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Voracek Martin - - 2009
Preliminary evidence suggests that within-sex individual variation in the length ratio of the index finger to the ring finger (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen levels, may be more strongly or consistently related to implicit measures (Implicit Association Test, IAT) than to corresponding explicit (self-report) measures of candidate personality ...
Meissner W W - - 2009
This essay explores the possibility of an alternative hypothesis to the prevailing psychoanalytic instinctual drive theory whose theoretical and clinical validity has been variously critiqued and challenged. Arguments are suggested in support of the concept of motive as a viable alternative theory to the drive theory and as a replacement ...
Khemlani Sangeet - - 2009
The mental model theory of reasoning postulates that individuals construct mental models of the possibilities in which the premises of an inference hold and that these models represent what is true but not what is false. An unexpected consequence of this assumption is that certain premises should yield systematically invalid ...
Sotiriou Thomas P - - 2009
Horava's "Lifschitz point gravity" has many desirable features, but in its original incarnation one is forced to accept a nonzero cosmological constant of the wrong sign to be compatible with observation. We develop an extension of Horava's model that abandons "detailed balance" and regains parity invariance, and in 3+1 dimensions ...
Nokleby Matthew - - 2009
Satisficing game theory offers an alternative to classical game theory that describes a flexible model of players' social interactions. Players' utility functions depend on other players' attitudes rather than simply their actions. However, satisficing players with conflicting attitudes may enact dysfunctional behaviors, which results in poor performance. We present an ...
De las Cuevas G - - 2009
The partition function of all classical spin models, including all discrete standard statistical models and all Abelian discrete lattice gauge theories (LGTs), is expressed as a special instance of the partition function of the 4D Z2 LGT. This unifies all classical spin models with apparently very different features in a ...
McCauley David E - - 2009
In this review we report on recent literature concerned with studies of gynodioecy, or the co-occurrence of female and hermaphrodite individuals in natural plant populations. Rather than review this literature in its entirety, our focus is on the interplay between theoretical and empirical approaches to the study of gynodioecy. Five ...
Reach Gérard G Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Avicenne Hospital APHP, Bobigny, France. - - 2009
The aim of this article is to discuss the background and the consequences of preference on short-term rewards by individuals, which represents an obstacle to any educational programme aimed to prevent long-term complications of chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension or obesity. We used a trans-theoretical analysis referring to three ...
Stolz Jörg - - 2009
The article presents a unified theoretical model, explaining differences in Christian and 'alternative' religiosity at individual and collective levels. The model reconstructs and integrates the most important theories explaining religiosity (deprivation, regulation, socialization, cultural production, and ethnicity) as complementary causal mechanisms in a rational-action based framework. It is maintained that ...
Morris Lydia - - 2009
This paper addresses the recognition in cosmopolitan debate of a possible disjuncture between the normative ideal of cosmopolitanism and its realization in practice. Taking as its focus the potential conflict between human rights commitments and national concern about immigration control, it reflects on a series of legal challenges to UK ...
Taub Gadi - - 2009
In recent years the controversy over Drive versus Relational models of the psyche has become entangled in a philosophical controversy over epistemology. Some have argued that the Drive model was a relic of an age of positivistic science, while Relational models are a product of a postmodern condition. This paper ...
Merchant John - - 2009
This paper begins with an overview of contemporary approaches to archetype theory and notes the radical nature of certain deductions. Some argue that there is no 'archetype-as-such' as a pre-existing entity at the core of a complex driving its formation whilst the findings of current neuroscience are calling into question ...
Ma Liang - - 2009
A computational framework is presented for studying the mechanical response of macromolecules. The method combines a continuum mechanics (CM) model for the mechanical properties of the macromolecule with a continuum electrostatic (CE) treatment of solvation. The molecules are represented by their shape and key physicochemical characteristics such as the distribution ...
Plochocki Jeffrey H - - 2009
The chondral modeling theory proposes that hydrostatic pressure within articular cartilage regulates joint size, shape, and congruence through regional variations in rates of tissue proliferation. The purpose of this study is to develop a computational model using a nonlinear two-dimensional finite element analysis in conjunction with numeric shape optimization to ...
Ives Jonathan - - 2009
In this article we distinguish between philosophical bioethics (PB), descriptive policy orientated bioethics (DPOB) and normative policy oriented bioethics (NPOB). We argue that finding an appropriate methodology for combining empirical data and moral theory depends on what the aims of the research endeavour are, and that, for the most part, ...
Jenish Nazgul - - 2009
Over the last decades, spatial-interaction models have been increasingly used in economics. However, the development of a sufficiently general asymptotic theory for nonlinear spatial models has been hampered by a lack of relevant central limit theorems (CLTs), uniform laws of large numbers (ULLNs) and pointwise laws of large numbers (LLNs). ...
Wright Daniel B - - 2009
In the present article, functions written in the freeware R are presented that calculate several measures from traditional signal detection theory for each individual in a sample, along with summary statistics for the sample. Bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap confidence intervals are also produced. Arguments are made for using an alternative ...
Mayhall Nicholas J - - 2009
An investigation of the performance of Gaussian-4 (G4) methods for the prediction of 3d transition metal thermochemistry is presented. Using the recently developed G3Large basis sets for atoms Sc-Zn, the G4 and G4(MP2) methods with scalar relativistic effects included are evaluated on a test set of 20 enthalpies of formation ...
Trego Lori L - - 2009
AIM: The aim of this paper is to establish a theoretical model for the exploration of the phenomenon of menstruation and women's attitudes towards menstrual suppression during military operations. BACKGROUND: In the emerging field of literature that explores menstruation among military women, there are indications that menstrual symptoms and hygiene ...
Zhang Yuan-Jiang - - 2009
We investigate the psi(3770) non-DD decays into VP, where V and P denote vector and pseudoscalar mesons, respectively, via Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-rule-evading intermediate meson rescatterings in an effective Lagrangian theory. By identifying the leading meson loop transitions and constraining the model parameters with the available experimental data for psi(3770)-->J/psieta, phieta, and rhopi, ...
Hennessy Michael - - 2010
This paper highlights the distinction between precursor and control variables in the context of reasoned action theory. Here the theory is combined with structural equation modeling to demonstrate how age and past sexual behavior should be situated in a reasoned action analysis. A two wave longitudinal survey sample of African-American ...
Factor-Litvak Pam - - 2009
The authors apply the analogy of a "black box" from systems theory to epidemiologic problems. They highlight this process using the example of associations between sequential measures of body size and systolic blood pressure. Several other examples of the use of structural equation modeling or path analysis are described. Finally, ...
Scobbie Lesley - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Goal setting is considered to be a fundamental part of rehabilitation; however, theories of behaviour change relevant to goal-setting practice have not been comprehensively reviewed. OBJECTIVES: (i) To identify and discuss specific theories of behaviour change relevant to goal-setting practice in the rehabilitation setting. (ii) To identify 'candidate' theories ...
Witnauer James E - - 2009
We argue that the propositional and link-based approaches to human contingency learning represent different levels of analysis because propositional reasoning requires a basis, which is plausibly provided by a link-based architecture. Moreover, in their attempt to compare two general classes of models (link-based and propositional), Mitchell et al. have referred ...
Shields Walker - - 2009
The author applies Bion's intersubjective theory of thinking to study the influence of imaginative literature on the development of the capacity for figurative or metaphorical thought in response to affect-laden experience. Using a selection from Emily Dickinson's poetry and a soliloquy from Shakespeare's Hamlet in a study group model to ...
Yost William A - - 2009
In 1951, Licklider first suggested autocorrelation as a method to model pitch perception in his Duplex and Triplex Theories. It was not until 1991 that a full-fledged autocorrelation model was developed by Meddis and Hewitt. Over the past decades several investigators have refined autocorrelation or autocorrelation-like models to account for ...
Viemeister Neal F - - 2009
One of the more compelling and important aspects of auditory science has been the ability to relate perception to physiology and physics. This challenging endeavor has attracted fine minds from various disciplines and has provided theoretical frameworks for rigorously studying and describing at various levels many basic aspects of hearing. ...
Cannon Tyrone D - - 2009
As an epilogue to the themed papers on "Theories of Schizophrenia" in this issue of Schizophrenia Bulletin, this article reviews some basic philosophy of science principles in regard to the role of theories in the evolving state of a natural science discipline. While in early phases inductive and abductive logic ...
Djioua M - - 2009
The variability observed in handwriting patterns is analyzed from the perspective of integrating the resulting motor control knowledge in the design of more powerful handwriting recognizers in personal digital assistants (PDAs) and smartphones. Using the highest representational level of the Kinematic Theory of Rapid Human Movement, the Sigma-Lognormal model, this ...
Schneebeli Severin T ST Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, - - 2009
Herein we report the first fully quantum mechanical study of enantioselectivity for a large data set. We show that transition state modeling at the UB3LYP-DFT/6-31G* level of theory can accurately model enantioselectivity for various dioxirane-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidations. All the synthetically useful high selectivities are successfully "predicted" by this method. Our ...
Petit Giai - - 2009
The theoretical model of West, Brown and Enquist (hereafter WBE) proposed the fractal geometry of the transport system as the origin of the allometric scaling laws observed in nature. The WBE model has either been criticized for some restrictive and biologically unrealistic constraints or its reliability debated on the evidence ...
Massol François - - 2009
Metapopulation theory has recently been stirred by the development of a metapopulation persistence criterion (R(m)) quantifying the "lifetime dispersal success" of a newly colonized deme in a sparsely occupied metapopulation. No rigorous proof of this criterion in continuous time has been available so far. Here, we show that this criterion ...
Naito Mikako - - 2009
The present study compared the utility of two models (the Theory of Planned Behavior and Protection Motivation Theory) in identifying factors associated with intentions to undertake screening mammography, before and after an intervention. The comparison was made between the unique components of the two models. The effect of including implementation ...
Graham Kathryn - - 2009
This paper draws on situational crime prevention and social interactionist theories to develop a theoretical model for preventing aggression and injury in licensed drinking establishments. The model includes six components: (i) the presence of willing participants; (ii) the role of guardians, handlers and place managers; (iii) environmental deterrents of aggression; ...
Bennani Omar - - 2009
The modeling and simulation of a realistic nervous tissue are difficult because of the number of implied cell types (neuronal and glial), the topology of the networks, and the various heterogeneous molecular mechanisms. The MTIP (Mathematical Theory of Integrative Physiology) is used as a new modeling approach based on a ...
Farrelly Colin C Department of Political Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. - - 2009
In this paper I argue that the account of deliberative democracy advanced by Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson (1996, 2004) is a useful normative theory that can help enhance our deliberations about public policy in morally pluralistic societies. More specifically, I illustrate how the prescriptions of deliberative democracy can be ...
Strasser Andrew A AA Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center, University of Pennsylvania, 3535 Market Street, Suite 4100, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. - - 2009
Antitobacco media campaigns using public service announcements (PSAs) have shown promise in reducing smoking initiation and increasing intentions to quit. Research on what makes an effective PSA has had mixed outcomes. The present study tested the effects of specific message features in antitobacco PSAs, using theory-based physiological and self-report outcomes. ...
Guilhardi Paulo - - 2009
For theoretical explanations of data, parameter values estimated from a single dependent measure from one procedure are used to predict alternative dependent measures from many procedures. Theoretical explanations were compared to empirical explanations of data in which known functions and principles were used to fit only selected dependent measures. The ...
Zhou Shiqi - - 2009
Low temperature unsuitability is a problem plaguing thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) for years. Present investigation indicates that the low temperature predicament can be overcome by employing as reference system a nonhard sphere potential which incorporates one part of the attractive ingredient in a potential function of interest. In combination with ...
Elangovan Shreehari - - 2009
Intraneural ganglion cysts have been considered a curiosity for 2 centuries. Based on a unifying articular (synovial) theory, recent evidence has provided a logical explanation for their formation and propagation. The fundamental principle is that of a joint origin and a capsular defect through which synovial fluid escapes following the ...
Lippke Sonia - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Two different theories of health behaviour have been chosen with the aim of theory integration: a continuous theory (protection motivation theory, PMT) and a stage model (transtheoretical model, TTM). This is the first study to test whether the stages of the TTM moderate the interrelation of PMT-variables and the ...
Milton Fraser - - 2009
Two free classification experiments that investigate the persistence of sort strategy are reported. Participants tend to persist with their initial categorization type (family resemblance or unidimensional) for the remaining sorts, overriding the effects of otherwise influential stimulus properties. Sort type was found to persist even after a one-week delay. Stimulus-driven ...
Eckstein Miguel P - - 2009
Scrutiny of the numerous physiology and imaging studies of visual attention reveal that integration of results from neuroscience with the classic theories of visual attention based on behavioral work is not simple. The different subfields have pursued different questions, used distinct experimental paradigms and developed diverse models. The purpose of ...
Cameron Kenzie A - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To provide a brief overview of 15 selected persuasion theories and models, and to present examples of their use in health communication research. RESULTS: The theories are categorized as message effects models, attitude-behavior approaches, cognitive processing theories and models, consistency theories, inoculation theory, and functional approaches. CONCLUSIONS: As it ...
Sørensen Jesper G - - 2009
Hormesis, the beneficial effects of mild stress exposures, is a well documented phenomenon in a range of organisms. The documentation mainly relies on relatively simple and controlled laboratory investigations. In order to better understand hormesis and predict the outcome of more complex and realistic conditions, a number of key issues ...
Kim Sungsook C - - 2009
The purpose of this study is to compare two different methods for modeling rater effects in performance assessment: Generalizability (G) Theory and the Many-facet Rasch Model (MFRM). The view that G theory and the MFRM are alternative solutions to the same measurement problem, in particular, rater effects, is seen to ...
Fernandez Charles - - 2009
The fuzzy structure theory was introduced 20 years ago in order to model the effects of complex subsystems imprecisely known on a master structure. This theory was only aimed at structural dynamics. In this paper, an extension of that theory is proposed in developing an elastoacoustic element useful to model ...
May Carl R - - 2009
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Theories are important tools in the social and natural sciences. The methods by which they are derived are rarely described and discussed. Normalization Process Theory explains how new technologies, ways of acting, and ways of working become routinely embedded in everyday practice, and has applications in the study ...
Othmer Hans G - - 2009
We discuss theoretical and experimental approaches to three distinct developmental systems that illustrate how theory can influence experimental work and vice-versa. The chosen systems - Drosophila melanogaster, bacterial pattern formation, and pigmentation patterns - illustrate the fundamental physical processes of signaling, growth and cell division, and cell movement involved in ...
van Kampen Dirk - - 2009
The principal aim of this paper is to investigate whether it is possible to create a personality taxonomy of clinical relevance out of Eysenck's original PEN model by repairing the various shortcomings that can be noted in Eysenck's personality theory, particularly in relation to P or Psychoticism. Addressing three approaches ...
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