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Blanton Hart - - 2006
Theories that posit multiplicative relationships between variables are common in psychology. A. G. Greenwald et al. recently presented a theory that explicated relationships between group identification, group attitudes, and self-esteem. Their theory posits a multiplicative relationship between concepts when predicting a criterion variable. Greenwald et al. suggested analytic strategies to ...
Rips Lance J - - 2006
This article considers how people judge the identity of objects (e.g., how people decide that a description of an object at one time, t(0), belongs to the same object as a description of it at another time, t(1)). The authors propose a causal continuer model for these judgments, based on ...
Lin Z - - 2006
A two-pronged approach to interpreting field data through the use of models is presented. This approach builds upon both data- and theory-based models and their associated methods of system identification. It seeks to overcome their respective limitations: that theory-based models are not unambiguously identifiable from the observations, while a well ...
Midgley Nicholas - - 2006
Psychoanalysts have long recognized the complex interaction between clinical data and formal psychoanalytic theories. While clinical data are often used to provide "evidence" for psychoanalytic paradigms, the theoretical model used by the analyst also structures what can and cannot be seen in the data. This delicate interaction between theory and ...
Rickles William H - - 2006
A model of the mind, utilizing constructs from object relations theory, is developed that bridges the conceptual gap between brain functions, influenced by the chemical milieu interior, and the psychodynamic construction of states of mind. A theory of self-regulation and regulation of the self is derived from the archaic mutual ...
Johnston Ruth D - - 2006
In this essay I propose to investigate the interarticulation of race/ethnicity and gender at two fin de siècle moments: the conceptualization of the Oedipus complex at the turn of the twentieth century and the conceptualization of gender as performative in contemporary queer theory. Though these gender constructions contrast strikingly with ...
Ball Linden J - - 2006
Studies of syllogistic reasoning have demonstrated a nonlogical tendency for people to endorse more believable conclusions than unbelievable ones. This belief bias effect is more dominant on invalid syllogisms than valid ones, giving rise to a logic by belief interaction. We report an experiment in which participants' eye movements were ...
Aftanas Marion S - - 2006
All measurement involves some system or mechanism for deriving metric information and yet definitions and theories of the process in psychology have not emphasized this element. The theory of standard systems, on the other hand, introduces the system as the foundational element in the measurement process. When combined with a ...
Victor Jonathan D - - 2006
Understanding how neurons represent, process, and manipulate information is one of the main goals of neuroscience. These issues are fundamentally abstract, and information theory plays a key role in formalizing and addressing them. However, application of information theory to experimental data is fraught with many challenges. Meeting these challenges has ...
Stamovlasis Dimitrios - - 2006
The current study tests the nonlinear dynamical hypothesis in science education problem solving by applying catastrophe theory. Within the neo-Piagetian framework a cusp catastrophe model is proposed, which accounts for discontinuities in students' performance as a function of two controls: the functional M-capacity as asymmetry and the degree of field ...
Horowitz Y S - - 2006
In this paper some of the many theoretical models dealing with characteristics of TL materials are discussed. Special attention is given to some of the models dealing with the effects of ionisation density, that is Modified Track Structure Theory (MTST) and Microdosimetric Track Structure Theory (MTT) for the calculation of ...
Kondraske George V GV Human Performance Inst., Texas Univ., Arlington, TX 76019-0180, USA. - - 2006
A number of clinical and research situations arise that require the integration of complex, multi-dimensional, performance-related information to determine a single quantity such as "disease severity" or "risk level" (for subsequent development of a disease). This process is generally carried out either by relying on a subjective gestalt approach or ...
Dooris Mark - - 2006
This paper starts by briefly reviewing the history, theory and practice of the settings approach to promoting public health--highlighting its ecological perspective, its understanding of settings as dynamic open systems and its primary focus on whole system organization development and change. It goes on to outline perceived benefits and consider ...
Earl David J - - 2005
We review the history of the parallel tempering simulation method. From its origins in data analysis, the parallel tempering method has become a standard workhorse of physicochemical simulations. We discuss the theory behind the method and its various generalizations. We mention a selected set of the many applications that have ...
Stern Hal S - - 2005
I. Klugkist, O. Laudy, and H. Hoijtink (2005) presented a Bayesian approach to analysis of variance models with inequality constraints. Constraints may play 2 distinct roles in data analysis. They may represent prior information that allows more precise inferences regarding parameter values, or they may describe a theory to be ...
Smith Gregory T - - 2005
To validate a measure of a construct is to validate a theory: The process includes theory specification, theory elaboration, choice of methods, choice of research design, reliance on necessary auxiliary theories, and empirical observation. Evaluating the success of the process is likely to be enhanced through quantification. To date, scientists ...
Klugkist Irene - - 2005
Researchers often have one or more theories or expectations with respect to the outcome of their empirical research. When researchers talk about the expected relations between variables if a certain theory is correct, their statements are often in terms of one or more parameters expected to be larger or smaller ...
Haig Brian D - - 2005
A broad theory of scientific method is sketched that has particular relevance for the behavioral sciences. This theory of method assembles a complex of specific strategies and methods that are used in the detection of empirical phenomena and the subsequent construction of explanatory theories. A characterization of the nature of ...
Klugkist Irene - - 2005
In this response to Stern's (2005) discussion of Klugkist, Laudy, and Hoijtink (2005), model inference based on posterior probabilities on the parameter space is discussed. Furthermore, the authors respond to Stern's example in which all possible orderings are included via a short discussion of exploratory versus theory-based modeling. Finally, the ...
Donnelly Maureen - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to demonstrate how a formal spatial theory can be used as an important tool for disambiguating the spatial information embodied in biomedical ontologies and for enhancing their automatic reasoning capabilities. METHOD AND MATERIALS: This paper presents a formal theory of parthood and location ...
Yildirim Ilyas - - 2005
Some experimental results for the thermodynamics of RNA folding cannot be explained by simple pairwise hydrogen-bonding models. Such effects include the stabilities of isoguanosine-isocytidine (iG-iC) base pairs and of various 2 x 2 nucleotide internal loops. Presumably, these results can be explained by base stacking effects, which can be partitioned ...
Giuggioli L - - 2006
A theory is provided for the estimation of home ranges of animals from displacement measurement procedures. The theoretical tool used is the Fokker-Planck equation, its characteristic quantities being the diffusion constant which describes the motion of the animals, and the attractive potential which addresses their tendency to live in restricted ...
Kikuchi Akihiko - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Decelerations of fetal heart rate (FHR) are the results of many pathophysiological factors that modulate the intrinsic rate of the heart. FHR change is a complex phenomenon and can be viewed as a type of nonlinear dynamic system. This paper presents a qualitative model of FHR decelerations based on ...
Zachrisson Anders - - 2005
The authors discuss criteria for the validation of psychoanalytic theories and develop a heuristic and normative model of the references needed for this. Their core question in this paper is: can psychoanalytic theories be validated exclusively from within psychoanalytic theory (internal validation), or are references to sources of knowledge other ...
Leder Drew - - 2005
Over decades, consciousness research has accumulated evidence of the real and measureable existence of "spooky actions at a distance"--modes of telepathy, telekinesis, clairvoyance, and the like. More recently scientists have begun rigorous study of the effects of distant healing intention and prayer vis-a-vis nonhuman living systems and patients in clinical ...
McRae Ken - - 2005
The authors argue that the meaning through syntax (MTS) model proposed by G. McKoon and R. Ratcliff fails to account for the comprehension of sentences with reduced relative clauses. First, the theory's core assumptions regarding verb-based event representations and how they link to constructions are incompatible with well-established analyses from ...
Barrow John D - - 2005
We review properties of theories for the variation of gravitation and fine structure 'constants'. We highlight some general features of the cosmological models that exist in these theories with reference to recent quasar data that are consistent with time variation in the fine structure constant since a redshift of 3.5. ...
Nevin John A - - 2005
A model of conditional discrimination performance (Davison & Nevin, 1999) is combined with the notion that unmeasured attending to the sample and comparison stimuli, in the steady state and during disruption, depends on reinforcement in the same way as predicted for overt free-operant responding by behavioral momentum theory (Nevin & ...
Shorey Hal S - - 2005
The matrix model (C.R. Snyder & T.R. Elliott, this issue, pp. 1033-1054) advocates an increased grounding of clinical psychology graduate students in theory. The matrix model is theory-based in the ways that it advances this goal. Accordingly, evaluating the matrix model from an extant theoretical perspective should shed light on ...
Scheiner Samuel M - - 2005
A scientific field matures as its theoretical underpinnings consolidate around unified theories: conceptual structures consisting of a few general propositions that encompass a wide domain of phenomena and from which can be derived an array of models. We demonstrate this process with a synthetic theory of ecological gradients and species ...
Cutcliffe John R - - 2005
AIMS: While acknowledging that there is an existing debate regarding the nature of grounded theory, the aim of this paper is to highlight a number of common and key areas/issues where adaptation/adoption of Glaserian grounded theory in nursing-related studies often occurs. These issues are: the differences between conceptual description and ...
Olivieri Alejandro C - - 2005
Sensitivity and selectivity are important figures of merit in multiway analysis, regularly employed for comparison of the analytical performance of methods and for experimental design and planning. They are especially interesting in the second-order advantage scenario, where the latter property allows for the analysis of samples with a complex background, ...
Helton Jon C - - 2005
Safety systems are important components of high-consequence systems that are intended to prevent the unintended operation of the system and thus the potentially significant negative consequences that could result from such an operation. This presentation investigates and illustrates formal procedures for assessing the uncertainty in the probability that a safety ...
Kernick D - - 2005
Converging from a number of disciplines, non-linear systems theory and in particular chaos theory offer new descriptive and prescriptive insights into physiological systems. This paper briefly reviews an approach to physiological systems from these perspectives and outlines how these concepts can be applied to the study of migraine. It suggests ...
Shimazaki Hideaki - - 2005
We introduce a discrete multiplicative process as a generic model of competition. Players with different abilities successively join the game and compete for finite resources. Emergence of dominant players and evolutionary development occur as a phase transition. The competitive dynamics underlying this transition is understood from a formal analogy to ...
Luhmann Christian C CC Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA. - - 2005
D. Hume (1739/1987) argued that causality is not observable. P. W. Cheng (1997) claimed to present "a theoretical solution to the problem of causal induction first posed by Hume more than two and a half centuries ago" (p. 398) in the form of the power PC theory (L. R. Novick ...
Mahar Doug - - 2005
This research applied Gregson's n Gamma nonlinear model (Gregson 1988, 1992, 1995, 1998) to the process of tactile amplitude summation. Participants were presented with simultaneous pairs of vibrations and rated the total perceived intensity of the resultant percept as both the amplitude of the stimuli and their spatial separations were ...
Schwartz Jeffrey M - - 2005
Neuropsychological research on the neural basis of behaviour generally posits that brain mechanisms will ultimately suffice to explain all psychologically described phenomena. This assumption stems from the idea that the brain is made up entirely of material particles and fields, and that all causal mechanisms relevant to neuroscience can therefore ...
Keyes T - - 2005
The theory presented earlier [J. Kim and T. Keyes, Phys. Rev. E 66, 051110 (2002)] is analyzed to determine the information available from the two-dimensional Raman spectrum R((5))(t(2),t(1)) in liquids. The known spectra are well represented by the sum of two products of ordinary time correlations predicted by the theory. ...
Falck Emma - - 2005
Free area theories for lateral diffusion in lipid bilayers are reviewed and discussed. It has been suggested by Almeida et al. that free area theories yield quantitative predictions for lateral diffusion coefficients of lipids. We investigate the plausibility of this suggestion by first sketching what is to be expected of ...
Walach Harold - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM: A main problem for the acceptance of many methods belonging to the broad spectrum of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is that there is no conceivable theoretical bridge between the mainstream biomedical model and CAM theories and practice. Although empirical evidence is one important side of the ...
Troy Adam B - - 2005
This article presents a model of why individuals experience the feeling of passionate love in intimate relationships. Previous models have been limited because they do not describe the purpose and function of passionate love, do not incorporate basic emotion and personality theory, or are not applicable to help couples in ...
Hart Joshua - - 2005
On the basis of prior work integrating attachment theory and terror management theory, the authors propose a model of a tripartite security system consisting of dynamically interrelated attachment, self-esteem, and worldview processes. Four studies are presented that, combined with existing evidence, support the prediction derived from the model that threats ...
Zhao Yan - - 2005
We report tests of new (2005) and established (1999-2003) multilevel methods against essentially converged benchmark results for nonbonded interactions in benzene dimers. We found that the newly developed multicoefficient extrapolated density functional theory (DFT) methods (which combine DFT with correlated wave function methods) give better performance than multilevel methods such ...
Freedman Michael - - 2005
In this Letter, we (1) construct a one-parameter family of lattice models of interacting spins; (2) obtain their exact ground states; (3) derive a statistical-mechanical analogy which relates their ground states to O(n) loop gases; (4) show that the models are critical for d</=sqrt[2], where d parametrizes the models; (5) ...
Garnham Alan - - 2005
K. C. Klauer, J. Musch, and B. Naumer (2000; see record 2000-02818-008) presented a general multinomial model of belief bias effects in syllogistic reasoning. They claimed to map a particular mental model account of belief bias (J. V. Oakhill, P. N. Johnson-Laird, & A. Garnham, 1989; see record 1989-38845-001)) onto ...
Haynal André E - - 2005
In recent literature, Freud's relation with pioneers of psychoanalysis has been reevaluated. This paper describes the evolution of the relation between Freud and Ferenczi during their most controversial period--1925-33. The consequences of this evolution on psychoanalytic theory and practice are shown. The links between events of the protagonists' lives, their ...
Dunn Karen S - - 2005
The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to test a middle-range theory of adaptation to chronic pain that was deduced from the Roy adaptation model using structural equation modeling. The sample consisted of 200 community-dwelling older adults with a mean age of 76. The Roy adaptation model theoretical framework ...
Goodwin Geoffrey P - - 2005
Inferences about spatial, temporal, and other relations are ubiquitous. This article presents a novel model-based theory of such reasoning. The theory depends on 5 principles. (a) The structure of mental models is iconic as far as possible. (b) The logical consequences of relations emerge from models constructed from the meanings ...
Le Page Aurore - - 2005
Means-end-chain theory seeks to understand how consumers make links between products and self-relevant consequences and values. To date, means-end-chain theory has remained a descriptive process and has not been applied to predicting product choice. Within the context of cooking meat, the main objective of this research was to assess the ...
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