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Langley Raymond J RJ Lovelace Respiratory Research Insitute, Respiratory Immunology and Asthma, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States ; - - 2014
Rationale: Sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Currently, early diagnosis and the progression of the disease are difficult to make. The integration of metabolomic and transcriptomic data in a primate model of sepsis may provide a novel molecular signature of clinical sepsis. Objectives: Develop a biomarker panel ...
Schleyer P J PJ Division of Imaging Sciences, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital, London, - - 2014
Data driven gating (DDG) methods provide an alternative to hardware based respiratory gating for PET imaging. Several existing DDG approaches obtain a respiratory signal by observing the change in PET-counts within specific regions of acquired PET data. Currently, these methods do not allow for tracer kinetics which can interfere with ...
Lu Mei M Departments of Public Health Sciences, Center for Health Services Research, and Gastroenterology, Henry Ford Health System, One Ford Place, 3E, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA, - - 2014
The Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study (CHeCS) is a longitudinal observational study of risks and benefits of treatments and care in patients with chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection from four US health systems. We hypothesized that comparative effectiveness methods-including a centralized data management system and an adaptive approach ...
Chapman David G DG Department of Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont, United States; Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW, - - 2014
In a complex inflammatory airways disease such as asthma, abnormalities in a plethora of molecular and cellular pathways ultimately culminate in characteristic impairments in respiratory function. The ability to study disease pathophysiology in the setting of a functioning immune and respiratory system therefore makes mouse models an invaluable tool in ...
Sugiura Asumi A Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, - - 2014
There is no strong evidence to support ventilatory management for critical limitation of expiratory flow, such as bronchospasm during anesthesia or an acute exacerbation of severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Animal models cannot be used to develop reproducible experimental models for conducting mechanical ventilation strategy research relating ...
Sul Bora B Department of Defense Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute, Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, MD, - - 2014
Obstructive lung diseases in the lower airways are a leading health concern worldwide. To improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of lower airways, we studied airflow characteristics in the lung between the 8th and the 14th generations using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model, where we compared normal and obstructed ...
Klausner Ziv Z Applied Math Department, Israel Institute for Biological Research, PO Box 19, Ness-Ziona, 74100 Israel - - 2014
The problem of modeling respiratory protection is well known and has been dealt with extensively in the literature. Often the efficiency of respiratory protection is quantified in terms of penetration, defined as the proportion of an ambient contaminant concentration that penetrates the respiratory protection equipment. Typically, the penetration modeling framework ...
Maier A A University of Cincinnati, 3223 Eden Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45267. Electronic address: - - 2014
Despite extensive study, definitive conclusions regarding the relationship between asthma and consumer products remain elusive. Uncertainties reflect the multi-faceted nature of asthma (i.e., contributions of immunologic and non-immunologic mechanisms). Many substances used in consumer products are associated with occupational asthma or asthma-like syndromes. However, risk assessment methods do not adequately ...
Vrijheid Martine - - 2014
Environmental factors, here taken to include pollutants, lifestyle factors and behaviours, can play an important role in serious, chronic pathologies with large societal and economic costs, including respiratory disease. However, measurement of the environmental component in epidemiological studies has traditionally relied on much more uncertain and incomplete assessments than measurement ...
Peressutti Devis D Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, King's Health Partners, St. Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
Respiratory motion models have been proposed for the estimation and compensation of respiratory motion during image acquisition and image-guided interventions on organs in the chest and abdomen. However, such techniques are not commonly used in the clinic. Subject-specific motion models require a dynamic calibration scan that interrupts the clinical workflow ...
Lin Xiaohui X School of Computer Science & Technology, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian, - - 2014
In systems biology, the ability to discern meaningful information that reflects the nature of related problems from large amounts of data has become a key issue. The classification method using top scoring pairs (TSP), which measures the features of a data set in pairs and selects the top ranked feature ...
Carrigy Nicholas B NB 1 Aerosol Research Laboratory of Alberta, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta , Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G - - 2014
Abstract Respiratory tract deposition models provide a useful method for optimizing the design and administration of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols, and can be useful for estimating exposure risks to inhaled particulate matter. As aerosol must first pass through the extrathoracic region prior to reaching the lungs, deposition in this region plays ...
McCaughey E J EJ Centre for Rehabilitation Engineering, University of Glasgow, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Abdominal Functional Electrical Stimulation (AFES) has been shown to improve the respiratory function of people with tetraplegia. The effectiveness of AFES can be enhanced by using different stimulation parameters for quiet breathing and coughing. The signal from a spirometer, coupled with a facemask, has previously been used to differentiate between ...
Adam-Poupart Ariane A Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, - - 2014
Ambient air ozone is a pulmonary irritant that has been associated with respiratory health effects including increased lung inflammation and permeability, airway hyper-reactivity, respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function. Ozone exposure estimation is a complex task because the pollutant exhibits complex spatiotemporal patterns. To refine the quality of exposure estimation, ...
Boogaard Peter J PJ Shell Health, Shell International B.V., P.O. Box 162, 2501 AN The Hague, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
During a short incident in an ethylene oxide (EO) producing plant, EO vapour was released under high pressure. Operators wore full respiratory protection during repairs to fix the leak. To check the adequacy of the applied personal protective equipment and to address concerns about potential dermal exposure and subsequent uptake ...
Brüske Irene I Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Epidemiology I, Neuherberg, - - 2014
Studies on exposure to respirable quartz dust at the workplace and the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were selected into a systematic review and meta-analysed to obtain an overall estimate of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) reduction. PubMed and Embase were searched ...
Weiss Eric H EH Massachusetts Institute of - - 2014
It is well-known that respiratory activity influences electrocardiographic morphology. In this paper we present a new algorithm for the extraction of respiratory rate from either intracardiac or body surface electrograms. The algorithm optimizes selection of electrocardiographic leads for respiratory analysis, as validated in a swine model. The algorithm estimates the ...
Calfee Carolyn S CS Departments of Medicine and Anesthesia, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Subphenotypes have been identified within heterogeneous diseases such as asthma and breast cancer, with important therapeutic implications. We assessed whether subphenotypes exist within acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), another heterogeneous disorder. We used data from two ARDS randomised controlled trials (ARMA trial and ALVEOLI trial), sponsored by the National Heart, ...
Murphy Dennis J DJ Department of Safety Pharmacology, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, King of Prussia, PA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
A variety of methods and measurement endpoints are currently available for evaluating respiratory function in animal models. To evaluate drug-induced effects on respiratory function, respiratory safety pharmacology studies generally emphasize the use of conscious animal models and measures of pulmonary ventilation. Respiratory rate, tidal volume and/or a measure of arterial ...
McManus C M CM Maddie's Shelter Medicine Program, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, - - 2014
Upper respiratory infection (URI) is a pervasive problem in cats and impacts the capacity and cost of sheltering programs. This study determined the pattern of respiratory pathogens in cats with and without clinical signs of URI in four different models for managing unowned cats, namely, (1) short-term animal shelters (STS), ...
Jaworski Jacek J Department of Mechatronics and High Voltage Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland. Electronic address: - - 2014
This paper presents a model of alveolar-capillary oxygen diffusion with dynamics of air transport through the respiratory tract. For this purpose electrical model representing the respiratory tract mechanics and differential equations representing oxygen membrane diffusion are combined. Relevant thermodynamic relations describing the mass of oxygen transported into the human body ...
Judge Eoin P EP Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Irish National Lung and Heart Transplant Program, Dublin, Ireland ; - - 2014
The porcine model has contributed significantly to biomedical research over many decades. The similar size and anatomy of pig and human organs make this model particularly beneficial for translational research in areas such as medical device development, therapeutics and xenotransplantation. In recent years, a major limitation with the porcine model ...
Golabchifar Ali-Akbar AA Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetic Division, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 14155-651, Tehran, - - 2014
We evaluated the population pharmacokinetics (PPK) and exposure-response relationship of imatinib mesylate in Iranian patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).This study was designed to assess steady state (SS) imatinib trough concentrations (Cmin) and pharmacokinetics parameters of imatinib in patients with CML in chronic phase after at least 12-month treatment. Plasma ...
Kinkead Richard R University of Laval, Department of Pediatrics, Centre de Recherche, Hôpital St-François d'Assise, Quebec, - - 2014
The control of breathing is commonly viewed as being a "brainstem affair". Over the years, studies have periodically brought new data that hinted at the need to revisit this notion, yet not much has changed. In this issue of Acta Physiologica, Lopes et al (2014) demonstrate how the periaqueductal gray contributes ...
Zhao Qingyu - - 2014
In image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of disease sites subject to respiratory motion, soft tissue deformations can affect localization accuracy. We describe the application of a method of 2D/3D deformable registration to soft tissue localization in abdomen. The method, called Registration Efficiency and Accuracy through Learning a Metric on Shape (REALMS), is ...
Blanes-Vidal Victoria V Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, Faculty of Engineering, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, - - 2014
Previous studies have reported increased occurrence of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms among residents living close to biodegradable waste sites. However, few studies have been able to quantify direct and annoyance-mediated effects based on individual-specific assessments of chemical exposures. We examined associations between residential exposures to a proxy gas (ammonia, ...
Santos Sandra M A SM CNC- Centre for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, - - 2014
Linuron is one of the most intensively used herbicides with predictable effects on the environment and non-target organisms. In the present study, two in vitro biological models (a Bacillus sp. and rat liver mitochondria) were used to evaluate linuron toxicity at a cell/subcellular level. Linuron inhibited bacterial growth and NADH-supported ...
Spinczyk Dominik D Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology , Gliwice , Poland , - - 2014
Abstract Non-invasive surface registration methods have been developed to register and track breathing motions in a patient's abdomen and thorax. We evaluated several different registration methods, including marker tracking using a stereo camera, chessboard image projection, and abdominal point clouds. Our point cloud approach was based on a time-of-flight (ToF) ...
Mathews Stephanie - - 2014
Over the last four decades, chronic ethanol feeding studies in rodents using either ad libitum feeding or intragastric infusion models have significantly enhanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Recently, we developed a chronic plus binge alcohol feeding model in mice that is similar to the ...
Juen Joshua J 1 Department of Medical Information Science, Department of Computer Science, Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Urbana, - - 2014
Abstract We have developed GaitTrack, a phone application to detect health status while the smartphone is carried normally. GaitTrack software monitors walking patterns, using only accelerometers embedded in phones to record spatiotemporal motion, without the need for sensors external to the phone. Our software transforms smartphones into health monitors, using ...
Smirnova O A OA *Federal State Unitary Enterprise Research and Technical Center of Radiation-Chemical Safety and Hygiene, 40 Shchukinskaya St., Moscow, 123182, Russian Federation; †Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM), 68-a Vorovsky St., Chelyabinsk, 454076, Russian - - 2014
A profound approach to the analysis of clinical data on the dynamics of major hematopoietic lineages (granulocytopoietic, thrombocytopoietic, and erythrocytopoietic systems) in chronically irradiated humans is proposed. It is based on recently developed mathematical models of these systems in humans, which enable one to study and interpret clinical hematological data. ...
Janssen Larry L a Larry Janssen Consulting, LLC , Stillwater , - - 2014
Workplace protection factors (WPFs) are intended to measure the ability of a respiratory protective device (RPD) to reduce contaminant exposure when used in the context of an effective respiratory protection program. In 1992, members of the American Industrial Hygiene Association Respiratory Protection Committee (RPC) published a review of important issues ...
Kasza Jessica J Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Victorian Centre for Biostatistics (ViCBiostat), Melbourne, Victoria, - - 2014
This article provides a review of techniques for the analysis of survival data arising from respiratory health studies. Popular techniques such as the Kaplan-Meier survival plot and the Cox proportional hazards model are presented and illustrated using data from a lung cancer study. Advanced issues are also discussed, including parametric ...
Wolf Matthew - - 2014
Aircraft passengers and crew may be subjected to rapid or prolonged decompression to high cabin altitude when an aircraft develops a hole in the fuselage. The accepted measure of neurological damage due to the hypobaric hypoxia produced is the subjective 'time of useful consciousness' (TUC) measure, which is appropriate for ...
Smirnova Olga A OA Federal State Unitary Enterprise Research and Technical Center of Radiation-Chemical Safety and Hygiene, 40 Shchukinskaya st., 123182 , Moscow, Russian - - 2014
A biologically motivated dynamical model of the lymphocytopoietic system in irradiated humans is applied here to analyze the data obtained under hematological examinations of residents of Techa riverside villages. Those people were exposed to chronic irradiation with varying dose rates, due to the radioactive contamination of the river basin by ...
Valdés M M Uranium Medical Research Center, Shawville, Quebec, Canada J0X - - 2014
A procedure is presented to estimate the respiratory tract burden from a prolonged inhalation exposure to particulate matter of depleted uranium, in cases where the rate of deposition is an unknown function. The precise range of possible values is identified. The calculations are based on the amount of depleted uranium ...
Tarassenko L L Department of Engineering Science, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oxford, - - 2014
Remote sensing of the reflectance photoplethysmogram using a video camera typically positioned 1 m away from the patient's face is a promising method for monitoring the vital signs of patients without attaching any electrodes or sensors to them. Most of the papers in the literature on non-contact vital sign monitoring report ...
Smirnova Olga A OA a  Federal State Unitary Enterprise Research and Technical Center of Radiation-Chemical Safety and Hygiene, Moscow, - - 2014
In this work, a recently developed mathematical model of the lymphocytopoietic system in acutely irradiated humans was extended to predict the dynamics of this system both in nonirradiated and acutely/chronically irradiated humans. The mathematical implementation of this model is a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, whose variables and parameters ...
Lemaire Cyril C TIMR, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Compiègne, France, - - 2014
Monitoring of the biological degradation of a substrate by microorganisms is a key issue, especially in the soil bioremediation area. Respiration measurement is the easiest way to obtain online information on the biological activity. Nevertheless, it is indirectly related to substrate consumption and microbial growth. To be able to link ...
De Keyser K K KU Leuven Department of Biosystems, Livestock Genetics, Leuven, - - 2014
Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL)-associated traits in Belgian Draught Horses were estimated, using a multitrait animal model. Clinical scores of CPL in the four limbs/horse (CPLclin ), skinfold thickness and hair samples (hair diameter) were studied. Due to CPLclin uncertainty in younger horses (progressive CPL character), a restricted ...
Li Bassi Gianluigi G From the Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Thorax Institute, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain (G.L.B., M.R., J.-D.M., L.S., O.T.R., V.G., N.L., M.R., M.E., L.F.-B., M.F., A.T.); Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain (G.L.B., M.R., J.-D.M., I.R., L.M., L.F.-B., M.F., J.V., A.T.); Centro de Investigación Biomedica En Red- Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Mallorca, Spain (G.L.B., M.R., O.T.R., V.G., M.R., M.E., L.F.-B., M.F., A.T.); Cardiology Department, Thorax Institute, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain (M.R.); Department of Clinical Microbiology, School of Medicine, and Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, (CRESIB, Hospital Clínic-Universitat de Barcelona), Barcelona, Spain (I.R., L.M., J.V.); Pathology Department, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain (M.C., J.R.); and University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (J.V., J.R., - - 2014
Animal models of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in primates, sheep, and pigs differ in the underlying pulmonary injury, etiology, bacterial inoculation methods, and time to onset. The most common ovine and porcine models do not reproduce the primary pathogenic mechanism of the disease, through the aspiration of oropharyngeal pathogens, or the ...
Fisher Edward M EM National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA, - - 2014
Facemasks are part of the hierarchy of interventions used to reduce the transmission of respiratory pathogens by providing a barrier. Two types of facemasks used by healthcare workers are N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and surgical masks (SMs). These can become contaminated with respiratory pathogens during use, thus serving as ...
van Drunen Erwin J - - 2014
Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) risk lung collapse, severely altering the breath-to-breath respiratory mechanics. Model-based estimation of respiratory mechanics characterising patient-specific condition and response to treatment may be used to guide mechanical ventilation (MV). This study presents a model-based approach to monitor time-varying patient-ventilator interaction to guide positive ...
Lee Rebecca R Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Dept. of Medicine, Medical Univ. of South Carolina, STB 233, 114 Doughty St., Charleston, SC 29425. - - 2014
The interstitial lung diseases (ILD) include a large number of chronic, progressive, irreversible respiratory disorders involving pulmonary fibrosis, the most common of which are idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and scleroderma lung disease (SSc ILD). Because bleomycin causes lung fibrosis when used in cancer chemotherapy, it is used to model human ILD ...
Ripka Wagner L - - 2014
There are several ways to measure the respiratory system, among them inductance plethysmography and three-dimensional kinematic analysis, methods of high cost and difficult transportability. The objective of this study was to correlate respiratory volumes obtained by spirometry standard equipment with a biomechanical model photogrammetric analysis of adolescents. We evaluated 50 ...
Mehta Nilesh M NM Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Accurate assessment of resting energy expenditure (REE) and metabolic state is essential to optimize nutrient intake in critically ill patients. We aimed to examine the accuracy of a simplified equation for predicting REE using carbon dioxide elimination (VCO2) values. We conducted a two-center study of metabolic data from mechanically ventilated ...
Gaughan Denise M DM a Department of Preventive Medicine and the Institute for Translational Epidemiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai , New York , New - - 2014
ABSTRACT Respiratory problems are common among wildland firefighters. However, there are few studies directly linking occupational exposures to respiratory effects in this population. Our objective was to characterize wildland firefighting occupational exposures and assess their associations with cross-shift changes in lung function. We studied 17 members of the Alpine Interagency ...
Högman M M Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg, SE 801 88 Gävle, Sweden. Department of Medical Sciences, Lung Medicine and Allergology, Uppsala University, - - 2014
Expired nitric oxide (NO) is used as a biomarker in different respiratory diseases. The recommended flow rate of 50 mL s(-1) (FENO0.05) does not reveal from where in the lung NO production originated. Theoretical models of NO transfer from the respiratory system, linear or nonlinear approaches, have therefore been developed and applied. These ...
Buehler S S Division for Experimental Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Hugstetter Str. 55, 79106, Freiburg, Germany, - - 2014
In mechanical ventilation, a careful setting of the ventilation parameters in accordance with the current individual state of the lung is crucial to minimize ventilator induced lung injury. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has to be set to prevent collapse of the alveoli, however at the same time overdistension should be ...
Mu Yunsong Y State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, - - 2014
Criteria continuous concentrations (CCCs) are useful for describing chronic exposure to pollutants and setting water quality standards to protect aquatic life. However, because of financial, practical, or ethical restrictions on toxicity testing, few data are available to derive CCCs. In this study, CCCs for 34 metals or metalloids were derived ...
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