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Results 401 - 450 of 1528
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Liao Chechen - - 2011
Abstract This study synthesizes the expectancy disconfirmation theory with empirical theories pertaining to customer regret in an e-commerce environment. The study begins by examining the roles that information quality (IQ), system quality (SYQ), and service quality (SEQ) play in determining customer regret and satisfaction. Then the consequences of regret and ...
Herrmann-Pillath Carsten - - 2011
Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic ...
Webb Thomas L TL Department of Psychology, The University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, UK. - - 2010
This paper reviews a set of theories of behaviour change that are used outside the field of addiction and considers their relevance for this field. Ten theories are reviewed in terms of (i) the main tenets of each theory, (ii) the implications of the theory for promoting change in addictive ...
Holyoak Keith J - - 2010
A fundamental issue for theories of human induction is to specify constraints on potential inferences. For inferences based on shared category membership, an analogy, and/or a relational schema, it appears that the basic goal of induction is to make accurate and goal-relevant inferences that are sensitive to uncertainty. People can ...
Vancouver Jeffrey B - - 2010
Understanding the processes involved when pursuing multiple goals over time is a central question for motivational theorists. A dynamic, computational model integrating theories of goal striving and goal choice is presented to account for data emerging from Schmidt and DeShon's (2007) multiple-goal-pursuit protocol. The simulated results match the results reported ...
Johnson-Laird Philip N - - 2010
To be rational is to be able to reason. Thirty years ago psychologists believed that human reasoning depended on formal rules of inference akin to those of a logical calculus. This hypothesis ran into difficulties, which led to an alternative view: reasoning depends on envisaging the possibilities consistent with the ...
Haegeman Bart - - 2011
The debate between niche-based and neutral community theories centers around the question of which forces shape predominantly ecological communities. Niche theory attributes a central role to niche differences between species, which generate a difference between the strength of intra- and interspecific interactions. Neutral theory attributes a central role to migration ...
Chen Zhiqiang - - 2011
A full-scale test was conducted with an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) pre-treating pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) and amoxicillin. The aim of the study is to investigate the performance of UASB in the condition of a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate from 12.57 to 21.02kgm(-3)d(-1) and ...
Hugenberg Kurt - - 2010
The other-race effect (ORE), or the finding that same-race faces are better recognized than other-race faces, is one of the best replicated phenomena in face recognition. The current article reviews existing evidence and theory and proposes a new theoretical framework for the ORE, which argues that the effect results from ...
Rohani Pejman P Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. - - 2010
Infectious diseases have been a prime testing ground for ecological theory. However, the ecological perspective is increasingly recognized as essential in epidemiology. Long-term, spatially resolved reliable data on disease incidence and the ability to test them using mechanistic models have been critical in this cross-fertilization. Here, we review some of ...
Brown Jac - - 2010
This article highlights the distinction between integration and eclecticism, arguing for an integration in teaching psychotherapy by using a meta-theory. The traditional approach of presenting a sequential range of therapy models may inadvertently advocate an eclectic approach. It begins with a brief consideration of the integration literature, elaborating a meta-theory ...
Farina Marcello - - 2010
Several clock and time scale steering methods have been developed according to different viewpoints by various time laboratories. By resorting to control theory ideas, we propose a common theoretical framework encompassing these methods. A comparison of the most common steering methodologies, namely, the classical steering approach, the GPS bang-bang method, ...
Hole M J - - 2010
Recently, bayesian probability theory has been used at a number of experiments to fold uncertainties and interdependencies in the diagnostic data and forward models, together with prior knowledge of the state of the plasma, to increase accuracy of inferred physics variables. A new probabilistic framework, MINERVA, based on bayesian graphical ...
Stern Richard M - - 2010
Jeffress's theory of binaural interaction has played a dominant role in the modeling of binaural phenomena since its introduction more than 60 years ago. Central to most binaural models is a network of binaural coincidence-counting units that respond to simultaneous excitation from each of the two ears after a fixed ...
Good Jessica J - - 2010
Multiracial individuals are in the unique position of being able to categorize themselves as members of multiple racial groups. Drawing on self-categorization theory, we suggest that similarity to the minority ingroup depends on self-perceptions of physical appearance and connectedness to the minority ingroup. Moreover, we argue that similarity to the ...
Anderson Julie D - - 2010
PURPOSE: Findings from Anderson (2007) were broadly interpreted according to several psycholinguistic-oriented theories of stuttering, including EXPLAN (Howell, 2004). Although the study was not explicitly designed to test EXPLAN, it was generally concluded that the evidence does not provide appreciable support for EXPLAN. Howell (2010) objected to this conclusion on ...
Neilson Peter D - - 2010
Recently Latash, Scholz, and Schöner (2007) proposed a new view of motor synergies which stresses the idea that the nervous system does not seek a unique solution to eliminate redundant degrees of freedom but rather uses redundant sets of elemental variables that each correct for errors in the other to ...
Eyles Caroline - - 2011
Research into the homeopathic consultation has largely focused on patients' experiences, although the practitioner is a crucial component of the therapeutic context and may have an important part in optimizing health outcomes. Therefore the aim of this qualitative research was to gain an in-depth understanding of homeopathic practitioners' perceptions and ...
Mullinax J W - - 2010
Coarse-grained (CG) models provide a computationally efficient means for investigating phenomena that remain beyond the scope of atomically detailed models. Although CG models are often parametrized to reproduce the results of atomistic simulations, it is highly desirable to determine accurate CG models from experimental data. Recently, we have introduced a ...
Stapleton Gem - - 2010
Euler diagrams are effective tools for visualizing set intersections. They have a large number of application areas ranging from statistical data analysis to software engineering. However, the automated generation of Euler diagrams has never been easy: given an abstract description of a required Euler diagram, it is computationally expensive to ...
Crawford Eean R - - 2010
We refine and extend the job demands-resources model with theory regarding appraisal of stressors to account for inconsistencies in relationships between demands and engagement, and we test the revised theory using meta-analytic structural modeling. Results indicate support for the refined and updated theory. First, demands and burnout were positively associated, ...
Iacovitti G - - 2010
Many aspects of individual as well as social behaviours of human beings can be analyzed in a quantitative way using typical scientific methods, based on empirical measurements and mathematical inference. Measurements are made possible today by the large variety of sensing devices, while formal models are synthesized using modern system ...
Calhoun Craig - - 2010
The work of Ulrich Beck has been important in bringing sociological attention to the ways issues of risk are embedded in contemporary globalization, in developing a theory of 'reflexive modernization', and in calling for social science to transcend 'methodological nationalism'. In recent studies, he and his colleagues help to correct ...
Klijs Bart - - 2011
Projections of future trends in the burden of disability could be guided by models linking disability to life expectancy, such as the dynamic equilibrium theory. This article tests the key assumption of this theory that severe disability is associated with proximity to death, whereas mild disability is not. Using data ...
Weyl E Glen - - 2010
Although mutualisms are common in all ecological communities and have played key roles in the diversification of life, our current understanding of the evolution of cooperation applies mostly to social behavior within a species. A central question is whether mutualisms persist because hosts have evolved costly punishment of cheaters. Here, ...
Chirikjian Gregory S - - 2010
Biological macromolecules, and the complexes that they form, can be described in a variety of ways ranging from quantum mechanical and atomic chemical models, to coarser grained models of secondary structure and domains, to continuum models. At each of these levels, group theory can be used to describe both geometric ...
Mechelli Andrea - - 2010
Over a century after Freud's attempt to establish psychoanalysis as a natural science, there is renewed interest in the integration of psychoanalytic and neuroscientific findings within a single theoretical and experimental framework. However, it is important that any intellectual exchange is not motivated only by declining confidence in psychoanalytic theory ...
Elwyn Glyn - - 2011
Background  Although an increasing number of decision support interventions for patients (including decision aids) are produced, few make explicit use of theory. We argue the importance of using theory to guide design. The aim of this work was to address this theory-practice gap and to examine how a range of ...
Jungé Justin A - - 2010
Anderson's theory is plausible and largely consistent with the data. However, it remains underspecified on several fronts, and we highlight areas for potential improvement. Reuse is described as duplicating a functional component, preserving one function and tinkering to add another function. This is a promising model, but Anderson neglects other ...
Vilarroya Oscar - - 2010
I agree with Anderson's approach to reuse theories. My main concern is twofold. Anderson assumes certain nomological regularities in reuse phenomena that are simply conjectures supported by thin evidence. On the other hand, a biological theory of reuse is insufficient, in and of itself, to address the evaluation of particular ...
Roussillon René - - 2010
The author examines Winnicott 's contribution to Freud 's concept of primary narcissism. In Mourning and melancholia, Freud laid the foundations for this contribution, but it was Winnicott who turned it into a clinically useful concept. There are three of Winnicott's ideas that can be seen as preliminary stages to his theory ...
Glazier Paul S - - 2010
This article discusses the main substantive issues surrounding performance analysis and considers future directions in this recently formed sub-discipline of sport science. It is argued that it is insufficient to bring together sport biomechanics and notational analysis on the basis that they share a number of commonalities, such as they ...
Steinberg Naomi - - 2010
Using an extended clinical example, the author applies aspects of Kleinian, Fairbairnian, and Bionian theory to demonstrate how individuals may come to hide away feelings of both love and aggression. In the clinical material presented, a version of a schizoid retreat was understood as a pervasive response to trauma. The ...
Viret Jacques - - 2010
In this work, we compare two global approaches which are usually considered as completely unconnected one with the other. The former is Thom's topology and the latter is Jung's psychology. More precisely, it seemed to us interesting to adapt some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory to some Jung's notions. Thus, ...
Pagonabarraga I - - 2010
Electrokinetic phenomena are of great practical importance in fields as diverse as micro-fluidics, colloid science and oil exploration. However, the quantitative prediction of electrokinetic effects was until recently limited to relatively simple geometries that allowed the use of analytical theories. In the past decade, there has been a rapid development ...
Zhou Yun - - 2010
We construct a generic model for a heat engine using information theory concepts, attributing irreversible energy dissipation to the information transmission channels. Using several forms for the channel capacity, classical and quantum, we demonstrate that our model recovers both the Carnot principle in the reversible limit, and the universal maximum ...
Hélie Sébastien - - 2010
This article proposes a unified framework for understanding creative problem solving, namely, the explicit-implicit interaction theory. This new theory of creative problem solving constitutes an attempt at providing a more unified explanation of relevant phenomena (in part by reinterpreting/integrating various fragmentary existing theories of incubation and insight). The explicit-implicit interaction ...
Rabinovich Merav - - 2010
The authors propose an advanced relationships between categories (RBC) model as an expansion of Tutty, Rothery, and Grinnell's (1996) qualitative tool for classifying RBC patterns as contained, temporal, and causal relationships. It is assumed that identification of the relationships obtained among categories of qualitative data paves the way for construction ...
Gefen Amit - - 2010
Heel ulcers are common, dangerous and costly, but their etiology is poorly understood and no biomechanical studies were conducted to explore it. This paper describes a biomechanical investigation of heel ulcers using a theoretical model that characterizes the internal mechanical loading at the soft tissues of a supported heel. The ...
Cohn Melvin - - 2010
This essay was written to illustrate how one might think about the immune system. The formulation of valid theories is the basic component of how-to-think because the reduction of large and complex data sets by the use of logic into a succinct model with predictability and explanatory power, is the ...
Tseng Ming-Lang - - 2011
Green performance measure is vital for enterprises in making continuous improvements to maintain sustainable competitive advantages. Evaluation of green performance, however, is a challenging task due to the dependence complexity of the aspects, criteria, and the linguistic vagueness of some qualitative information and quantitative data together. To deal with this ...
Asgharian Niloofar - - 2010
A novel, self-consistent, algebraic method is developed within the framework of Maxwell-Wagner theory (i.e., 'mixture formula' and single shell model) for obtaining the dielectric parameters, such as epsilon(s), kappa(s) and f(Q) of spherical shells. The efficacy of the procedure that-in contrast to previous ones-is void of any approximations, was successfully ...
Danks David - - 2010
Machery's Heterogeneity Hypothesis depends on his argument that no theory of concepts can account for all the extant reliable categorization data. I argue that a single theoretical framework based on graphical models can explain all of the behavioral data to which this argument refers. These different theories of concepts thus ...
Powell Russell - - 2010
The precautionary principle has been hailed as the new paradigm for contending with health and environmental risk in the context of emerging technologies. In the philosophical literature, however, it has been met with skepticism. Weaker conceptions of the precautionary principle are accused of being trivial or vacuous, while stronger versions ...
Van Hiel Alain - - 2010
The present study aimed to delineate the psychological structure of materialism and intrinsic and extrinsic value pursuit. Moreover, we compared models based on self-determination theory (SDT), Fromm's marketing character, and Inglehart's theory of social change to account for racial prejudice. In a sample of undergraduate students (n=131) and adults (n=176) ...
- - 2010
Cover: Farming of tigers (Panthera tigris) has been proposed as a disincentive to illegal trade that is decreasing the abundance and distribution of tigers in the wild. In this issue, Kirkpatrick and Emerton (pp. 655-659) examine the economic rationale for tiger farming. In theory, the pro. tability of poaching will ...
Smith Phillip N - - 2010
A functional model of the acquired capability for suicide, a component of Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide, is presented. A component of Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide a functional model of the acquired capability for suicide is presented. The model integrates the points discussed by Joiner into a ...
Morrison Diane M DM School of Social Work, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105-6299, USA. - - 2010
The current study examines the Theory of Planned Behaviour's (TPB) ability to predict marijuana use among young women who experienced a premarital pregnancy before the age of 18 years, using longitudinal data. The validity of the TPB assumption that all other variables work through TPB constructs is also tested. Indicators ...
Yermolayeva Yevdokiya Y Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. - - 2010
We evaluate the heterogeneity hypothesis by considering the developmental time course and the mechanism of acquisition of exemplars, prototypes, and theories. We argue that behavioral and modeling data point to a sequential emergence of these three types of concepts within a single system. This suggests that similar or identical underlying ...
Corrion Karine - - 2010
We tested a hypothetical model that examined both the effects of implicit theories of ability on the judgement of cheating acceptability in a physical education context and the mediating role of the achievement goals defined in the social-cognitive model of achievement motivation. Data were collected from 477 middle-school students, who ...
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