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Zhang Lixun - - 2013
Data used to assess acute health effects from air pollution typically have good temporal but poor spatial resolution or the opposite. A modified longitudinal model was developed that sought to improve resolution in both domains by bringing together data from three sources to estimate daily levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO ...
Kleinstreuer Clement - - 2013
This is a two-part paper describing inhaled nanoparticle (NP) transport and deposition in a model of a human respiratory tract (Part I) as well as NP-mass transfer across barriers into systemic regions (Part II). Specifically, combining high-resolution computer simulation results of inhaled NP deposition in the human airways (Part I) ...
Paes Bosco A BA From the *Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; and †Surveillance Unit, Public Health Services, Hamilton, Ontario, - - 2013
In Ontario, Canada, the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis period onset is defined by a fixed-date set provincially each year and offset by local hospital RSV admission activity. Inaccurate timing can result in inadequate or more costly prophylaxis. RSV positivity (2002/03 to 2010/11) was obtained from a local database. RSV ...
Strother James A - - 2013
The gills of most teleost fishes are covered by plate-like structures, the secondary lamellae, that provide the bulk of the respiratory surface area. Water passing over the secondary lamellae exchanges gases with blood passing through the secondary lamellae, forming a system that has served as a classic model of counter-current ...
Kretschmer Jörn - - 2013
Mathematical models can be deployed to simulate physiological processes of the human organism. Exploiting these simulations, reactions of a patient to changes in the therapy regime can be predicted. Based on these predictions, medical decision support systems (MDSS) can help in optimizing medical therapy. An MDSS designed to support mechanical ...
Pedersen Marie - - 2013
Spatially-resolved air pollution models can be developed in large areas. The resulting increased exposure contrasts and population size offer opportunities to better characterize the effect of atmospheric pollutants on respiratory health. However the heterogeneity of these areas may also enhance the potential for confounding. We aimed to discuss some analytical ...
Nadler Arie - - 2013
On the basis of expectation states theory and Weiner's attributional model of help giving (Weiner, 1980), we predicted that low-status help seekers would be viewed as chronically dependent and their need as due to lack of ability, leading to the giving of dependency-oriented help (i.e., full solution to the problem). ...
de Oliveira Jéssica F F - - 2013
Among the options for treatment of diseases affecting the respiratory system, especially asthma, drug delivering systems for intranasal application represent an important therapeutic approach at the site of inflammation. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of biodegradable microparticles formed by poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) containing encapsulated pomegranate ...
Vangheluwe Marnix L U - - 2013
Within the framework of European Union chemical legislations an extensive data set on the chronic toxicity of sediment nickel has been generated. In the initial phase of testing, tests were conducted with 8 taxa of benthic invertebrates in 2 nickel-spiked sediments, including one 'reasonable worst-case' (RWC) sediment with low concentrations ...
Amaral Jorge L M - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to develop an automatic classifier to increase the accuracy of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) for diagnosing early respiratory abnormalities in smoking patients. The data consisted of FOT parameters obtained from 56 volunteers, 28 healthy and 28 smokers with low tobacco consumption. Many supervised ...
Yang Qingping Q Institute for Wound Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Florida, Gainesville, - - 2013
Bacterial biofilms have been proposed to be a major factor contributing to the failure of chronic wounds to heal because of their increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents and the prolonged inflammation they cause. Phenotypic characteristics of bacterial biofilms vary depending on the substratum to which they attach, the nutritional environment, ...
Gipson Tanjala T TT Tanjala T Gipson, Gwendolyn Gerner, Michael V Johnston, Tuberous Sclerosis Clinic, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD 21205, United - - 2013
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two mechanism-based treatments for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-everolimus and vigabatrin. However, these treatments have not been systematically studied in individuals with TSC and severe autism. The aim of this review is to identify the clinical features of severe autism in TSC, applicable ...
Costilla-Esquivel A - - 2013
SUMMARY Weekly data from 7 years (2004-2010) of primary-care counts of acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) and local weather readings were used to adjust a multivariate time-series vector error correction model with covariates (VECMX). Weather variables were included through a partial least squares index that consisted of weekly minimum temperature (coefficient = - 0·26), ...
Kubáň Petr - - 2013
Exhaled breath condensate is a promising, non-invasive, diagnostic sample obtained by condensation of exhaled breath. Starting from a historical perspective of early attempts of breath testing towards the contemporary state-of-the-art breath analysis, this review article focuses mainly on the progress in determination of non-volatile compounds in exhaled breath condensate. The ...
Ismail M - - 2013
In this paper, we develop a total lung model based on a tree of 0D airway and acinar models for studying respiratory mechanics during spontaneous breathing. This model utilizes both computer tomography-based geometries and artificially generated lobe-filling airway trees to model the entire conducting region of the lung. Beyond the ...
Marsh J W - - 2013
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) treats clearance of materials from the respiratory tract as a competitive process between absorption into blood and particle transport to the alimentary tract and lymphatics. The ICRP recommended default absorption rates for lead and polonium (Type ...
Redlarski Grzegorz - - 2013
This paper presents a new versatile approach to model severe human respiratory diseases via computer simulation. The proposed approach enables one to predict the time histories of various diseases via information accessible in medical publications. This knowledge is useful to bioengineers involved in the design and construction of medical devices ...
Strelan Peter - - 2013
We took an individual differences approach to explain revenge tendencies in powerholders. Across four experimental studies, chronically powerless individuals sought more revenge than chronically powerful individuals following a high power episode (Studies 1 and 2), when striking a powerful pose (Study 3), and when making a powerful hand gesture (Study ...
Shaikh Mohd Farooq - - 2013
Luteolin, a common plant polyphenolic flavonoid, has antioxidant, neuroprotective, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory properties, which led us to hypothesize that luteolin is anticonvulsant. Here, we evaluated the effects of acute and chronic luteolin injection (i.p.) in four mouse seizure models, the 6Hz model, maximal electroshock test (MEST), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and second ...
Goodman Julie E - - 2013
The US EPA is evaluating controlled human ozone exposure studies to determine the adequacy of the current ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 75 ppb. These studies have shown that ozone exposures of 80 ppb and greater are associated with lung function decrements. Here, we critically review studies with ...
Shaha Rajib Krishna - - 2013
Variation in the morphology of the insect tracheal system can strongly affect respiratory physiology, with implications for everything from pest control to evolution of insect body size. However, the small size of most insects has made measuring the morphology of their tracheal systems difficult. Historical approaches including light microscopy and ...
Fernando Jeffry Bonar - - 2013
A new method to estimate respiratory signal from thoracic impedance is proposed. To realize battery powered, wearable respiratory monitoring devices, low current impedance measurement techniques are desired. However, under low current conditions, conventional methods to separate cardiac and respiratory signals do not work well as the cardiac signal is much ...
Giannakakis Giorgos - - 2013
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases and the most common neurological chronic disease of childhood. The electroencephalogram (EEG) signal provides significant information neurologists take into consideration in the investigation and analysis of epileptic seizures. The Approximate Entropy (ApEn) is a formulated statistical parameter commonly used to ...
van Drunen Erwin J - - 2013
Modelling the respiratory mechanics of mechanically ventilated (MV) patients can provide useful information to guide MV therapy. Two model-based methods were evaluated based on data from three experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced piglets and validated against values available from ventilators. A single compartment lung model with integral-based parameter ...
Gaudenzi Fabrizio - - 2013
The aim of this work was to develop a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system and to couple it with a model of respiratory mechanics. In comparison to existing models, modifications and additions have been implemented to include a model of the upper limb vasculature employing the electrical analogy ...
Giraldo Beatriz F - - 2013
One of the most challenging problems in intensive care is still the process of discontinuing mechanical ventilation, called weaning process. Both an unnecessary delay in the discontinuation process and a weaning trial that is undertaken too early are undesirable. In this study, we analyzed respiratory pattern variability using the respiratory ...
Pimentel Marco A F - - 2013
The presence of respiratory information within the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is a well-documented phenomenon. We present a Gaussian process framework for the estimation of respiratory rate from the different sources of modulation in a single-lead ECG. We propose a periodic covariance function to model the frequency- and amplitude-modulation time series ...
Schranz Christoph - - 2013
Patient-specific mathematical models of respiratory mechanics enable substantial insight into patient state and pulmonary dynamics that are not directly measurable. Thus they offer potential e.g. to predict the outcome of ventilator settings for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) patients. In this work, an existing static recruitment model is extended by ...
Nguyen Quang-Thang - - 2013
Automatic monitoring of mechanical ventilation system becomes more and more important with respect to the number of patients per clinician. In this paper, the automatic detections of dynamic hyperinflation (PEEPi) and asynchrony in a monitoring framework are considered. The proposed detection methods are based on a robust non-parametric hypothesis testing, ...
Kuprat A P AP Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, - - 2013
In this study, we present a novel multiscale computational framework for efficiently linking multiple lower-dimensional models describing the distal lung mechanics to imaging-based 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the upper pulmonary airways in order to incorporate physiologically appropriate outlet boundary conditions. The framework is an extension of the ...
Lu Shubiao - - 2013
Purpose: In recent years, a variety of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) evaluation systems have been developed worldwide; however, they are not so convenient for the doctors clinically, we decided to establish and evaluate a simplified evaluation system of ARDS (SESARDS). Materials and Methods: Data from 140 ARDS patients (derivation ...
Bartula Marek - - 2013
Reliable, remote measurement of respiration rate is still an unmet need in clinical and home settings. Although the predictive power of respiratory rate for a patient's health status is well-known, this vital sign is often measured inaccurately or not at all. In this paper we propose a camera-based monitoring system ...
Chan Alexander M - - 2013
Continuous monitoring of respiratory rate in ambulatory conditions has widespread applications for screening of respiratory diseases and remote patient monitoring. Unfortunately, minimally obtrusive techniques often suffer from low accuracy. In this paper, we describe an algorithm with low computational complexity for combining multiple respiratory measurements to estimate breathing rate from ...
Goeldner Byrne Karri - - 2013
This paper reviews advances in the development and use of two evidence-based assessment toolkits: the Seed System Security Assessment (SSSA) and the Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis (EMMA). Both were created in the past five years and have been employed in a range of acute and chronic stress contexts across ...
van Drunen Erwin J - - 2013
Model-based methods can be used to characterise patient-specific condition and response to mechanical ventilation (MV) during treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Conventional metrics of respiratory mechanics are based on inspiration only, neglecting data from the expiration cycle. However, it is hypothesised that expiratory data can be used to ...
Nahar Kamrun - - 2013
Delivery of therapeutic agents via the pulmonary route has gained significant attention over the past few decades because this route of administration offers multiple advantages over traditional routes that include localized action, non-invasive nature and favorable lung-to- plasma ratio. However, assessment of post administration behavior of inhaled pharmaceuticals-such as deposition ...
Sverdlova N S - - 2013
Respiratory evaporative cooling is an important mechanism of temperature control in bird. A computational simulation of the breathing cycle, heat and water loss in anatomical avian trachea/air sac model has not previously been conducted. We report a first attempt to simulate a breathing cycle in a three-dimensional model of avian ...
Claeys Lieve - - 2013
Vertebrate testing under REACH is discouraged and the use of alternative non-testing approaches such as QSARs (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships) is encouraged. However, robust QSARs predicting chronic ecotoxicity of organic compounds to fish are not available. The Ecological Structure Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) Class Program is a computerized predictive system that ...
Guillam Marie-Thérèse - - 2013
Objectives. The airborne contaminant exposure levels experienced by poultry farmers have raised concerns about the possible health hazards associated with them. Thus, a longitudinal project was instituted in France to monitor these exposures in poultry workers and to evaluate the long-term effect on health. Method. Sixty-three workers in two different ...
Voscopoulos Christopher - - 2013
BACKGROUND:Currently there is no technology that noninvasively measures the adequacy of ventilation in nonintubated patients. A novel, noninvasive Respiratory Volume Monitor (RVM) has been developed to continuously measure and display minute ventilation (MV), tidal volume (TV), and respiratory rate (RR) in a variety of clinical settings. We demonstrate the RVM's ...
Gómez-Barroso D D Consorcio de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Epidemiología y Salud Pública, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid, Spain. - - 2013
The characteristics of respiratory tuberculosis (TB) favour the appearance of clusters of cases in space and time. It is important for public health authorities to know which clusters occur randomly and which merit further investigation. To detect spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of respiratory TB in Spain during the period from ...
Habre Walid - - 2013
Anaesthesia management of patients with airway susceptibility remains a challenge in daily clinical practice due to the increased risk of perioperative bronchospasm. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms participating in the interaction between anaesthetic drugs and the lungs is essential in providing the optimal care for patients with chronic lung diseases. Experimental ...
Lerch Markus M - - 2013
Animal models of acute and chronic pancreatitis have been created to examine mechanisms of pathogenesis, test therapeutic interventions, and study the influence of inflammation on the development of pancreatic cancer. In vitro models can be used to study early stage, short-term processes that involve acinar cell responses. Rodent models reproducibly ...
Kanda Isao - - 2013
We developed an exposure estimation model for an epidemiological study on the effect of traffic-related air pollutants on respiratory diseases. The model estimates annual average outdoor concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC). The model is composed of three nested plume dispersion type submodels treating different spatial scales ...
García-Río Francisco - - 2013
Spirometry is the main pulmonary function test and is essential for the evaluation and monitoring of respiratory diseases. Its utility transcends the field of Respiratory Medicine, is becoming increasingly important in primary care and applications have even been described outside the field of respiratory diseases. This document is therefore intended ...
Kuo Dave T F - - 2013
The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of neutral and weakly polar organic chemicals in fish is modeled using independently calibrated models of chemical partitioning (φsys , KFW ), respiratory exchange (k1 , k2  = k1 /KFW ), and biotransformation (kM ) as BCF = φsys KFW /(1 + kM /k2 ). Existing k1 models tend to overestimate ...
Verbanck Sylvia - - 2013
Severe convective ventilation heterogeneity occurring in CF lung disease requires a modified method to determine acinar and conductive components of ventilation heterogeneity from normalized phaseIII slope (Sn) curves. Modified Sacin* and Scond* (as opposed to standard Sacin and Scond) are proposed and interpreted on the basis of 2 conceptual mechanisms: ...
Ernst F - - 2013
In robotic radiosurgery, it is necessary to compensate for systematic latencies arising from target tracking and mechanical constraints. This compensation is usually achieved by means of an algorithm which computes the future target position. In most scientific works on respiratory motion prediction, only one or two algorithms are evaluated on ...
Al-Jayyoussi Ghaith - - 2013
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated efflux is recognised to alter the absorption and disposition of a diverse range of substrates. Despite evidence showing the presence of P-gp within the lung, relatively little is known about the transporter's effect upon the absorption and distribution of drugs delivered via the pulmonary route. Here, we ...
Plataki Maria - - 2013
Control of ventilation dictates various breathing patterns. The respiratory control system consists of a central pattern generator and several feedback mechanisms that act to maintain ventilation at optimal levels. The concept of loop gain has been employed to describe its stability and variability. Synthesizing all interactions under a general model ...
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