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Radlow Robert - - 2006
Temporal changes in the tolerance to alcohol are rarely discussed. In the behavioral theory proposed here, the rate of increase in tolerance during alcohol exposure is described by linear equations with zero intercept. These equations describe the rate of tolerance growth for acute tolerance, the rate of tolerance growth after ...
Cutcliffe J R - - 2006
The concept of hope has received attention within nursing and healthcare literature of late yet it is fair to say that despite this increased interest, considerable gaps remain in our substantive knowledge base. Particularly noticeable is the paucity of empirically derived theory regarding the principles of inspiring and instilling hope ...
Eremin Alexey - - 2006
We study the orientational relaxation of a spiral pattern around a central defect with topological strength S=+1 in free-standing smectic films. Instead of a continuous unwinding, a characteristic stick-slip relaxation is observed, where the elastic anisotropy plays the dominant role for the director anchoring in the vicinity of the defect. ...
Cutcliffe J R - - 2006
This second part of a two-part paper attempts to answer the question: do bereavement counsellors inspire hope in their clients and if so, how? Using a modified grounded theory method data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews; undertaken with a theoretical sample of bereavement counsellors and ex-clients who had ...
Chandler Danielle E - - 2006
We present experiments that are convenient and educational for measuring fluorescence lifetimes with both time- and frequency-domain methods. The sample is ruby crystal, which has a lifetime of about 3.5 milliseconds, and is easy to use as a class-room demonstration. The experiments and methods of data analysis are used in ...
Metzner Philipp - - 2006
Transition path theory (TPT) has been recently introduced as a theoretical framework to describe the reaction pathways of rare events between long lived states in complex systems. TPT gives detailed statistical information about the reactive trajectories involved in these rare events, which are beyond the realm of transition state theory ...
Marsac Patrick J - - 2006
PURPOSE: Crystallization of drugs formulated in the amorphous form may lead to reduced apparent solubility, decreased rate of dissolution and bioavailability and compromise the physical integrity of the solid dosage form. The purpose of this work was to develop thermodynamic approaches, both practical and theoretical, that will yield a better ...
McClenahan Carol - - 2007
The aim of this study was to test the utility and efficiency of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the health belief model (HBM) in predicting testicular self-examination (TSE) behaviour. A questionnaire was administered to an opportunistic sample of 195 undergraduates aged 18-39 years. Structural equation modelling indicated that, ...
Hancock Penelope A - - 2006
Spatial movement models often base movement decision rules on traditional optimal foraging theories, including ideal free distribution (IFD) theory, more recently generalized as density-dependent habitat selection (DDHS) theory, and the marginal value theorem (MVT). Thus optimal patch departure times are predicted on the basis of the density-dependent resource level in ...
Williams Paul D - - 2006
A central prediction of classical theories of senescence states that environments posing a high risk of mortality favor the evolution of rapid intrinsic deterioration, or ageing. Although widely cited as being largely corroborated by existing data, empirical support for this prediction has been mixed. Recent theory suggests that this expectation ...
Lancsar Emily - - 2006
Investigation of the 'rationality' of responses to discrete choice experiments (DCEs) has been a theme of research in health economics. Responses have been deleted from DCEs where they have been deemed by researchers to (a) be 'irrational', defined by such studies as failing tests for non-satiation, or (b) represent lexicographic ...
Knobel Mark - - 2007
Caramazza et al. [Caramazza, A., Chialant, D., Capasso, R., & Miceli, G. (2000). Separable processing of consonants and vowels. Nature, 403(6768), 428-430.] report two patients who exhibit a double dissociation between consonants and vowels in speech production. The patterning of this double dissociation cannot be explained by appealing to sub-phonemic ...
Caplan David - - 2006
Two main classes of theories of deficits in syntactic processing in aphasia have been suggested: impairments affecting specific syntactic operations and reductions in resources available for syntactic processing. This paper reviews the data upon which such theories are based and argues that they may support only the latter type of ...
Bahrami Hossein - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To apply three of the most common epidemiologic causal models for glaucoma and explain the issues pertaining to the use of them. METHODS: Three causal models will be explained: (1) counterfactual model, (2) graphical model, and (3) sufficient-component causal model. Using literature search and experts' opinions these models will ...
Elder John P JP Graduate School of Public Health Division of Health Promotion, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92123, USA. - - 2007
Social-ecological (SE) models are becoming more widely used in health behavior research. Applying SE models to the design of interventions is challenging because models must be tailor-made for each behavior and population, other theories need to be integrated into multi-level frameworks, and empirical research to guide model development is limited. ...
Daw Nathaniel D ND UCL, Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, London, WC1N3AR, UK. - - 2006
Although the responses of dopamine neurons in the primate midbrain are well characterized as carrying a temporal difference (TD) error signal for reward prediction, existing theories do not offer a credible account of how the brain keeps track of past sensory events that may be relevant to predicting future reward. ...
Harris Justin A - - 2006
This article reviews evidence and theories concerning the nature of stimulus representations in Pavlovian conditioning. It focuses on the elemental approach developed in stimulus sampling theory (R. C. Atkinson & W. K. Estes, 1963; R. R. Bush & F. Mosteller, 1951b) and extended by I. P. L. McLaren and N. ...
Dobratz Marjorie C - - 2006
Some researchers promote a triangulated or multiple-methods approach in studies that examine complex human phenomenon. Nonetheless, problems abound in combining 2 dissimilar data sets from 2 different methodologies. One way that numerical and textual data can be merged is through a research method called statistical triangulation. The purpose of this ...
Murdock Bennet - - 2006
The sum-difference theory of remembering and knowing (STREAK) provides a sophisticated account of many interactions in the remember-know (R-K) area (C. M. Rotello, N. A. Macmillan, & J. A. Reeder, 2004). It assumes 2 orthogonal strength dimensions and oblique criterion planes. Another dual-process model (J. T. Wixted & V. Stretch, ...
Baskoutas Sotirios - - 2006
Using a formulation of the Hartree-Fock formalism with the potential morphing method in the effective mass approximation, we calculate the effective band gap of Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix without the existence of polysilane, as a function of their diameter in the size range 1-3.5 nm. Our results are ...
Rehder Bob - - 2006
Several theories have been proposed regarding how causal relations among features of objects affect how those objects are classified. The assumptions of these theories were tested in 3 experiments that manipulated the causal knowledge associated with novel categories. There were 3 results. The 1st was a multiple cause effect in ...
Butz William P - - 2006
The fundamental challenge in the social sciences is moving from complicated correlations to useful prediction. Progress usually reflects an interplay between theory, data, and tools. Six areas of innovation, principally data and tools, are now pushing at the frontiers of these sciences: longitudinal data, laboratory experimentation, improved statistical methods, geographic ...
Quiñones-Cisneros Sergio E - - 2006
The friction theory (FT) approach relates the viscosity of a fluid to its equation of state (EoS), and it is known to give good results for a large number of compounds over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. Previous FT versions were restricted to use EoS of the van der ...
Stuart-Fox Devi - - 2006
Game theory models of animal contests make many non-mutually exclusive predictions, complicating empirical tests. These predictions regard the relationship between contest parameters and fighting ability, for which body size is usually used as a proxy. However, in many systems, body size may be a limited proxy since multiple traits and ...
Ash Joan S - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To describe the kinds of unintended consequences related to the implementation of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) in the outpatient setting. DESIGN: Ethnographic and interview data were collected by an interdisciplinary team over a 7 month period at four clinics. MEASUREMENTS: Instances of unintended consequences were categorized using an ...
Ferin Guillaume - - 2006
We report the development of two methods for determining the effective electroacoustic tensor of 1-3 piezocomposite material, one experimental and one theoretical based on homogenization techniques. The main aim was to compare and validate the results provided by these approaches. The slowness surfaces of bulk wave were computed in the ...
Zimmer-Gembeck Melanie J - - 2006
Guided by Self-Determination and associated theories, we examined whether adolescent (N=324, Mage=15, 52% female) competence (academic engagement and achievement) were supported by relationships at school and school fit. Aspects of relationships and school fit that were measured included adolescents' perceptions of each context as promoting autonomy, relatedness and competence. Within ...
Maloney Craig E - - 2006
Energy landscape mappings are performed for two different molecular systems under mechanical loads. Barrier heights are observed to scale as Delta U approximately delta(3/2), where delta is a residual load. Catastrophe theory predicts that this scaling should arise for vanishing delta; however, this region is irrelevant in physical processes at ...
Evans Jonathan St B T - - 2006
An extensively revised heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning is presented incorporating three principles of hypothetical thinking. The theory assumes that reasoning and judgment are facilitated by the formation of epistemic mental models that are generated one at a time (singularity principle) by preconscious heuristic processes that contextualize problems in such a ...
Goodwin Geoffrey P - - 2006
Relations can hold between relations, as in assertions such as: Cordelia loves Lear more than Goneril does. Naïve reasoners can make inferences that depend on these higher order relations, which are vital for science and mathematics, but no existing theory explains such inferences. The present paper presents a theory based ...
Lewis Edwin R - - 2006
This paper presents rational, theoretical, and empirical grounds for doubting the principle of determinism in nature and in the brain, and discusses implications of this for free will and the chaos model of the brain. Small number particle systems are practically indeterministic and may be intrinsically indeterministic. Determinism in nature ...
Oberauer Klaus - - 2006
The four dominant theories of reasoning from conditionals are translated into formal models: The theory of mental models (Johnson-Laird, P. N., & Byrne, R. M. J. (2002). Conditionals: a theory of meaning, pragmatics, and inference. Psychological Review, 109, 646-678), the suppositional theory (Evans, J. S. B. T., & Over, D. ...
Schmelzer Jürn W P - - 2006
In the theoretical interpretation of the kinetics of first-order phase transitions, thermodynamic concepts developed long ago by Gibbs are widely employed giving some basic qualitative insights into these processes. However, from a quantitative point of view, the results of such analysis, based on the classical Gibbs approach and involving in ...
Griffiths Thomas L - - 2007
People's reactions to coincidences are often cited as an illustration of the irrationality of human reasoning about chance. We argue that coincidences may be better understood in terms of rational statistical inference, based on their functional role in processes of causal discovery and theory revision. We present a formal definition ...
Furness Penny - - 2006
Facial surgery is associated with both functional difficulties and disfigurement, and there is evidence to show that psychosocial outcomes vary widely between individuals. This article reports the findings of a grounded theory study of the predictors and process of adaptation to facial surgery in adulthood. Interviews and focus groups were ...
Bocci Cristiano - - 2006
In this paper we present a geometric model for a proposal of axiomatization of Evolution Theory. For this aim, we use suitable tools of Geometry and Topology. In particular, we define the concept of fertility factor as a main instrument for the studying of speciation. This concept, in our opinion, ...
Iung Christophe - - 2006
We calculated highly excited states of the HFCO molecule, comparing results from two methods. In the first method, Van Vleck perturbation theory is used to transform away all off-diagonal couplings except those between nearly degenerate states. This perturbative transformation leads to a matrix representation where eigenvalues are obtained with relatively ...
Burtsev Mikhail - - 2006
One of the greatest challenges in the modern biological and social sciences is to understand the evolution of cooperative behaviour. General outlines of the answer to this puzzle are currently emerging as a result of developments in the theories of kin selection, reciprocity, multilevel selection and cultural group selection. The ...
Clark James S - - 2006
Together, graphical models and the Bayesian paradigm provide powerful new tools that promise to change the way that environmental science is done. The capacity to merge theory with mechanistic understanding and empirical evidence, to assimilate diverse sources of information and to accommodate complexity will transform the collection and interpretation of ...
Savage Van M - - 2006
Nee et al. (Reports, 19 August 2005, p. 1236) used a null model to argue that life history invariants are illusions. We show that their results are largely inconsequential for life history theory because the authors confound two definitions of invariance, and rigorous analysis of their null model demonstrates that ...
Baxter G J - - 2006
We present a mathematical formulation of a theory of language change. The theory is evolutionary in nature and has close analogies with theories of population genetics. The mathematical structure we construct similarly has correspondences with the Fisher-Wright model of population genetics, but there are significant differences. The continuous time formulation ...
Brandstätter Eduard - - 2006
Bernoulli's framework of expected utility serves as a model for various psychological processes, including motivation, moral sense, attitudes, and decision making. To account for evidence at variance with expected utility, the authors generalize the framework of fast and frugal heuristics from inferences to preferences. The priority heuristic predicts (a) the ...
Dumitrica Traian - - 2006
Although the strength of carbon nanotubes has been of great interest, their ideal value has remained elusive both experimentally and theoretically. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of underlying atomic mechanisms and evaluate the yield strain for arbitrary nanotubes at realistic conditions. For this purpose, we combine detailed quantum mechanical ...
Debru Armelle - - 2006
The torpedo effect was known long before electricity was discovered. How was it explained? In early accounts on the subject, Emil du Bois-Reymond found remarkable observations and hypotheses. In Antiquity, zoological interest is illustrated by Aristotle and followers, who were intrigued by torpedo's behaviour and capacity to act from a ...
Lazarev Vladimir V - - 2006
Due to the multidisciplinary character of psychophysiology, the problem of comparability of psychological and physiological phenomena of different natures and levels of organization has always been raised. This requires the interaction of theory and methodology to appropriately address the specifics of the psychophysiological paradigm, all the while maintaining their grounding ...
MacDonall James S JS Department of Psychology, Fordham University, 441 E. Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458, USA. - - 2006
Optimal foraging theory proposes that animals obtain the highest rate of reinforcers for the least effort and momentary maximizing theory proposes that animals make the response that at that instant is most likely to be reinforced. While each theory may account for matching on concurrent schedules, the data supporting each ...
Gordon Wayne A - - 2006
The authors propose a theory-based model for the treatment of post-traumatic brain injury executive dysfunction that integrates (1) theories of cerebral function and organization, (2) cognitive-behavioral theory of problem solving, and (3) learning theory. The model delineates appropriate targets of and methods for the treatment of executive dysfunction. A practical ...
Galambos Robert - - 2006
Theories of brain function abound, and they range from Aristotle's idea that it cools the blood to the most recent conclusions deduced from fMRI scans. Today, such ideas, theories and constructs are often called models, the best of which blend the writer's laboratory data with what he or she has ...
Wackermann Jirí - - 2006
In the present paper we reflect on some critically important issues in theory construction from the point of view of a practicing scientist. The starting point is to suggest the need for a minimal base of common agreement on the role of successfully working theories. It is proposed that scientific ...
Hagen Edward H - - 2006
Economists and psychologists have been testing Nash equilibrium predictions of game theory models of human behavior. In many instances, humans do not conform to the predictions. These results are of great interest to biologists because they also raise questions about well-known ESS models of cooperation. Cooperation in certain one-shot, anonymous ...
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