Results 701  750 of 1522  
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Kirby Kenneth   2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Physiotherapists develop clinical reasoning theories and applied manual therapy skills through a variety of educational exposures. No studies have assessed the importance of selected theories such as the convexconcave rule, capsular pattern and scapulohumeral rhythm during clinical decisionmaking by physiotherapists. The present study investigated which variables physiotherapists ...


Minor Emily S   2007
Spatially explicit population models (SEPMs) are often considered the best way to predict and manage species distributions in spatially heterogeneous landscapes. However, they are computationally intensive and require extensive knowledge of species' biology and behavior, limiting their application in many cases. An alternative to SEPMs is graph theory, which has ...


Llobera M   2007
Human and animal trails on steep hillsides often exhibit dramatic switchbacks and shortcuts. Helbing et al. have recently examined the emergence of human trail systems on flat terrains while Minetti and Margaria established the effect of gradients on human metabolic efficiency. In this paper we use these ideas to develop ...


Guilhardi Paulo   2007
We describe a theory to account for the acquisition and extinction of response rate (conditioning) and pattern (timing). This modular theory is a development of packet theory (Kirkpatrick, 2002; Kirkpatrick & Church, 2003) that adds a distinction between pattern and strength memories, as well as contributing closedform equations. We describe ...


Hamame Carlos M   2007
Understanding evolution beyond a genecentered vision is a fertile ground for new questions and approaches. However, in this systemic perspective, we take issue with the necessity of the concept of information. Through the example of brain and language evolution, we propose the autonomous systems theory as a more biologically relevant ...


Levy Roger   2008
This paper investigates the role of resource allocation as a source of processing difficulty in human sentence comprehension. The paper proposes a simple informationtheoretic characterization of processing difficulty as the work incurred by resource reallocation during parallel, incremental, probabilistic disambiguation in sentence comprehension, and demonstrates its equivalence to the theory ...


Moreno Alvaro   2008
This paper aims to offer an overview of the meaning of autonomy for biological individuals and artificial models rooted in a specific perspective that pays attention to the historical and structural aspects of its origins and evolution. Taking autopoiesis and the recursivity characteristic of its circular logic as a starting ...


Bich Leonardo   2007
In this article, we would like to discuss some aspects of a theoretical framework for Artificial Life, focusing on the problem of an explicit definition of living systems useful for an effective artificial construction of them. The limits of a descriptive approach will be critically discussed, and a constructive (synthetic) ...


Harnau L   2007
The "polymer reference interaction site model" (PRISM) integral equation theory is used to determine the structure factor of rigid dendrimers in solution. The theory is quite successful in reproducing experimental structure factors for various dendrimer concentrations. In addition, the structure factor at vanishing scattering vector is calculated via the compressibility ...


Licata G   2007
In this study I have compared classic and fuzzy logic and their usefulness in clinical diagnosis. The theory of probability is often considered a device to protect the classical twovalued logic from the evidence of its inadequacy to understand and show the complexity of world [1]. This can be true, ...


Yang Jiashi   2007
A review on piezoelectric transformer structural modeling is presented. The operating principle and the basic behavior of piezoelectric transformers as governed by the linear theory of piezoelectricity are shown by a simple, theoretical analysis on a Rosen transformer based on extensional modes of a nonhomogeneous ceramic rod. Various transformers are ...


Brainerd C J   2007
Barbey & Sloman's (B&S's) baserate respect model is anticipated by Reyna's denominator neglect model. There are parallels at three levels: (a) explanations are grounded in a general cognitive theory (rather than in domainspecific ideas); (b) problem structure is treated as a key source of reasoning errors; and most importantly, (c) ...


Evans Jonathan St B T   2007
We agree that current evolutionary accounts of baserate neglect are unparsimonious, but we dispute the authors' account of the effect in terms of parallel associative and rulebased processes. We also question their assumption that cueing of nested set relations facilitates performance due to recruitment of explicit reasoning processes. In our ...


Balinski Michel   2007
The impossibility theorems that abound in the theory of social choice show that there can be no satisfactory method for electing and ranking in the context of the traditional, 700yearold model. A more realistic model, whose antecedents may be traced to Laplace and Galton, leads to a new theory that ...


Riddel James P JP   2007
Although the concept of the coagulation cascade represented a significant advance in the understanding of coagulation and served for many years as a useful model, more recent clinical and experimental observations demonstrate that the cascade/waterfall hypothesis does not fully and completely reflect the events of hemostasis in vivo. The goal ...


Tomboulis E T   2007
We investigate the construction of improved actions by the Monte Carlo renormalization group method in the context of SU(2) gauge theory utilizing different decimation procedures and effective actions. We demonstrate that the basic selfconsistency requirement for correct application of the Monte Carlo renormalization group, i.e., that the decimated configurations are ...


Sornette D   2007
Validation is often defined as the process of determining the degree to which a model is an accurate representation of the real world from the perspective of its intended uses. Validation is crucial as industries and governments depend increasingly on predictions by computer models to justify their decisions. We propose ...


Forsman Jan   2007
We present a simple correlationcorrected density functional treatment of dispersions containing macroions, where these are assumed to interact via screened Coulomb potentials, as given by DebyeHückel theory. A straightforward meanfield description even fails to qualitatively capture important correlation effects displayed by such systems. However, if an effective, correlationcorrected potential is ...


Leeman Jennifer   2007
AIM: In this paper we present a theorybased taxonomy of the methods used to implement change in practice. BACKGROUND: Implementation research is characterized by inconsistent terminology for the methods employed and inattention to differences in the relevance of methods across different disciplines. Studies of the effectiveness of implementation have yielded ...


Horne Michael   2007
Humans are from birth embedded in a historical and contemporary context of meanings. This always constrains their theoretical and practical activities. In this paper, I will be suggesting that there are no guiding 'truths' outside such contexts. In order to understand the foundations of any concept or new idea, it ...


Perry Conrad   2007
At least 3 different types of computational model have been shown to account for various facets of both normal and impaired single word reading: (a) the connectionist triangle model, (b) the dualroute cascaded model, and (c) the connectionist dual process model. Major strengths and weaknesses of these models are identified. ...


Anderson Barton L   2007
P. J. Kellman, P. Garrigan, and T. F. Shipley's theory of 3dimensional object interpolation asserts that existing data, as well as logical considerations, support the view that an identical contour interpolation process underlies the interpolation of partially camouflaged and partially occluded objects (modal completion and amodal completion, respectively). Here, the ...


Nagib Hassan M   2007
Flat plate turbulent boundary layers under zero pressure gradient at high Reynolds numbers are studied to reveal appropriate scale relations and asymptotic behaviour. Careful examination of the skinfriction coefficient results confirms the necessity for direct and independent measurement of wall shear stress. We find that many of the previously proposed ...


McEwen JS   2007
A kinetic lattice gas model is used to study the equilibrium properties and the desorption kinetics of CO on Ru(0001). The authors compute all relevant onsite binding and interaction energies of CO molecules within density functional theory and import them in two different models. The first model allows the CO ...


Amigó Salvador   2008
The aim of this paper is to present a mathematical dynamic modelling of the effect a stimulant drug has on different people which, at the same time, can be a useful tool for future brain studies. To this end, a dynamic model of the evolution of extraversion (considering its tonic ...


Olmo Gonzalo J   2007
We show that the metric in f(R) theories of gravity in Palatini formalism can be solved as the product of a ranktwo tensor times a scalar function which is very sensitive to the local energymomentum densities. This local dependence of the metric generates new gravitationallyinduced microscopic interactions, which eventually would ...


Maio Gregory R   2007
Although past theory and research point to the importance of understanding deliberate selfpersuasion (i.e., deliberate selfinduced attitude change), there have been no empirical and theoretical efforts to model this process. This article proposes a new model to help understand the process, while comparing the process of deliberate selfpersuasion with relevant ...


Smith Eliot R   2007
Most social and psychological phenomena occur not as the result of isolated decisions by individuals but rather as the result of repeated interactions between multiple individuals over time. Yet the theorybuilding and modeling techniques most commonly used in social psychology are less than ideal for understanding such dynamic and interactive ...


Biedermann A   2007
This paper discusses recommendations concerning the use of prior probabilities that underlie recent, but in no way novel, proposals of presenting scientific evidence in terms of posterior probabilities, in the context sometimes referred to as the 'full Bayes' approach'. A chief issue of this procedure is a proposal thatgiven the ...


Peissig Jessie J   2007
We review the progress made in the field of object recognition over the past two decades. Structuraldescription models, making their appearance in the early 1980s, inspired a wealth of empirical research. Moving to the 1990s, psychophysical evidence for viewbased accounts of recognition challenged some of the fundamental assumptions of structuraldescription ...


David Olivier   2007
Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) and the theory of autopoietic systems are two important conceptual frameworks. In this review, we suggest that they can be combined to answer important questions about selforganising systems like the brain. DCM has been developed recently by the neuroimaging community to explain, using biophysical models, the ...


Abend Sander M   2007
Recognizing that principles of psychoanalytic technique and conceptions of the analytic treatment process follow from the theory of therapeutic action to which they are linked, the author notes the difficulty of coming up with such a theory in relation to modern conflict theory. After reviewing Freud's initial descriptions of psychoanalytic ...


Ibáñez Agustín   2007
The application of theories of complexity to the study of cognition has only recently started but it has already caused high expectations and controversies. Currently an extensive evaluation of the theoretical status of these theories does not exist. In an attempt to fill in that gap, this text develops a ...


Leffert Mark   2007
This article explores the heterogeneity of postmodern thought and its contributions to contemporary psychoanalytic theory and practice; the heterogeneity of psychoanalytic theory and the claims of privilege and standing made by individual theories; and the postmodern terrain and its conflicting points of view. Its origins are also traced back to ...


Stambulchik E   2007
We present results for Stark broadening of high principal quantum number (up to n=15 ) Balmer lines, using an analytical (the "standard theory") approach and two independently developed computer simulation methods. The line shapes are calculated for several sets of plasma parameters, applicable to radiofrequency discharge (N(e) approximately 10(13) cm(3)) ...


Wang Wenge   2007
We study the stability of quantum motion of classically regular systems in the presence of small perturbations. On the basis of a uniform semiclassical theory we derive the fidelity decay which displays a quite complex behavior, from Gaussian to power law decay t(alpha), with 1 <or= alpha <or= 2. Semiclassical ...


Eccles Martin P   2007
BACKGROUND: Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range ...


Twarock Reidun   2006
Understanding the structure and life cycle of viruses is a fascinating challenge with a crucial impact on the public health sector. In the early 1960s, Caspar & Klug (Caspar & Klug 1962 Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 27, 124) established a theory for the prediction of the surface structures ...


Iglesias M   2007
The potential environmental impact of aromatic and halogenated chemicals from the petrochemical and steel industry is of growning concern. The present paper deals with the modelling and experimental determination of density and speed of sound at the range 278.15323.15 of six aromatic and halogenated compounds (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Fluorobenzene, 2Fluorotoluene ...


Shields Walker   2006
The author uses a dream specimen as interpreted during psychoanalysis to illustrate Modell's hypothesis that Edelman's theory of neuronal group selection (TNGS) may provide a valuable neurobiological model for Freud's dynamic unconscious, imaginative processes in the mind, the retranscription of memory in psychoanalysis, and intersubjective processes in the analytic relationship. ...


Chikatamarla Shyam S   2006
A theory of lattice Boltzmann (LB) models for hydrodynamic simulation is developed upon a novel relation between entropy construction and roots of Hermite polynomials. A systematic procedure is described for constructing numerically stable and complete Galilean invariant LB models. The stability of the new LB models is illustrated with a ...


Levy E   2006
We have measured the temperature dependence of the conductance in long Vgroove quantum wires fabricated in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. Our data are consistent with recent theories developed within the framework of the Luttingerliquid model, in the limit of weakly disordered wires. We show that, for the relatively low level of disorder ...


Sackmann Andrea   2007
In the paper a Petri net based model of the human body iron homeostasis is presented and analyzed. The body iron homeostasis is an important but not fully understood complex process. The modeling of the process presented in the paper is expressed in the language of Petri net theory. An ...


Taroni Franco   2006
Intelligence analysts commonly associate cases on the basis of similarities found in compared characteristics of scientific evidence. The present paper studies some of the inferential difficulties associated with such operations. An analysis is proposed that breaks down the reasoning process into inference to common source, and inference to case linkage. ...


Jindra Lawrence F   2006
An analytic understanding of automated perimetry requires an appreciation of the fundamental theories of vision and an understanding of the basic mathematical rudiments of signal processing theory. The theories of vision by Weber, Fechtner, and Stevens are evaluated and the mathematical bases of logarithmic, exponential, and power functions are considered ...


Jaeken Laurent   2006
Schrödinger pointed out that one of the most fundamental properties of life is its coherent behaviour. This property has been approached from a physiological point of view by Ling in his 'associationinduction hypothesis' and extended by Pollack (gelsol theory), by Chaplin and by Kaivarainen (detailed studies of cellular water). The ...


Busseri Michael A   2006
Connections between youth activity involvement and indicators of successful development were examined in a longitudinal high school sample. Drawing on theories of expertise skill development (e.g., J. Côté, 1999); the selection, optimization, and compensation framework (P. B. Baltes, 1997); and theories of positive youth development (e.g., R. M. Lerner, J. ...


Cahan Sorel   2007
Narrow Window theory, suggested by Y. Kareev ten years ago, has so far focused on one central implication of the limited capacity of working memory on intuitive correlation estimation, namely, overestimation of the distal population correlation. This paper points to additional and perhaps more dramatic implications due to the large ...


Emparan Roberto   2006
We consider vacuum solutions in M theory of the form of a fivedimensional KaluzaKlein black hole cross T6. In a certain limit, these include the fivedimensional neutral rotating black hole (cross T6). From a typeIIA standpoint, these solutions carry D0 and D6 charges. We show that there is a simple ...


Siegbahn Per E M   2006
Highaccuracy quantum chemistry has now been applied for almost 10 years to biological problems involving transition metal active sites. The leading theoretical method is hybrid density functional theory (DFT), usually with the B3LYP functional. The chemical models vary in size, commonly from 30 to 100 atoms treated fully quantum mechanically. ...


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