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Haig Brian D - - 2009
Explanatory theories in psychology usually are evaluated by using the hypothetico-deductive method and testing them for their predictive adequacy. This article brings the alternative idea of inference to the best explanation to the attention of psychologists and suggests that it provides them with a set of methodological resources for evaluating ...
Adams Heather L - - 2009
Synthesis of current research with the self-stories of Native American two-spirit, lesbian and gay people suggests differences in social locations that may produce sexual orientation identity development processes absent from the current literature. We employed a modified form of grounded theory analysis to explore the identity experiences of six self-identified ...
Russo Federica - - 2009
This article examines definitions of cause in the epidemiological literature. Those definitions describe causes as factors that make a difference to the distribution of disease or to individual health status. In philosophical terms, they are "difference-makers." I argue that those definitions are underpinned by an epistemology and a methodology that ...
Carre?o Juan E - - 2009
The so-called theory of intelligent design (ID) has gained a growing reputation in the Anglo-Saxon culture, becoming a subject of public debate. The approaches that constitute the core of this proposal, however, have been poorly characterized and systematized. The three most significant authors of ID are certainly Michael Behe, William ...
Wu Jing J Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, China. - - 2009
Recently, the notions of Compressed Sensing (CS) have attracted attention as an innovative concept in signal processing. In this exploratory paper, a CS-based video compression approach suitable for wireless capsule endoscopy is proposed. In general, the amount of video data generated by capsule endoscopy is so large that video compression ...
Beer Gillian - - 2009
We currently view extinction with dismay and even horror, but Darwin saw extinction as ordinary and as necessary to evolutionary change. Still, the degree to which extinction is fundamental to his theory is rarely discussed. This essay examines Darwin's linking of the idea of "improvement" with that of natural selection ...
Currie Kay - - 2009
Grounded theory methods can help to generate a theoretical explanation of social processes in specific contexts. This paper discusses theoretical sampling to guide interview participant selection and reflects on the practical application of this procedure to outline the value and limitations of using survey data in this way.
Nofziger Stacey - - 2009
Theories of victimization developed independently of theories of offending, in spite of consistent findings of similarities between offenders and victims of crime. This study examines whether Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) general theory of crime, typically used to predict offending, also has relevance in understanding juvenile victimization. The data for this ...
Sulloway Frank J - - 2009
During his historic Galápagos visit in 1835, Darwin spent nine days making scientific observations and collecting specimens on Santiago (James Island). In the course of this visit, Darwin ascended twice to the Santiago highlands. There, near springs located close to the island's summit, he conducted his most detailed observations of ...
Zieli?ski Andrzej - - 2009
The article presents short historical review of the concepts of causality. Then it deals with contemporary concepts of causal dependence with special reference to epidemiological studies. In particular Lewis counterfactuals theory and contemporary probabilistic theories were analyzed including applications of DAG's (directed acyclic graphs), which in the last decade are ...
Folsom Amanda - - 2008
Recently, Andrews introduced the function s(n) = spt(n) which counts the number of smallest parts among the integer partitions of n. We show that its generating function satisfies an identity analogous to Ramanujan's mock theta identities. As a consequence, we are able to completely determine the parity of s(n). Using ...
Eldridge John J - - 2008
The study of the stars that explode as supernovae used to be a forensic study, working backwards from the remnants of the star. This changed in 1987 when the first progenitor star was identified in pre-explosion images. Currently, there are eight detected progenitors with another 21 non-detections, for which only ...
Kim K-S - - 2008
We show that the scenario of a multiscale Kondo-breakdown quantum critical point gives rise to a divergent Grüneisen ratio with an anomalous exponent 0.7. In particular, we fit the experimental data of YbRh2(Si0.95Ge0.05)2 for a specific heat, thermal expansion, and Grüneisen ratio based on our simple analytic expressions. A reasonable ...
Shintani E - - 2008
We present a lattice calculation of L10, one of the low-energy constants in chiral perturbation theory, and the charged-neutral pion squared-mass splitting, using dynamical overlap fermion. The exact chiral symmetry of the overlap fermion allows us to reliably extract these quantities from the difference of the vacuum polarization functions for ...
Yoshida Wako W The Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, UK. - - 2008
This paper introduces a model of 'theory of mind', namely, how we represent the intentions and goals of others to optimise our mutual interactions. We draw on ideas from optimum control and game theory to provide a 'game theory of mind'. First, we consider the representations of goals in terms ...
Hsiao Janet Hui-wen - - 2008
Anatomical evidence shows that our visual field is initially split along the vertical midline and contralaterally projected to different hemispheres. It remains unclear at which processing stage the split information converges. In the current study, we applied the Double Filtering by Frequency (DFF) theory (Ivry & Robertson, 1998) to modeling ...
Lehn Waldemar H - - 2008
In a short interval toward the end of 1694, Isaac Newton developed two mathematical models for the theory of the astronomical refraction and calculated two refraction tables, but did not publish his theory. Much effort has been expended, starting with Biot in 1836, in the attempt to identify the methods ...
Dhami Mandeep K - - 2008
Beyond reasonable doubt represents a probability value that acts as the criterion for conviction in criminal trials. I introduce the membership function (MF) method as a new tool for measuring quantitative interpretations of reasonable doubt. Experiment 1 demonstrated that three different methods (i.e., direct rating, decision theory based, and MF) ...
Kenkre V M - - 2008
An explicit proposal for experiments leading to abrupt transitions in spatially extended bacterial populations in a Petri dish is presented on the basis of an exact formula obtained through an analytic theory. The theory provides accurately the transition expressions despite the fact that the actual solutions, which involve strong nonlinearity, ...
Ibarra-Armenta José Guadalupe - - 2009
In this work we test the validity of a recent modified Poisson-Boltzmann (MPB) theory that includes ion size effects through a Langmuir-type correction. In particular, we will focus on an analytic charge-potential relationship accounting for such effects. Previous electric double layer (EDL) surveys have demonstrated that the inclusion of ions ...
Rieskamp Jörg - - 2008
Previous research has developed a variety of theories explaining when and why people's decisions under risk deviate from the standard economic view of expected utility maximization. These theories are limited in their predictive accuracy in that they do not explain the probabilistic nature of preferential choice, that is, why an ...
Brüggemann Rainer - - 2008
Principles of partial order applied to ranking are explained. The Hasse diagram technique (HDT) is the application of partial order theory based on a data matrix. In this paper, HDT is introduced in a stepwise procedure, and some elementary theorems are exemplified. The focus is to show how the multivariate ...
El-Basil Sherif - - 2008
Combinatorial properties of graphs and groups of physico-chemical interest are described. A type of mathematical modeling is applied which involves "translating" algebraic expressions into graphs. The idea is applied to both graph theory and group theory. The former topic includes objects of importance in physics and chemistry such as trees, ...
Stopkowicz Stella - - 2008
Direct perturbation theory (DPT) is applied to compute relativistic corrections to electrical properties such as dipole moment, quadrupole moment, and electric-field gradient. The corrections are obtained as second derivatives of the energy and are given via method-independent expressions that involve the first derivative of the density matrix with respect to ...
Shafto Patrick - - 2008
Different intuitive theories constrain and guide inferences in different contexts. Formalizing simple intuitive theories as probabilistic processes operating over structured representations, we present a new computational model of category-based induction about causally transmitted properties. A first experiment demonstrates undergraduates' context-sensitive use of taxonomic and food web knowledge to guide reasoning ...
Svetovoy Vitaly B - - 2008
The Lifshitz formula for dispersive forces is generalized to the materials, which cannot be described with the local dielectric response. The principal nonlocality of poor conductors is related to the finite screening length of the penetrating field and collisional relaxation; at low temperatures the role of collisions plays the Landau ...
Moody R V - - 2008
This paper develops a method for discrete computational Fourier analysis of functions defined on quasicrystals and other almost periodic sets. A key point is to build the analysis around the emerging theory of quasicrystals and diffraction in the setting on local hulls and dynamical systems. Numerically computed approximations arising in ...
Shell M Scott - - 2008
We show that the relative entropy, S(rel) identical with Sigma(p(T)) ln(p(T)/p(M)), provides a fundamental and unifying framework for multiscale analysis and for inverse molecular-thermodynamic problems involving optimization of a model system (M) to reproduce the properties of a target one (T). We demonstrate that the relative entropy serves as a ...
Jaeger Johannes - - 2008
Positional specification by morphogen gradients is traditionally viewed as a two-step process. A gradient is formed and then interpreted, providing a spatial metric independent of the target tissue, similar to the concept of space in classical mechanics. However, the formation and interpretation of gradients are coupled, dynamic processes. We introduce ...
Anderson Barton L - - 2008
In M. Singh and B. L. Anderson, the authors proposed a model based on ratios of Michelson contrasts to explain how human observers quantitatively scale the perceived opacity of transparent surfaces. In subsequent work by B. L. Anderson, M. Singh, & J. Meng, the authors found that this model failed ...
Gatti Marco - - 2008
An accurate prediction of the particle charge in plasmas is of fundamental importance for a wide range of problems from the study of dusty or complex plasmas to the controlled synthesis of nanoparticle materials in plasmas. Despite its known deficiencies, the orbital motion limited (OML) theory, which strictly applies only ...
Cerruti-Sola Monica - - 2008
We aim at assessing the validity limits of some simplifying hypotheses that, within a Riemmannian geometric framework, have provided an explanation of the origin of Hamiltonian chaos and have made it possible to develop a method of analytically computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of Hamiltonian systems with many degrees of ...
Meester Ronald - - 2009
William Dembski (No free lunch: why specified complexity cannot be purchased without intelligence, 2002) claimed that the NFL theorems from optimization theory render darwinian biological evolution impossible. Häggström (Biology and Philosophy 22:217-230, 2007) argued that the NFL theorems are not relevant for biological evolution at all, since the assumptions of ...
Wang Liquan - - 2008
Microphase separation of AB multigraft copolymers with various numbers of graft arms per junction along the backbone was examined by the random-phase approximation and real-space implemented self-consistent field theory. The calculations carried out show that the number of graft arms per junction exerts a marked effect on the phase behavior ...
Cushing J M - - 2009
Nonlinear Leslie matrix models have a long history of use for modeling the dynamics of semelparous species. Semelparous models, as do nonlinear matrix models in general, undergo a transcritical equilibrium bifurcation at inherent net reproductive number R(0) = 1 where the extinction equilibrium loses stability. Semelparous models however do not ...
Schroyens Walter - - 2008
We asked people to validate conditional inferences (e.g., "A, therefore C" with "if A then C"). People are more likely to look for falsifications ("A and not-C") versus confirmations ("A and C") given a forced choice. Second, falsification rates are lower for logically valid versus invalid inferences. Logically valid inferences ...
Romeijn Jan-Willem - - 2008
The author discusses the abductive theory of method (ATOM) by Brian Haig from a philosophical perspective, connecting his theory with a number of issues and trends in contemporary philosophy of science. It is argued that as it stands, the methodology presented by Haig is too permissive. Both the use of ...
Connolly Angela - - 2008
The present crisis in models of training and in psychoanalytical education in general can be linked to the gulf that has come to be created between analytical theory and clinical practice. The paper(1) examines the historical facts that have led to this split and suggests the need to return to ...
Jansen Aren - - 2008
This paper elaborates on a computational model for speech recognition that is inspired by several interrelated strands of research in phonology, acoustic phonetics, speech perception, and neuroscience. The goals are twofold: (i) to explore frameworks for recognition that may provide a viable alternative to the current hidden Markov model (HMM) ...
Karbasi A - - 2008
A premise was set up entailing the possibility of a synergistical combination of advantages of spectrophotometric and colorimetric matching procedures. Attempts were therefore made to test the performances of fifteen matching procedures, all based on the Kubelka-Munk theory, including two procedures utilizing the fundamental color stimulus R(FCS) of the spectral ...
Poirier Bill - - 2008
In previous articles [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4501 (2004); J. Chem. Phys. 124, 034115 (2006); J. Chem. Phys. 124, 034116 (2006); J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 10400 (2007); J. Chem. Phys. 128, 164115 (2008)] an exact quantum, bipolar wave decomposition, psi=psi(+)+psi(-), was presented for one-dimensional stationary state and time-dependent wavepacket ...
Leermakers Frans A M - - 2008
A quantitative analysis of the distribution of counterions in salt-free solutions of colloidal polyelectrolyte brushes and starlike polyelectrolytes is performed on the level of the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation. Exact numerical solutions are obtained for starlike polyelectrolyte molecules composed of f = 20, . . ., 50 arms with a fixed fractional ...
Naimoli Joseph F - - 2008
The question of why some immunization programmes in sub-Saharan Africa are more successful than others is an intriguing one, but not one that is frequently raised or investigated. Borrowing techniques from both performance benchmarking and positive deviance inquiry, we explored this question in six countries. We first set out to ...
Nakatsuka Takao - - 2008
The Molière theory of multiple Coulomb scattering is improved to take account of ionization loss by applying a differential formulation of the theory. Distributions for the deflection angle theta over, as well as for any linear combination between theta over and the lateral displacement r over, under the ionization process ...
Windschitl Paul D - - 2008
People are often egocentric when judging their likelihood of success in competitions, leading to overoptimism about winning when circumstances are generally easy and to overpessimism when the circumstances are difficult. Yet, egocentrism might be grounded in a rational tendency to favor highly reliable information (about the self) more so than ...
Chin Anne - - 2009
Step-pools sequences are increasingly used to restore stream channels. This increase corresponds to significant advances in theory for step-pools in recent years. The need for step-pools in stream restoration arises as urban development encroaches into steep terrain in response to population pressures, as stream channels in lower-gradient areas require stabilization ...
Kleeman Richard - - 2008
The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon is the dominant climatic fluctuation on interannual time scales. It is an irregular oscillation with a distinctive broadband spectrum. In this article, we discuss recent theories that seek to explain this irregularity. Particular attention is paid to explanations that involve the stochastic forcing of ...
Alekseechkin N V - - 2008
The multivariable theory of nucleation suggested by Alekseechkin [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 124512 (2006)] is further developed in the context of Langevin's approach. The use of this approach essentially enhances the capability of the nucleation theory, because it makes possible to consider the cases of small friction which are not ...
Guo Zuojun - - 2008
A generic Fourier-space approach to solve the self-consistent field theory of block copolymers is developed. This approach is based on the fact that, for any computational box with periodic boundary conditions, all spatially varying functions are spanned by the Fourier series determined by the size and shape of the box. ...
Seth Anil K AK Department of Informatics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QJ, UK. - - 2008
The resurgent science of consciousness has been accompanied by a recent emphasis on the problem of measurement. Having dependable measures of consciousness is essential both for mapping experimental evidence to theory and for designing perspicuous experiments. Here, we review a series of behavioural and brain-based measures, assessing their ability to ...
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