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Edmunds Peter J PJ Department of Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, United States of - - 2014
The reduction in coral cover on many contemporary tropical reefs suggests a different set of coral community assemblages will dominate future reefs. To evaluate the capacity of reef corals to persist over various time scales, we examined coral community dynamics in contemporary, fossil, and simulated future coral reef ecosystems. Based ...
Paynter Stuart S School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, - - 2014
We used a mathematical transmission model to estimate when ecological drivers of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) transmissibility would need to act in order to produce the observed seasonality of RSV in the Philippines. We estimated that a seasonal peak in transmissibility would need to occur approximately 51 days prior to ...
Yao Yu - - 2014
The current rise in popularity of ballisto-cardiography-related research has led to the development of new sensor concepts and recording methods. Measuring the ballistocardiogram using bed mounted pressure sensors opens up new possibilities for home monitoring applications. The signals measured with these sensors contain a mixture of cardiac and respiratory components, ...
Rando Roy J - - 2014
In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, which devastated the city of New Orleans in August 2005, restoration workers were at risk for respiratory illness from exposure to airborne particles and microbial agents. In support of an epidemiologic investigation of this risk, an exposure assessment for restoration work activities (demolition, trash ...
Wang Allen Y AY Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. - - 2014
Tympanic membrane perforations (TMP) are relatively common but are typically not treated in their acute stage, as most will heal spontaneously in 7-10 days. Those cases which fail to heal within 3 months are called chronic TMP which attract surgical intervention (e.g. myringoplasty), typically with a temporalis fascia autograft. New materials for ...
Chan King Pan KP School of Publish Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, - - 2014
Poisson model has been widely applied to estimate the disease burden of influenza, but there has been little success in providing reliable estimates for other respiratory viruses. We compared the estimates of excess hospitalization rates derived from the Poisson models with different combinations of inference methods and virus proxies respectively, ...
Keomani Emilie E UFR des sciences de la santé - Simone Veil, Université de Versailles - - 2014
A cervical spinal cord injury induces permanent paralysis, and often leads to respiratory distress. To date, no efficient therapeutics have been developed to improve/ameliorate the respiratory failure following high cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we propose a murine pre-clinical model of high SCI at the cervical 2 (C2) metameric ...
Santos R M C RM Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética e Melhoramento, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brasil - - 2014
Two accessions of ornamental pepper Capsicum annuum L., differing in most of the characters studied, were crossed, resulting in the F1 generation, and the F2 generation was obtained through self-fertilization of the F1 generation. The backcross generations RC1 and RC2 were obtained through crossing between F1 and the parents P1 ...
Liu Yuan Y School of Digital Media, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, - - 2014
Network anomaly detection has been focused on by more people with the fast development of computer network. Some researchers utilized fusion method and DS evidence theory to do network anomaly detection but with low performance, and they did not consider features of network-complicated and varied. To achieve high detection rate, ...
Manson Joseph H JH Department of Anthropology & Center for Behavior, Evolution and Culture, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of - - 2014
The determinants of conversational dominance are not well understood. We used videotaped triadic interactions among unacquainted same-sex American college students to test predictions drawn from the theoretical distinction between dominance and prestige as modes of human status competition. Specifically, we investigated the effects of physical formidability, facial attractiveness, social status, ...
Jackson Charlotte C Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Statistics, Modelling and Economics Department, Public Health England, London, United - - 2014
Changes in children's contact patterns between termtime and school holidays affect the transmission of several respiratory-spread infections. Transmission of varicella zoster virus (VZV), the causative agent of chickenpox, has also been linked to the school calendar in several settings, but temporal changes in the proportion of young children attending childcare ...
Molnár F F Jr 1] Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY, 12180-3590 USA [2] Social Cognitive Networks Academic Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY, 12180-3590 - - 2014
We study ensemble-based graph-theoretical methods aiming to approximate the size of the minimum dominating set (MDS) in scale-free networks. We analyze both analytical upper bounds of dominating sets and numerical realizations for applications. We propose two novel probabilistic dominating set selection strategies that are applicable to heterogeneous networks. One of ...
Wolfe Rory R School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, - - 2014
Statistics sits right at the heart of scientific endeavour in respiratory medicine and many other disciplines. In this introductory article, some key epidemiological concepts such as representativeness, random sampling, association and causation, and confounding are reviewed. A brief introduction to basic statistics covering topics such as frequentist methods, confidence intervals, ...
Xi Jinxiang J School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan, United States of - - 2014
Exhaled aerosol patterns, also called aerosol fingerprints, provide clues to the health of the lung and can be used to detect disease-modified airway structures. The key is how to decode the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and retrieve the lung structural information for a non-invasive identification of respiratory diseases. In this study, ...
Fekr Atena Roshan AR Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, 3480 University Street Montreal H3A 0E9, Canada. - - 2014
The measurement of human respiratory signals is crucial in cyberbiological systems. A disordered breathing pattern can be the first symptom of different physiological, mechanical, or psychological dysfunctions. Therefore, a real-time monitoring of the respiration patterns, as well as respiration rate is a critical need in medical applications. There are several ...
Khemani Robinder G RG Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Anesthesia and Critical - - 2013
Ventilator management for children with hypoxemic respiratory failure may benefit from ventilator protocols, which rely on blood gases. Accurate non-invasive estimates for pH or PaCO2 could allow frequent ventilator changes to optimize lung protective ventilation strategies. If these models are highly accurate, they can facilitate the development of closed-loop ventilator ...
Mohery M - - 2013
In this study, the individual activity concentrations of attached short-lived radon decay products ((218)Po, (214)Pb and (214)Po) in aerosol particles were measured in ten poorly ventilated realistic living rooms. Using standard methodologies, the samples were collected using a filter holder technique connected with alpha-spectrometric. The mean value of air activity ...
Yang Jiachen - - 2013
End-tidal partial pressure of [Formula: see text] is an important index in clinical monitoring. Medical mainstream capnography has become widely used, but there are still limitations in accuracy and stability. A type of mainstream capnometer based on the principle of non-dispersive infrared was designed. This capnometer inhibits signal drift by ...
Pilou Marika - - 2013
Abstract The objectives of modeling in this work were (a) the integration of two existing numerical models in order to connect external exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) with internal dose through inhalation, and (b) to use computational fluid-particle dynamics (CFPD) to analyze the behavior of NPs in the respiratory and the ...
Chaudry Beenish Moalla BM School of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University, 901 E. 10th St., 47408 Bloomington, IN, - - 2013
Chronically ill people, especially those with low literacy skills, often have difficulty estimating portion sizes of liquids to help them stay within their recommended fluid limits. There is a plethora of mobile applications that can help people monitor their nutritional intake but unfortunately these applications require the user to have ...
Ionescu Clara M - - 2013
In this work, a re-visited model of the respiratory system is proposed. Identification of a recurrent electrical ladder network model of the lungs, which incorporates their specific morphology and anatomical structure, is performed on 31 healthy subjects. The data for identification has been gathered using the forced oscillation lung function ...
Nam Yunyoung - - 2013
This paper presents a method for respiratory rate estimation using the camera of a smartphone, an MP3 player or a tablet. The iPhone 4S, iPad 2, iPod 5, and Galaxy S3 were used to estimate respiratory rates from the pulse signal derived from a finger placed on the camera lens ...
Stedman-Smith Maggie - - 2013
The workplace is an important location to access community members, and employers have a direct interest in employee well-being. A survey administered to a random sample of employees at a Midwestern US university tested the ability of a model informed by the theory of planned behavior to predict hand hygiene ...
Morgan Beth - - 2013
Regulatory agencies, industry, and academia have acknowledged that in vitro assessments serve a role in establishing bioequivalence for second-entry drug product approvals as well as innovator post-approval drug product changes. For orally inhaled respiratory products (OIPs), the issues of correctly analyzing in vitro data and interpreting the results within the ...
Heinemeyer Andreas A Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI-York centre) at the Environment Department, University of York York, YO10 5DD, - - 2013
Measuring and modeling carbon (C) stock changes in terrestrial ecosystems are pivotal in addressing global C-cycling model uncertainties. Difficulties in detecting small short-term changes in relatively large C stocks require the development of robust sensitive flux measurement techniques. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) ground-level chambers are increasingly used to assess C ...
Usman Muhammad M King's College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, British Heart Foundation (BHF) Centre of Excellence, Medical Engineering Centre of Research Excellence, London, United - - 2013
To present and validate a manifold learning (ML)-based method that estimates the respiratory signal directly from undersampled k-space data and that can be applied for respiratory self-gated liver MRI. ML methods embed high-dimensional space data in a low-dimensional space while preserving their characteristic properties. These methods have been used to ...
Reus Astrid A - - 2013
The respiratory route is an important portal for human exposure to a large variety of substances. Consequently, there is an urgent need for realistic in vitro strategies for evaluation of the absorption of airborne substances with regard to safety and efficacy assessment. The present study investigated feasibility of a 3D ...
Ochs Matthias - - 2013
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common lung diseases. The major component of COPD, which affects the gas-exchanging parenchyma of the lung, emphysema, is characterized by destruction of alveolar septae leading to loss of functional surface, loss of alveoli and enlargement of remaining distal airspaces. These ...
García-Prieto E - - 2013
Monitoring during mechanical ventilation allows the measurement of different parameters of respiratory mechanics. Accurate interpretation of these data can be useful for characterizing the situation of the different components of the respiratory system, and for guiding ventilator settings. In this review, we describe the basic concepts of respiratory mechanics, their ...
Moss-Morris Rona - - 2013
What is already known? Adapting to chronic illness is a phrase commonly used in health psychology. Common operationalizations include presence or absence of psychopathology, or low negative affect and good functional status. A variety of models are currently used to study adaptation to chronic illness. Each explain some variance in ...
Peiris David - - 2013
We assessed how accurately a common general practitioner (GP) audit tool extracts data from two software systems. First, pathology test codes were audited at 33 practices covering nine companies. Second, a manual audit of chronic disease data from 200 random patient records at two practices was compared with audit tool ...
Simonsen Lone - - 2013
Assessing the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza A H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm09) is essential for optimizing public health responses to future pandemics. The World Health Organization reported 18,631 laboratory-confirmed pandemic deaths, but the total pandemic mortality burden was substantially higher. We estimated the 2009 pandemic mortality burden through statistical modeling ...
Lai Poh-Chin - - 2013
This study describes the development of a spatio-temporal disease model based on the episodes of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that took place in Hong Kong in 2003. In contrast to conventional, deterministic modelling approaches, the model described here is predominantly spatial. It incorporates stochastic processing of environmental and social ...
Carreras Marc - - 2013
In many developed countries, the economic crisis started in 2008 producing a serious contraction of the financial resources spent on healthcare. Identifying which individuals will require more resources and the moment in their lives these resources have to be allocated becomes essential. It is well known that a small number ...
Löndahl Jakob - - 2013
Abstract Determination of the respiratory tract deposition of airborne particles is critical for risk assessment of air pollution, inhaled drug delivery, and understanding of respiratory disease. With the advent of nanotechnology, there has been an increasing interest in the measurement of pulmonary deposition of nanoparticles because of their unique properties ...
Dall'agnol Leonardo T - - 2013
Sulphate Reducing Prokaryotes (SRP) are an important group of microorganisms involved in biocorrosion processes. Sulphide production is recognized as a fundamental cause of corrosion and nitrate is often used as treatment. The present work analyses the influence of respiratory substrates in the metal, from off-shore installations, SRP influenced corrosion, using ...
Nys Charlotte - - 2013
While it is increasingly being recognized that biotic ligand models (BLM) are valuable in the risk assessment of metals in aquatic systems, the development of chronic BLMs for lead (Pb) has been less advanced than for other metals. Here, we investigated the univariate effects of Ca and pH on chronic ...
Nautrup B Poulsen - - 2013
The goal of this study was to determine the clinical and economic impact of using tulathromycin as first line treatment for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) compared with other commonly used antimicrobials. Two decision trees were developed simulating the consequences of treating cattle at high risk of developing BRD (Control Model, ...
Schroeter Jeffry D - - 2013
Abstract Anatomically accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the nasal passages of an infant (6 months old, 1.3 kg) and adult (7 years old, 11.9 kg) rhesus monkey were used to predict nasal deposition of inhaled nano- and microparticles. Steady-state, inspiratory airflow simulations were conducted at flow rates equal to 100, ...
Bennett R M - - 2013
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a bacterium that causes respiratory disease in chickens, leading to reduced egg production. A dynamic simulation model was developed that can be used to assess the costs and benefits of control using antimicrobials or vaccination in caged or free range systems. The intended users are veterinarians ...
Seppänen Tiina M - - 2013
Respiratory effort belt measurement is a widely used method to monitor respiration. Signal waveforms of respiratory volume and flow may indicate pathological signs of several diseases and, thus, it would be highly desirable to predict them accurately. Calibrated effort belts are sufficiently accurate for estimating respiratory rate, but the respiratory ...
Vergalasova I I Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, - - 2013
A novel technique based on Fourier transform theory has been developed that directly extracts respiratory information from projections without the use of external surrogates. While the feasibility has been demonstrated with three patients, a more extensive validation is necessary. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to investigate the effects ...
Smith Jennifer R H - - 2013
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Task Group that developed the Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection (HRTM) identified a lack of published information on aspects of the clearance of inhaled particles deposited in the human nasal passage. Using the results of a recent human volunteer study on ...
Koh Andrew Y - - 2013
Ninety-five percent of infectious agents enter through exposed mucosal surfaces, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is colonized with trillions of commensal microbes, including numerous Candida spp. Some commensal microbes in the GI tract can cause serious human infections under specific circumstances, typically involving ...
Ben-Tal Alona A Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University Albany, Auckland, New - - 2013
Mathematical models have been central to understanding the interaction between neural control and breathing. Models of the entire respiratory system-which comprises the lungs and the neural circuitry that controls their ventilation-have been derived using simplifying assumptions to compartmentalize each component of the system and to define the interactions between components. ...
Goolsby Eric W - - 2013
Ceriodaphnia dubia were tested to evaluate the acute and chronic interactive effects of diphenhydramine and sertraline. Observed effects were compared to two reference toxicity models, the concentration addition model and the independent action model. Results indicate that the two drugs exhibit additive toxicity in C. dubia. In some cases, individually ...
Boom Merel M Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The - - 2013
Integrating opioid risk and benefit into a single function may give a useful single measure of the opioid's positive and negative effects. An explorative study on the effects of fentanyl on antinociception and respiratory depression was performed to construct fentanyl risk-benefit (utility) functions. Twelve volunteers received a 3.5-μg/kg fentanyl intravenous ...
Boom Merel - - 2013
Integrating opioid risk and benefit into a single function may give a useful single measure of the opioid's positive and negative effects. An explorative study on the effects of fentanyl on antinociception and respiratory depression was performed to construct fentanyl risk-benefit (utility) functions. Twelve volunteers received a 3.5-μg/kg fentanyl intravenous ...
Dahlem Markus A - - 2013
Computational methods have complemented experimental and clinical neurosciences and led to improvements in our understanding of the nervous systems in health and disease. In parallel, neuromodulation in form of electric and magnetic stimulation is gaining increasing acceptance in chronic and intractable diseases. In this paper, we firstly explore the relevant ...
Kang Seok-Won - - 2013
A respiratory monitoring system has been developed for analyzing the carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) concentrations in the expired air using gas sensors. The data can be used to estimate some medical conditions, including diffusion capability of the lung membrane, oxygen uptake, and carbon dioxide output. For this purpose, ...
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