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Results 201 - 250 of 1528
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Melo-Carrillo Agustin - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a chronic neurovascular disease characterized by recurrent unilateral headache, which induces incapacity. Despite all the progress that migraine research has provided, the neural mechanisms underlying the onset and maintenance of migraine attacks are poorly understood. Due to the complex characteristics of the disorder, it is difficult to ...
Longest P Worth - - 2013
Characteristic models of the upper conducting airways are needed to evaluate the performance of existing pharmaceutical inhalers and to develop new respiratory drug delivery strategies. Previous studies have focused on the development of characteristic mouth-throat (MT) geometries for orally inhaled products; however, characteristic upper tracheobronchial (TB) geometries are currently not ...
Rosati Rowe Jacky A - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Determining the fate of inhaled contaminants in the human respiratory system has challenged scientists for years. Human and animal studies have provided some data, but there is a paucity of data for toxic contaminants and sensitive populations (such as children, elderly, diseased). METHODS: Three-dimensional modeling programs and publicly available ...
Ni Hong-Gang - - 2013
Hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers (α, β, and γ-HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were investigated in air conditioning filter dust (designated as particulate phase of indoor air, PPIA) collected from an office building in Shenzhen, China in 2009. Concentrations of ΣHBCD (sum of α-, β-, and γ-HBCD) ranged from 652 to 122, 973ng/g ...
Christley Scott - - 2013
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is acute lung failure secondary to severe systemic inflammation, resulting in a derangement of alveolar mechanics (i.e. the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during tidal ventilation), leading to alveolar instability that can cause further damage to the pulmonary parenchyma. Mechanical ventilation is a ...
Stocks S J - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: The 2004 amendment to the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health 2002 regulations (COSHH 2004) introducing workplace exposure limits (WELs) was enacted in the UK in 2005. This study aimed to determine whether introducing this legislation coincided with a reduction in the incidence of work-related short latency respiratory disease ...
Brown James S - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Particle size-selective sampling refers to the collection of particles of varying sizes that potentially reach and adversely affect specific regions of the respiratory tract. Thoracic and respirable fractions are defined as the fraction of inhaled particles capable of passing beyond the larynx and ciliated airways, respectively, during inhalation. In ...
Yoshihara Kazutaka - - 2013
  Laninamivir octanoate (LO) is a new neuraminidase inhibitor for inhalation. The objectives of this study were to model the population pharmacokinetics of LO and its active metabolite laninamivir after inhaled administration of LO using pooled population of healthy subjects, and adult and pediatric patients with influenza virus infection from 8 ...
Avtandilashvili Maia - - 2013
ABSTRACT: The dominant contribution to the uncertainty in internal dose assessment can often be explained by the uncertainty in the biokinetic model structure and parameters. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently updating its biokinetic models, including the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM). Gregoratto et al. (2010) proposed ...
White Toby A - - 2013
Latent class transition models track how individuals move among latent classes through time, traditionally assuming a complete set of observations for each individual. In this paper, we develop group-based latent class transition models that allow for staggered entry and exit, common in surveys with rolling enrollment designs. Such models are ...
Pollock Sean S Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, - - 2013
The accuracy of motion prediction, utilized to overcome the system latency of motion management radiotherapy systems, is hampered by irregularities present in the patients' respiratory pattern. Audiovisual (AV) biofeedback has been shown to reduce respiratory irregularities. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves ...
Pittman Julian T - - 2013
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a promising model organism for experimental studies relevant to biological psychiatry. The objective of this study was to develop a novel video-based movement tracking and analysis system to quantify behavioral changes following psychoactive drug exposure in zebrafish. We assessed the effects of withdrawal from ...
Saver Barry G - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations (ACSHs) are commonly used as measures of access to and quality of care. They are defined as hospitalizations for certain acute and chronic conditions; yet, they are most commonly used in analyses comparing different groups without adjustment for individual-level comorbidity. We present an exploration of ...
Eisma Roos - - 2013
Abstract Respiration-related movement of organs is a complication in a range of diagnostic and interventional procedures. The development and validation of techniques to compensate for such movement requires appropriate models. Human cadavers embalmed with the Thiel method remain flexible and could provide a suitable model. In this study liver displacement ...
Garde Ainara A Automatic Control Department (ESAII), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - BarcelonaTech (UPC), Barcelona, Spain. - - 2013
Classification algorithms with unbalanced datasets tend to produce high predictive accuracy over the majority class, but poor predictive accuracy over the minority class. This problem is very common in biomedical data mining. This paper introduces a Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based optimized feature selection method, to select the most relevant features ...
Fojtík P - - 2013
An internal contamination with (241)Am was detected in a worker during a routine monitoring of workers from a company producing Am sources for smoke detectors and Am-Be neutron sources. During the 4-year period after the exposure, the number of urine and faecal samples from the worker were analysed; in vivo ...
Bartels Christian - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237) is a once-daily long-acting muscarinic antagonist recently approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study we used population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling to provide insights into the impact of the lung PK of glycopyrronium on its systemic PK profile and in turn ...
Stevenson Christopher S - - 2013
Animal models are vital instruments of the drug discovery process. In addition to assessing the efficacy of candidate molecules, in vivo disease models also help validate the therapeutic potential of molecular targets. Over recent years, several molecules that have shown efficacy in preclinical models of respiratory diseases have failed to ...
Chen S-C - - 2013
SUMMARY We investigated the cost-effectiveness of different influenza control strategies in a school setting in Taiwan. A susceptible-exposure-infected-recovery (SEIR) model was used to simulate influenza transmission and we used a basic reproduction number (R 0)-asymptomatic proportion (θ) control scheme to develop a cost-effectiveness model. Based on our dynamic transmission model ...
Ferro Mark A - - 2013
Objective: The aim of this study was to use meta-analytic techniques to compare self-concept between children and adolescents (abbreviated to youth) with a chronic illness versus healthy controls, and to examine methodological influences on effect sizes. Method: Databases were searched for asthma, cerebral palsy, diabetes, epilepsy, and juvenile arthritis. Inclusion ...
Perotte Adler - - 2013
Time series are essential to health data research and data mining. We aim to study the properties of one of the more commonly available but historically unreliable types of data: administrative diagnoses in the form of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD9) codes. We use differential entropy of ...
Suslova Klara G - - 2013
ABSTRACT: Americium-241 (Am) is the second most significant radiation hazard after Pu at some of the Mayak Production Association facilities. This study summarizes current data on the accumulation, distribution, and excretion of americium compared with plutonium in different organs from former Mayak PA workers. Americium and plutonium were measured in ...
Cristescu S M - - 2013
There is still an unexplored potential for exhaled nitric oxide (NO) in many clinical applications. This study presents an overview of the currently available methods for monitoring NO in exhaled breath and the use of the modelling of NO production and transport in the lung in clinical practice. Three technologies ...
Sweeney Lisa M - - 2013
A biomathematical model was previously developed to describe the long-term clearance and retention of particles in the lungs of coal miners. The model structure was evaluated and parameters were estimated in two data sets, one from the United States and one from the United Kingdom. The three-compartment model structure consists ...
Basagaña Xavier - - 2013
Multiple imputation is a common technique for dealing with missing values and is mostly applied in regression settings. Its application in cluster analysis problems, where the main objective is to classify individuals into homogenous groups, involves several difficulties which are not well characterized in the current literature. In this paper, ...
Karlen W - - 2013
We present a novel method for estimating respiratory rate in real-time from the photoplethysmogram (PPG) obtained from pulse oximetry. Three respiratory induced variations (frequency, intensity, and amplitude) are extracted from the PPG using the Incremental-Merge Segmentation algorithm. Frequency content of each respiratory induced variation is analyzed using Fast Fourier Transforms. ...
Morris John B - - 2013
The response of respiratory tract tissue target sites to inhaled vapors depends on the amount of inhaled vapor that is delivered to those sites. Direct measurement of vapor absorption within a specific airway of the living animal requires that the airway be isolated, which currently can only be performed on ...
Falahpour Maryam - - 2013
Subtle changes in either breathing pattern or cardiac pulse rate alter blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging signal (BOLD fMRI). This is problematic because such fluctuations could possibly not be related to underlying neuronal activations of interest but instead the source of physiological noise. Several methods have been ...
Funk Gregory D - - 2013
Our understanding of the sites and mechanisms underlying rhythmic breathing as well as the neuromodulatory control of respiratory rhythm, pattern, and respiratory motoneuron excitability during perinatal development has advanced significantly over the last 20 years. A major catalyst was the development in 1991 of the rhythmically-active medullary slice preparation, which ...
Alvestad Silje - - 2013
It has been suggested that loss of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) from perivascular endfeet in sclerotic hippocampi contributes to increased seizure propensity in human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Whether this loss occurs prior to or as a consequence of epilepsy development remains to be resolved. In the ...
Ertürk M Do─ča - - 2013
This study provides for the first time the 96h toxicity of 30 phenols to Chlorella vulgaris. Analysis of the novel data set revealed that the algal toxicity of polar narcotics and respiratory uncouplers was correlated strongly to the pH corrected hydrophobicity parameter, Log D, demonstrating the importance of ionization in ...
Nijsure Y - - 2013
We design a impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR UWB) radar monitoring system to track the chest wall movement of a human subject during respiration. Multiple sensors are placed at different locations to ensure that the backscattered signal could be detected by at least one sensor no matter which direction the human ...
Velayati Ali A - - 2013
Several models have been developed to measure the severity of illness in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, It is suggested that the models should be customized depending on the characteristics of different population of patients. This study is aimed to assess and modify the performance of Acute Physiology and Chronic ...
Goodman Richard A - - 2013
Current trends in US population growth, age distribution, and disease dynamics foretell rises in the prevalence of chronic diseases and other chronic conditions. These trends include the rapidly growing population of older adults, the increasing life expectancy associated with advances in public health and clinical medicine, the persistently high prevalence ...
Allen Irving C IC Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, - - 2013
Mouse models of allergic airway inflammation have proven essential in understanding the mechanisms and pathophysiology underling human asthma. There is a diverse range of mouse models described in the literature that typically vary slightly by allergen, duration of exposure, and route of sensitization. In general, each of these models has ...
Chen Xiao Yu - - 2013
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a serious public health problem, and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plays an important role in the control and treatment for CHB. In the treatment of TCM, zheng discrimination is the most important step. In this paper, an approach based on CFS-GA (Correlation based Feature Selection ...
Hartney John M - - 2013
This chapter provides an outline of the procedures necessary to measure airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine in mouse models of allergic lung disease. We present a method for acquiring detailed measurements of respiratory mechanics using broadband low-frequency oscillatory waveforms applied at the subject's airway opening and analyzed using the constant ...
Tanaka Yoji - - 2013
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is prevalent among elderly populations worldwide, and its mysterious pathogenesis has been discussed in the literature for decades. The issues remaining to be solved in regard to CSDH include the initiating events; the bleeding into the subdural space and the formation of the outer and inner ...
Islam Zeenath U ZU The Roslin Institute & R(D)SVS, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, United - - 2013
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically significant viral diseases facing the global swine industry. Viremia profiles of PRRS virus challenged pigs reflect the severity and progression of infection within the host and provide crucial information for subsequent control measures. In this study we analyse ...
Molkov Yaroslav I - - 2013
The medullary respiratory network generates respiratory rhythm via sequential phase switching, which in turn is controlled by multiple feedbacks including those from the pons and nucleus tractus solitarii; the latter mediates pulmonary afferent feedback to the medullary circuits. It is hypothesized that both pontine and pulmonary feedback pathways operate via ...
Peláez-Coca M D MD Centro Universitario de la Defensa, Academia General Militar, Carreter de Huesca s/n, 50090 Zaragoza, Spain ; GTC, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research, IIS, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza, - - 2013
A methodology that combines information from several nonstationary biological signals is presented. This methodology is based on time-frequency coherence, that quantifies the similarity of two signals in the time-frequency domain. A cross time-frequency analysis method, based on quadratic time-frequency distribution, has been used for combining information of several nonstationary biomedical ...
Naik Himanshu - - 2013
Peginesatide (OMONTYS®) is an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent that was indicated in the United States for the treatment of anemia due to chronic kidney disease in adult patients on dialysis prior to its recent marketing withdrawal by the manufacturer. The objective of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic ...
Ranawaka Udaya K - - 2013
Snakebite is classified by the WHO as a neglected tropical disease. Envenoming is a significant public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions. Neurotoxicity is a key feature of some envenomings, and there are many unanswered questions regarding this manifestation. Acute neuromuscular weakness with respiratory involvement is the most clinically ...
Ichiji Kei - - 2013
To achieve a better therapeutic effect and suppress side effects for lung cancer treatments, latency involved in current radiotherapy devices is aimed to be compensated for improving accuracy of continuous (not gating) irradiation to a respiratory moving tumor. A novel prediction method of lung tumor motion is developed for compensating ...
Brüske Irene - - 2013
Applying a systematic review to identify studies eligible for meta-analysis of the association between occupational exposure to inorganic dust and the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and conducting a meta-analysis. Searches of PubMed and Embase for the time period 1970-2010 yielded 257 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on people ...
Carta Anna R - - 2013
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons and a chronic loss of motor functions. The investigation of progressive degenerative mechanisms and possible neuroprotective approaches for PD depends upon the development of an experimental animal model that reproduces the neuropathology observed in humans. This chapter ...
Barbini Paolo P Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche, Università di Siena, Viale Mario Bracci 12, 53100 Siena, - - 2013
A nonlinear dynamic model is proposed to reproduce and interpret the influence of pulmonary inhomogeneities on the single-breath nitrogen washout (SBNW) curve. The model is characterized by two parallel zones. In each zone, the upper airways are described by a Rohrer resistor. Intermediate airways are represented as a collapsible segment, ...
Jud C - - 2013
Due to the constant expansion within the nanotechnology industry in the last decade, nanomaterials are omnipresent in society today. Nanotechnology-based products have numerous different applications ranging from electronic (e.g., advanced memory chips) to industrial (e.g., coatings or composites) to biomedical (e.g., drug delivery systems, diagnostics). Although these new nanomaterials can ...
McKenzie Casey W - - 2013
Lower airway abnormalities are common in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a pediatric syndrome that results from structural or functional defects in motile cilia. Patients can suffer from recurrent bacterial infection in the lung, bronchiectasis, and respiratory distress in addition to chronic sinusitis, otitis media, infertility, and laterality defects. ...
O'Sullivan Odhran S - - 2012
We tested whether snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora) trees growing in thermally contrasting environments exhibit generalizable temperature (T)-response functions of leaf respiration (R) and fluorescence (F(o) ). Measurements were made on pot-grown saplings and field-grown trees (growing between 1380-2110 m asl). Using a continuous, high-resolution protocol, we: quantified T-response curves of ...
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