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Adamczyk Peter Gabriel - - 2014
Unilateral lower-limb amputees exhibit asymmetry in many gait features, such as ground force, step time, step length, and joint mechanics. Although these asymmetries result from weak prosthetic-side push-off, there is no proven mechanistic explanation of how that impairment propagates to the rest of the body. We used a simple dynamic ...
Goldberg Amy A Stanford University; - - 2014
Sex-biased admixture has been observed in a wide variety of admixed populations. Genetic variation in sex chromosomes and functions of quantities computed from sex chromosomes and autosomes have often been examined in order to infer patterns of sex-biased admixture, typically using statistical approaches that do not mechanistically model the complexity ...
de Vocht Frank F 1] School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK [2] Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, Centre for Epidemiology, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester, - - 2014
The use of cumulative exposure, the product of intensity and duration, has enjoyed great popularity in epidemiology of chronic diseases despite numerous known caveats in its interpretation. We briefly review the history of use of cumulative exposure in epidemiology and propose an alternative method for relating time-integrated exposures to health ...
Voelker Mt M Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Leipzig, Leipzig, - - 2014
The definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has changed during the last years and with it the requirements for animal models that try to reproduce all defining criteria of human ARDS. The aim of this study was to characterize a murine model of ARDS abiding by the new Berlin ...
Boon Polly E PE National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Box 1, NL-3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
The practicality was examined of performing a cumulative dietary exposure assessment according to the requirements of the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling. For this the acute and chronic cumulative exposure to triazole pesticides was estimated using national food consumption and monitoring data of eight European countries. Both the acute and ...
Corberán-Vallet Ana A Department of Statistics and Operational Research, University of Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100, Burjassot, - - 2014
We present a Bayesian stochastic susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) model in discrete time to understand respiratory syncytial virus dynamics in the region of Valencia, Spain. A SIRS model based on ordinary differential equations has also been proposed to describe RSV dynamics in the region of Valencia. However, this continuous-time deterministic model is ...
Rao Meenakshi M School of the Environment, Department of Environmental Science and Management, Portland State University, Portland, OR, - - 2014
Modeled atmospheric pollution removal by trees based on eddy flux, leaf, and chamber studies of relatively few species may not scale up to adequately assess landscape-level air pollution effects of the urban forest. A land use regression (LUR) model (R(2) = 0.70) based on NO2 measured at 144 sites in Portland, Oregon ...
Holzer Barbara M - - 2014
Presently, there is no consensus on how to define multimorbidity. In this paper we investigate the connection between prevalence estimates for two or more and three or more chronic conditions to improve comparability of multimorbidity studies with different cut-offs. In a systematic review of the literature published between January, 1990 ...
Kretschmann Anita A Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127, Bonn, - - 2014
Epilepsy affects around 50 million people worldwide, and in about 65 % of patients, the etiology of disease is unknown. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that have been suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Here, we compared microRNA expression patterns in the hippocampus using two chronic models ...
Heiske Margit M Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; Institut für Biologie Theoretische Biophysik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Invalidenstraße 42, Berlin, Germany; Laboratoire de métabolisme énergétique cellulaire, IBGC - CNRS UMR 5095, 1 Rue Camille Saint Saëns, 33077 Bordeaux, - - 2014
The mitochondrial respiratory chain plays a crucial role in energy metabolism and its dysfunction is implicated in a wide range of human diseases. In order to understand the global expression of local mutations in the rate of oxygen consumption or in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) it is useful ...
Langley Raymond J RJ Lovelace Respiratory Research Insitute, Respiratory Immunology and Asthma, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States ; - - 2014
Rationale: Sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Currently, early diagnosis and the progression of the disease are difficult to make. The integration of metabolomic and transcriptomic data in a primate model of sepsis may provide a novel molecular signature of clinical sepsis. Objectives: Develop a biomarker panel ...
Schleyer P J PJ Division of Imaging Sciences, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital, London, - - 2014
Data driven gating (DDG) methods provide an alternative to hardware based respiratory gating for PET imaging. Several existing DDG approaches obtain a respiratory signal by observing the change in PET-counts within specific regions of acquired PET data. Currently, these methods do not allow for tracer kinetics which can interfere with ...
Lu Mei M Departments of Public Health Sciences, Center for Health Services Research, and Gastroenterology, Henry Ford Health System, One Ford Place, 3E, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA, - - 2014
The Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study (CHeCS) is a longitudinal observational study of risks and benefits of treatments and care in patients with chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection from four US health systems. We hypothesized that comparative effectiveness methods-including a centralized data management system and an adaptive approach ...
Chapman David G DG Department of Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont, United States; Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW, - - 2014
In a complex inflammatory airways disease such as asthma, abnormalities in a plethora of molecular and cellular pathways ultimately culminate in characteristic impairments in respiratory function. The ability to study disease pathophysiology in the setting of a functioning immune and respiratory system therefore makes mouse models an invaluable tool in ...
De Schamphelaere K A C KA Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Environmental Toxicology Unit (GhEnToxLab), Ghent University (UGent), Jozef Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Gent, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
Scientifically sound risk assessment and derivation of environmental quality standards for lead (Pb) in the freshwater environment are hampered by insufficient data on chronic toxicity and bioavailability to unicellular green algae. Here, we first performed comparative chronic (72-h) toxicity tests with three algal species in medium at pH 6, containing ...
Martínez-Martínez José M JM IDAL, Intelligent Data Analysis Laboratory, University of Valencia, Electronic Engineering Department, Av de la Universidad, s/n, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
Patients who suffer from chronic renal failure (CRF) tend to suffer from an associated anemia as well. Therefore, it is essential to know the hemoglobin (Hb) levels in these patients. The aim of this paper is to predict the hemoglobin (Hb) value using a database of European hemodialysis patients provided ...
Sugiura Asumi A Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, - - 2014
There is no strong evidence to support ventilatory management for critical limitation of expiratory flow, such as bronchospasm during anesthesia or an acute exacerbation of severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Animal models cannot be used to develop reproducible experimental models for conducting mechanical ventilation strategy research relating ...
Rushworth Alastair A School of Mathematics and Statistics, University Gardens, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QW, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
It has long been known that air pollution is harmful to human health, as many epidemiological studies have been conducted into its effects. Collectively, these studies have investigated both the acute and chronic effects of pollution, with the latter typically based on individual level cohort designs that can be expensive ...
Sokhal Navdeep N Department of Neuroanesthesia and Neurocritical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, - - 2014
The importance of ventilator graphics cannot be over emphasized that provide the useful information about airway, ventilation, compliance and lung mechanics. Some bizarre forms of graphics are usually overlooked in view of artifacts, but sometimes these tracings may in fact predict some relevant information.
Licitra Floriana F Translational Medicine and Neurogenetics, IGBMC (Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire), Strasbourg, France ; Inserm, U596, Strasbourg, France ; CNRS, UMR7104, Strasbourg, France ; Collège de France, Chaire de Génétique Humaine, Illkirch, Strasbourg, France ; Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, - - 2014
Coenzyme Q (CoQ), also known as ubiquinone, is an essential lipophilic molecule present in all cellular membranes and involved in a variety of cellular functions, in particular as an electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and as a potent antioxidant. CoQ is synthesized endogenously through a complex metabolic pathway ...
Enriquez José Antonio JA Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III, Madrid, - - 2014
Two alternative models of organization of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) have been alternatively favored or questioned by the accumulation evidences of different sources, the solid model or the random collision model. Both agree in the number of respiratory complexes (I-IV) that participate in the mETC, but while the ...
Sul Bora B Department of Defense Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute, Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, MD, - - 2014
Obstructive lung diseases in the lower airways are a leading health concern worldwide. To improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of lower airways, we studied airflow characteristics in the lung between the 8th and the 14th generations using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model, where we compared normal and obstructed ...
Klausner Ziv Z Applied Math Department, Israel Institute for Biological Research, PO Box 19, Ness-Ziona, 74100 Israel - - 2014
The problem of modeling respiratory protection is well known and has been dealt with extensively in the literature. Often the efficiency of respiratory protection is quantified in terms of penetration, defined as the proportion of an ambient contaminant concentration that penetrates the respiratory protection equipment. Typically, the penetration modeling framework ...
Maier A A University of Cincinnati, 3223 Eden Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45267. Electronic address: - - 2014
Despite extensive study, definitive conclusions regarding the relationship between asthma and consumer products remain elusive. Uncertainties reflect the multi-faceted nature of asthma (i.e., contributions of immunologic and non-immunologic mechanisms). Many substances used in consumer products are associated with occupational asthma or asthma-like syndromes. However, risk assessment methods do not adequately ...
Vrijheid Martine - - 2014
Environmental factors, here taken to include pollutants, lifestyle factors and behaviours, can play an important role in serious, chronic pathologies with large societal and economic costs, including respiratory disease. However, measurement of the environmental component in epidemiological studies has traditionally relied on much more uncertain and incomplete assessments than measurement ...
Peressutti Devis D Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, King's Health Partners, St. Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
Respiratory motion models have been proposed for the estimation and compensation of respiratory motion during image acquisition and image-guided interventions on organs in the chest and abdomen. However, such techniques are not commonly used in the clinic. Subject-specific motion models require a dynamic calibration scan that interrupts the clinical workflow ...
Lin Xiaohui X School of Computer Science & Technology, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian, - - 2014
In systems biology, the ability to discern meaningful information that reflects the nature of related problems from large amounts of data has become a key issue. The classification method using top scoring pairs (TSP), which measures the features of a data set in pairs and selects the top ranked feature ...
Carrigy Nicholas B NB 1 Aerosol Research Laboratory of Alberta, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta , Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G - - 2014
Abstract Respiratory tract deposition models provide a useful method for optimizing the design and administration of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols, and can be useful for estimating exposure risks to inhaled particulate matter. As aerosol must first pass through the extrathoracic region prior to reaching the lungs, deposition in this region plays ...
McCaughey E J EJ Centre for Rehabilitation Engineering, University of Glasgow, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Abdominal Functional Electrical Stimulation (AFES) has been shown to improve the respiratory function of people with tetraplegia. The effectiveness of AFES can be enhanced by using different stimulation parameters for quiet breathing and coughing. The signal from a spirometer, coupled with a facemask, has previously been used to differentiate between ...
Adam-Poupart Ariane A Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, - - 2014
Ambient air ozone is a pulmonary irritant that has been associated with respiratory health effects including increased lung inflammation and permeability, airway hyper-reactivity, respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function. Ozone exposure estimation is a complex task because the pollutant exhibits complex spatiotemporal patterns. To refine the quality of exposure estimation, ...
Boogaard Peter J PJ Shell Health, Shell International B.V., P.O. Box 162, 2501 AN The Hague, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
During a short incident in an ethylene oxide (EO) producing plant, EO vapour was released under high pressure. Operators wore full respiratory protection during repairs to fix the leak. To check the adequacy of the applied personal protective equipment and to address concerns about potential dermal exposure and subsequent uptake ...
Brüske Irene I Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Epidemiology I, Neuherberg, - - 2014
Studies on exposure to respirable quartz dust at the workplace and the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were selected into a systematic review and meta-analysed to obtain an overall estimate of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) reduction. PubMed and Embase were searched ...
Weiss Eric H EH Massachusetts Institute of - - 2014
It is well-known that respiratory activity influences electrocardiographic morphology. In this paper we present a new algorithm for the extraction of respiratory rate from either intracardiac or body surface electrograms. The algorithm optimizes selection of electrocardiographic leads for respiratory analysis, as validated in a swine model. The algorithm estimates the ...
Calfee Carolyn S CS Departments of Medicine and Anesthesia, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Subphenotypes have been identified within heterogeneous diseases such as asthma and breast cancer, with important therapeutic implications. We assessed whether subphenotypes exist within acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), another heterogeneous disorder. We used data from two ARDS randomised controlled trials (ARMA trial and ALVEOLI trial), sponsored by the National Heart, ...
Murphy Dennis J DJ Department of Safety Pharmacology, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, King of Prussia, PA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
A variety of methods and measurement endpoints are currently available for evaluating respiratory function in animal models. To evaluate drug-induced effects on respiratory function, respiratory safety pharmacology studies generally emphasize the use of conscious animal models and measures of pulmonary ventilation. Respiratory rate, tidal volume and/or a measure of arterial ...
McManus C M CM Maddie's Shelter Medicine Program, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, - - 2014
Upper respiratory infection (URI) is a pervasive problem in cats and impacts the capacity and cost of sheltering programs. This study determined the pattern of respiratory pathogens in cats with and without clinical signs of URI in four different models for managing unowned cats, namely, (1) short-term animal shelters (STS), ...
Jaworski Jacek J Department of Mechatronics and High Voltage Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland. Electronic address: - - 2014
This paper presents a model of alveolar-capillary oxygen diffusion with dynamics of air transport through the respiratory tract. For this purpose electrical model representing the respiratory tract mechanics and differential equations representing oxygen membrane diffusion are combined. Relevant thermodynamic relations describing the mass of oxygen transported into the human body ...
Judge Eoin P EP Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Irish National Lung and Heart Transplant Program, Dublin, Ireland ; - - 2014
The porcine model has contributed significantly to biomedical research over many decades. The similar size and anatomy of pig and human organs make this model particularly beneficial for translational research in areas such as medical device development, therapeutics and xenotransplantation. In recent years, a major limitation with the porcine model ...
Golabchifar Ali-Akbar AA Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetic Division, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 14155-651, Tehran, - - 2014
We evaluated the population pharmacokinetics (PPK) and exposure-response relationship of imatinib mesylate in Iranian patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).This study was designed to assess steady state (SS) imatinib trough concentrations (Cmin) and pharmacokinetics parameters of imatinib in patients with CML in chronic phase after at least 12-month treatment. Plasma ...
Kinkead Richard R University of Laval, Department of Pediatrics, Centre de Recherche, Hôpital St-François d'Assise, Quebec, - - 2014
The control of breathing is commonly viewed as being a "brainstem affair". Over the years, studies have periodically brought new data that hinted at the need to revisit this notion, yet not much has changed. In this issue of Acta Physiologica, Lopes et al (2014) demonstrate how the periaqueductal gray contributes ...
Zhao Qingyu - - 2014
In image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of disease sites subject to respiratory motion, soft tissue deformations can affect localization accuracy. We describe the application of a method of 2D/3D deformable registration to soft tissue localization in abdomen. The method, called Registration Efficiency and Accuracy through Learning a Metric on Shape (REALMS), is ...
Blanes-Vidal Victoria V Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, Faculty of Engineering, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, - - 2014
Previous studies have reported increased occurrence of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms among residents living close to biodegradable waste sites. However, few studies have been able to quantify direct and annoyance-mediated effects based on individual-specific assessments of chemical exposures. We examined associations between residential exposures to a proxy gas (ammonia, ...
Santos Sandra M A SM CNC- Centre for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, - - 2014
Linuron is one of the most intensively used herbicides with predictable effects on the environment and non-target organisms. In the present study, two in vitro biological models (a Bacillus sp. and rat liver mitochondria) were used to evaluate linuron toxicity at a cell/subcellular level. Linuron inhibited bacterial growth and NADH-supported ...
Spinczyk Dominik D Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology , Gliwice , Poland , - - 2014
Abstract Non-invasive surface registration methods have been developed to register and track breathing motions in a patient's abdomen and thorax. We evaluated several different registration methods, including marker tracking using a stereo camera, chessboard image projection, and abdominal point clouds. Our point cloud approach was based on a time-of-flight (ToF) ...
Mathews Stephanie - - 2014
Over the last four decades, chronic ethanol feeding studies in rodents using either ad libitum feeding or intragastric infusion models have significantly enhanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Recently, we developed a chronic plus binge alcohol feeding model in mice that is similar to the ...
Juen Joshua J 1 Department of Medical Information Science, Department of Computer Science, Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Urbana, - - 2014
Abstract We have developed GaitTrack, a phone application to detect health status while the smartphone is carried normally. GaitTrack software monitors walking patterns, using only accelerometers embedded in phones to record spatiotemporal motion, without the need for sensors external to the phone. Our software transforms smartphones into health monitors, using ...
Smirnova O A OA *Federal State Unitary Enterprise Research and Technical Center of Radiation-Chemical Safety and Hygiene, 40 Shchukinskaya St., Moscow, 123182, Russian Federation; †Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM), 68-a Vorovsky St., Chelyabinsk, 454076, Russian - - 2014
A profound approach to the analysis of clinical data on the dynamics of major hematopoietic lineages (granulocytopoietic, thrombocytopoietic, and erythrocytopoietic systems) in chronically irradiated humans is proposed. It is based on recently developed mathematical models of these systems in humans, which enable one to study and interpret clinical hematological data. ...
Janssen Larry L a Larry Janssen Consulting, LLC , Stillwater , - - 2014
Workplace protection factors (WPFs) are intended to measure the ability of a respiratory protective device (RPD) to reduce contaminant exposure when used in the context of an effective respiratory protection program. In 1992, members of the American Industrial Hygiene Association Respiratory Protection Committee (RPC) published a review of important issues ...
Kasza Jessica J Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Victorian Centre for Biostatistics (ViCBiostat), Melbourne, Victoria, - - 2014
This article provides a review of techniques for the analysis of survival data arising from respiratory health studies. Popular techniques such as the Kaplan-Meier survival plot and the Cox proportional hazards model are presented and illustrated using data from a lung cancer study. Advanced issues are also discussed, including parametric ...
Wolf Matthew - - 2014
Aircraft passengers and crew may be subjected to rapid or prolonged decompression to high cabin altitude when an aircraft develops a hole in the fuselage. The accepted measure of neurological damage due to the hypobaric hypoxia produced is the subjective 'time of useful consciousness' (TUC) measure, which is appropriate for ...
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