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Oberauer Klaus - - 2008
In this comment, it is argued that the modification of mental models theory of conditional inference proposed by P. Barrouillet, C. Gauffroy, and J.-F. Lecas to deal with truth value gaps merely patches up a problem in the theory, rather than accomplishing the fundamental and systematic revision that is necessary. ...
Salathé Marcel - - 2008
One of the most prominent hypotheses to explain the ubiquity of sex and recombination is based on host-parasite interactions. Under the name of the Red Queen hypothesis (RQH), it has had theoretical and empirical support since its conception, but recent theoretical work has shown that the circumstances under which the ...
Hazy James K - - 2008
I propose a new theory of leadership in complex systems based upon computational modeling approaches that have appeared to date. It is new in that it promises an approach that is well specified, coherent across levels of analysis, is transparent to the outside observer and can be modeled computationally. Although ...
Barrouillet Pierre - - 2008
The mental model theory of conditional reasoning presented by P. N. Johnson-Laird and R. M. J. Byrne (2002) has recently been the subject of criticisms (e.g., J. St. B. T. Evans, D. E. Over, & S. J. Handley, 2005). The authors argue that the theoretical conflict can be resolved by ...
Valko Michal - - 2008
Anomaly detection methods can be very useful in identifying unusual or interesting patterns in data. A recently proposed conditional anomaly detection framework extends anomaly detection to the problem of identifying anomalous patterns on a subset of attributes in the data. The anomaly always depends (is conditioned) on the value of ...
Oberauer Klaus - - 2008
In Barrouillet, Gauffroy, and Lecas's postscript to the current authors original comment on Barrouillet, Gauffroy, and Lecas's original article, they made four clearly argued points. First, they argued that they had provided a clear rationale for truth value gaps. This misses the point of what a computational-level explanation means. Such ...
Lin Chieh-Peng - - 2008
Extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model, this study postulates a model of online social support. The model is empirically tested using data from undergraduates in Taiwan regarding their usage of instant messaging (IM). The test results indicate that all model paths are significant, except ...
Colyvan Mark - - 2008
In this article, I discuss an argument that purports to prove that probability theory is the only sensible means of dealing with uncertainty. I show that this argument can succeed only if some rather controversial assumptions about the nature of uncertainty are accepted. I discuss these assumptions and provide reasons ...
Wickens Christopher D - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to lay out the rationale for multiple resource theory and the particular 4-D multiple resource model, as well as to show how the model is useful both as a design tool and as a means of predicting multitask workload overload. BACKGROUND: I describe the discoveries and ...
Zhang Nevin L - - 2008
The theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) originated from experiences doctors had with patients in ancient times. We ask the question whether aspects of TCM theories can be reconstructed through data analysis. To answer the question, we have developed a data analysis method called latent tree models and have used ...
Iglesias Oscar - - 2008
Some of the main experimental observations related to the occurrence of exchange bias in magnetic systems are reviewed, focusing the attention on the peculiar phenomenology associated to nanoparticles with core/shell structure as compared to thin film bilayers. The main open questions posed by the experimental observations are presented and contrasted ...
Lehmann Kenna D - - 2008
In the 1950's Shannon and Weaver developed information theory as a statistical tool to determine the structure and organization within communication systems. More recently information theory has been applied to the study of animal communication. We gathered acoustic recordings of the Southern Resident killer whales in the inland waters of ...
Westreich Richard W - - 2008
To extrapolate on the tripod concept to create a more universal and multiethnic model that includes common anatomical configurations and strategies to avoid certain unwanted surgical outcomes. Analysis of current surgical methods, scientific studies, and predominant theories to produce a new model of nasal tip support based on the biomechanical ...
Goodwin Geoffrey P - - 2008
Given that A is longer than B, and that B is longer than C, even 5-year-old children can infer that A is longer than C. Theories of reasoning based on formal rules of inference invoke simple axioms ("meaning postulates") to capture such transitive inferences. An alternative theory proposes instead that ...
David Nicole - - 2008
The sense of agency is a central aspect of human self-consciousness and refers to the experience of oneself as the agent of one's own actions. Several different cognitive theories on the sense of agency have been proposed implying divergent empirical approaches and results, especially with respect to neural correlates. A ...
Bensalah A - - 2008
The "local flow" theory provides a simple way to take into account the nonlinear convective terms associated with blood flow in large arteries. The assumption that blood velocity profiles vary slowly with the longitudinal coordinate allows a simple nonlinear resolution via a mathematical approximation. Although validated in vitro by its ...
Börger Luca - - 2008
Home range behaviour is a common pattern of space use, having fundamental consequences for ecological processes. However, a general mechanistic explanation is still lacking. Research is split into three separate areas of inquiry - movement models based on random walks, individual-based models based on optimal foraging theory, and a statistical ...
Schuster Stefan - - 2008
Evolutionary game theory can be considered as an extension of the theory of evolutionary optimisation in that two or more organisms (or more generally, units of replication) tend to optimise their properties in an interdependent way. Thus, the outcome of the strategy adopted by one species (e.g., as a result ...
Birnbaum Michael H - - 2008
During the last 25 years, prospect theory and its successor, cumulative prospect theory, replaced expected utility as the dominant descriptive theories of risky decision making. Although these models account for the original Allais paradoxes, 11 new paradoxes show where prospect theories lead to self-contradiction or systematic false predictions. The new ...
Wang Hui - - 2008
The mathematical theory of evidence is a generalization of the Bayesian theory of probability. It is one of the primary tools for knowledge representation and uncertainty and probabilistic reasoning and has found many applications. Using this theory to solve a specific problem is critically dependent on the availability of a ...
Azenha Manuel - - 2008
The present manuscript reports the first application of molecular modelling to the design of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) prepared by alkoxysilane sol-gel polymerization. The major goal was to determine the requisite level of theory for the selection of suitable alkoxysilane functional monomers. A comparative study, applied to the design of ...
Smirnitskaya I A - - 2008
A model explaining behavioral "impulsivity" and "self-control" is proposed on the basis of the theory of reinforcement learning. The discount coefficient gamma, which in this theory accounts for the subjective reduction in the value of a delayed reinforcement, is identified with the overall level of dopaminergic neuron activity which, according ...
Rieping Wolfgang - - 2008
The conventional approach to calculating biomolecular structures from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data is often viewed as subjective due to its dependence on rules of thumb for deriving geometric constraints and suitable values for theory parameters from noisy experimental data. As a result, it can be difficult to judge the ...
Smith Eric - - 2008
This is the first of three papers analyzing the representation of information in the biosphere, and the energetic constraints limiting the imposition or maintenance of that information. Biological information is inherently a chemical property, but is equally an aspect of control flow and a result of processes equivalent to computation. ...
Eleye-Datubo A G - - 2008
The incorporation of the human element into a probabilistic risk-based model is one that requires a possibilistic integration of appropriate techniques and/or that of vital inputs of linguistic nature. While fuzzy logic is an excellent tool for such integration, it tends not to cross its boundaries of possibility theory, except ...
Remus Jeremiah J - - 2008
The wide use of psychometric assessments and the time necessary to conduct comprehensive psychometric tests has motivated significant research into the development of psychometric testing procedures that will provide accurate and efficient estimates of the parameters of interest. One potential framework for developing adaptive psychometric procedures is the Theory of ...
Grootscholten T I M - - 2008
In this paper a method is presented to estimate the reaction term of zinc sulphide precipitation and the zinc concentration in a CSTR, using the read-out signal of a sulphide selective electrode. The reaction between zinc and sulphide is described by a non-linear model and therefore classical observer theory cannot ...
Prakash Ravi - - 2008
The phenomenon of conscious awareness or consciousness is complicated but fascinating. Although this concept has intrigued the mankind since antiquity, exploration of consciousness from scientific perspectives is not very old. Among myriad of theories regarding nature, functions and mechanism of consciousness, off late, cognitive theories have received wider acceptance. One ...
Barkan Yuval - - 2008
In classical assimilation effects, intermediate luminance patches appear lighter when their immediate surround is comprised of white patches and appear darker when their immediate surround is comprised of dark patches. With patches either darker or lighter than both inducing patches, the direction of the brightness effect is reversed and termed ...
Schroyens Walter - - 2008
Recent studies indicate that a vast majority of people judge the probability of a conditional <if A then C> as equivalent to the conditional probability of <A, given C>. This means that in evaluating the applicability of a conditional people do not seem to take into account situations in which ...
DeBry Spencer C - - 2008
Early initiation of cigarette use is associated with higher levels of nicotine dependence. This paper provides a theory to explain this finding based on the neurotoxic effects of cigarettes on a developing system. The tobacco-induced neurotoxicity of adolescent cognitive development (TINACD) theory postulates that alterations in executive functioning, particularly evident ...
Diaconis Persi - - 2008
We study the limit theory of large threshold graphs and apply this to a variety of models for random threshold graphs. The results give a nice set of examples for the emerging theory of graph limits.
Rubinelli Sara - - 2008
There is an ongoing global debate over the potential benefits and risks of allowing direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines (DTCA). The core of this debate concerns the identification of DTCA either as a beneficial procedure to be promoted or as a damaging procedure to be abolished. Economic data on DTCA ...
Yang Lee-Wei - - 2008
In this review, we summarize the progress on coarse-grained elastic network models (CG-ENMs) in the past decade. Theories were formulated to allow study of conformational dynamics in time/space frames of biological interest. Several highlighted models and their underlined hypotheses are introduced in physical depth. Important ENM offshoots, motivated to reproduce ...
Grant Peter R - - 2008
Currently in Canada, there is a widespread underemployment among foreign-trained immigrants. This is because potential employers often have to evaluate unfamiliar foreign qualifications that, regrettably, are often misunderstood and undervalued. This questionnaire study tested a model that integrates relative deprivation theory with social identity theory to predict the degree to ...
Holroyd Clay B - - 2008
Two competing types of theory have been proposed about the function of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC): evaluative theories hold that dACC monitors ongoing behavior to detect errors or conflict, whereas response selection theories hold that dACC is directly involved in the decision making process. In particular, one response selection ...
Einav Itai - - 2007
In soil mechanics, student's models are classified as simple models that teach us unexplained elements of behaviour; an example is the Cam clay constitutive models of critical state soil mechanics (CSSM). 'Engineer's models' are models that elaborate the theory to fit more behavioural trends; this is usually done by adding ...
Paterek Tomasz - - 2007
We analyze the class of nonlocal realistic theories that was originally considered by Leggett [Found. Phys. 33, 1469 (2003)10.1023/A:1026096313729] and tested by us in a recent experiment [Nature (London) 446, 871 (2007)10.1038/nature05677]. We derive an incompatibility theorem that works for finite numbers of polarizer settings and that does not require ...
Meehan Trudy - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Lysaker and Lysaker (Theory and Psychology, 12(2), 207-220, 2002) employ a dialogical theory of self in their writings on self disruption in schizophrenia. It is argued here that this theory could be enriched by incorporating a discursive and social constructionist model of self. Harr's model enables researchers to use ...
Kofler Johannes - - 2007
Conceptually different from the decoherence program, we present a novel theoretical approach to macroscopic realism and classical physics within quantum theory. It focuses on the limits of observability of quantum effects of macroscopic objects, i.e., on the required precision of our measurement apparatuses such that quantum phenomena can still be ...
Glautier Steven - - 2007
Associative learning theories can be categorized according to whether they treat the representation of stimulus compounds in an elemental or a configural manner. Since it is clear that a simple elemental approach to stimulus representation is inadequate, there have been several attempts to produce more elaborate elemental models. One recent ...
Graham Ian D - - 2007
A careful analysis of the definition of knowledge translation highlights the importance of the judicious translation of research into practice and policy. There is, however, a considerable gap between research and practice. Closing the research-to-practice gap involves changing clinical practice, a complex and challenging endeavor. There is increasing recognition that ...
Free Andrew - - 2007
Gaia theory, which describes the life-environment system of the Earth as stable and self-regulating, has remained at the fringes of mainstream biological science owing to its historically inadequate definition and apparent incompatibility with individual-level natural selection. The key issue is whether and why the biosphere might tend towards stability and ...
Hanada Masanori - - 2007
Lattice simulation of supersymmetric gauge theories is not straightforward. In some cases the lack of manifest supersymmetry just necessitates cumbersome fine-tuning, but in the worse cases the chiral and/or Majorana nature of fermions makes it difficult to even formulate an appropriate lattice theory. We propose circumventing all these problems inherent ...
Chandra Amalendu - - 2007
A theory based on population correlation functions is introduced for connecting solvation topologies and microscopic mechanisms to transport kinetics of charge defects in hydrogen-bonded networks. The theory is tested on the hydrated proton by extracting a comprehensive set of relaxation times, lifetimes, and rates from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations ...
Navarro José - - 2007
This study is concerned with work motivation as a dynamic process. Twenty workers kept a motivation diary over a period of several weeks. Using a PDA they recorded their level of motivation, self-efficacy beliefs and perceived instrumentality with respect to the task being carried out. The time series obtained were ...
Muñoz-Silva A - - 2007
There is much evidence that demonstrates that programs and interventions based on the theoretical models of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) have been effective in the prevention of the sexual transmission of HIV. The objective of this work is to compare the ...
Deser S - - 2007
We explore nonlocally modified models of gravity, inspired by quantum loop corrections, as a mechanism for explaining current cosmic acceleration. These theories enjoy two major advantages: they allow a delayed response to cosmic events, here the transition from radiation to matter dominance, and they avoid the usual level of fine-tuning; ...
Aleksander Igor - - 2007
A model of conscious mechanisms called Axiomatic Consciousness Theory (ACT) is used to develop a neuroarchitectural model of visual phenomenology. The result is an extension of concepts in neural systems towards phenomenal intentionality: the lack of which is a common starting point for critiques of AI. Here the argument is ...
Walsh Sabrina - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To Apply the PAPM and Diffusion Theory for building a statewide coroner investigation system to further violent death prevention efforts. METHODS: By utilizing a theoretically based framework and systematically tracking stage progression, individual agencies and/or state systems can replicate and sustain the process. RESULTS: Through the incorporation of the ...
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