, Rostock, - - 2014
There is no doubt that seizures change processes in neuronal networks which themselves impact on seizure susceptibility, and reports on such changes probably account for the majority of studies in experimental epileptology. As much as there is no doubt about this general fact, there is, to date, quite some disagreement ...
Hellwig Michael M Research Center Process and Product Engineering, Vorarlberg University of Applied Sciences, Dornbirn, 6850, Austria - - 2014
Abstract This paper investigates constraint handling techniques used in non-elitist single parent evolution strategies for the problem of maximizing a linear function with a single linear constraint. Two repair mechanisms are considered and the analytical results are compared to those of earlier repair approaches in the same fitness environment. The ...
Wang Fang F Departments of aOrthopaedics bRadiology, School of Medicine, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, - - 2014
Four different spinal cord injury (SCI) models (hemisection, contusion, transection, and segment resection) were produced in male Sprague-Dawley rats to determine the most suitable animal model of SCI by analyzing the changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters both qualitatively and quantitatively in vivo. Radiological examinations were performed before surgery ...
Noriega Gerardo - - 2014
Computational modeling plays an increasingly prominent role in complementing critical research in the genetics, neuroscience, and psychology of autism. This paper presents a model that supports the notion that weak central coherence, a processing bias for features and local information, may be responsible for perception abnormalities by failing to "control" ...
Weber Romann M RM California Institute of Technology, MC 228-77, Pasadena, CA, 91125, USA, - - 2014
A major focus of research on visually guided action is the identification of control strategies that map optical information to actions. The traditional approach has been to test the behavioral predictions of a few hypothesized strategies against subject behavior in environments in which various manipulations of available information have been ...
Buono Pietro-Luciano PL Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St. North, Oshawa, ON, L1H 7K4, Canada, - - 2014
The study of self-organised collective animal behaviour, such as swarms of insects or schools of fish, has become over the last decade a very active research area in mathematical biology. Parabolic and hyperbolic models have been used intensively to describe the formation and movement of various aggregative behaviours. While both ...
Fu Xingang - - 2014
This paper investigates how to train a recurrent neural network (RNN) using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm as well as how to implement optimal control of a grid-connected converter (GCC) using an RNN. To successfully and efficiently train an RNN using the LM algorithm, a new forward accumulation through time (FATT) ...
Mazzatenta Andrea A Sensorial Physiology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Imaging, "G. d'Annunzio" University of Chieti-Pescara, 66013, Chieti, Italy, - - 2014
Anosmia is a model to study the interaction among chemoreception systems. In the head injury, the traumatic irreversible anosmia caused by damage to olfactory nerve fibers and brain regions is of enviable research interest. In this study, psychophysiological tests for a comprehensive assessment of olfactory function were utilized to investigate ...
Kolesar Ivan - - 2014
Research in cell biology is steadily contributing new knowledge about many aspects of physiologicalprocesses, both with respect to the involved molecular structures as well as their related function.Illustrations of the spatio-temporal development of such processes are not only used in biomedicaleducation, but also can serve scientists as an additional platform ...
Tao Jianmin J Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323, - - 2014
Due to size-dependent non-additivity, the van der Waals interaction (vdW) between nanostructures remains elusive. Here we first develop a model dynamic multipole polarizability for an inhomogeneous system that allows for a cavity. The model recovers the exact zero- and high-frequency limits and respects the paradigms of condensed matter physics (slowly ...
Vyas Bhargav Y - - 2014
This paper presents the Chebyshev neural network (ChNN) as an improved artificial intelligence technique for power system protection studies and examines the performances of two ChNN learning algorithms for fault classification of series compensated transmission line. The training algorithms are least-square Levenberg-Marquardt (LSLM) and recursive least-square algorithm with forgetting factor ...
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