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Results 501 - 550 of 1522
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Hauser Marc - - 2010
We synthesize the contrasting predictions of motor simulation and teleological theories of action comprehension and present evidence from a series of studies showing that monkeys and apes-like humans-extract the meaning of an event by (a) going beyond the surface appearance of actions, attributing goals and intentions to the agent; (b) ...
Sefcek Jon A JA Department of Psychology, Hamilton College, Clinton, New York 13323, USA. - - 2010
Recent adaptationist accounts of human mental and physical health have reinvigorated the debate over the evolution of human intelligence. In the tradition of strong inference the current study was developed to determine whether either Miller's (1998, 2000a) Fitness Indicator Theory or Rushton's (1985, 2000) Differential-K Theory better accounts for general ...
Murray Richard F - - 2010
Bayesian cue combination models have been used to examine how human observers combine information from several cues to form estimates of linear quantities like depth. Here we develop an analogous theory for circular quantities like planar direction. The circular theory is broadly similar to the linear theory but differs in ...
Michie Susan S Centre for Outcomes Research and Effectiveness, University College London, UK. - - 2010
Interventions are increasingly described as theory-based; however, the basis for this is often not clear. Advancing behavioral science requires a good understanding of how interventions are informed by, and test, theory. This study aims to develop a reliable method for assessing the extent to which behavioral interventions are theory-based. The ...
Lee Michael D - - 2010
We develop and evaluate a model of behavior on the Give-N task, a commonly-used measure of young children's number knowledge. Our model uses the knower-level theory of how children represent numbers. To produce behavior on the Give-N task, the model assumes children start out with a base-rate that make some ...
Peter Christine - - 2010
This paper gives a short introduction to multiscale simulation approaches in soft matter science. This paper is based on and extended from a previous review. (1. C. Peter and K. Kremer, Soft Matter, 2009, DOI:10.1039/b912027k.) It also includes a discussion of aspects of soft matter in general and a short ...
Bonetti Debbie - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour ...
Kim Byoung Woo BW Motivation and Emotion Neuroscience Collaboration, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of - - 2010
Approach and avoidance behavior provide a means for assessing the rewarding or aversive value of stimuli, and can be quantified by a keypress procedure whereby subjects work to increase (approach), decrease (avoid), or do nothing about time of exposure to a rewarding/aversive stimulus. To investigate whether approach/avoidance behavior might be ...
Barros Allan Kardec - - 2010
Consciousness has been a subject of crescent interest among the neuroscience community. However, building machine models of it is quite challenging, as it involves many characteristics and properties of the human brain which are poorly defined or are very abstract. Here I propose to use information theory (IT) to give ...
Plaut David C - - 2010
According to Bowers, the finding that there are neurons with highly selective responses to familiar stimuli supports theories positing localist representations over approaches positing the type of distributed representations typically found in parallel distributed processing (PDP) models. However, his conclusions derive from an overly narrow view of the range of ...
Frank David M - - 2010
Decision analysis and game theory have proved useful tools in various biodiversity conservation planning and modeling contexts. This paper shows how game theory may be used to inform group decisions in biodiversity conservation scenarios by modeling conflicts between stakeholders to identify Pareto-inefficient Nash equilibria. These are cases in which each ...
Brown Scott C - - 2010
This article comments on the paper by Rene Jahiel and Marcia Joslyn Scherer elsewhere in this issue. This article adds theoretical constructs. In commenting on their paper, this article makes four broad points. First, the sub-components identified by Drs. Jahiel and Scherer comprise critical factors of disability and the environment ...
Heckhausen Jutta J Department of Psychology and Social Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-7085, USA. - - 2010
This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the ...
Todres Les - - 2010
In this article we offer an existential theory of well-being that is guided by Heidegger's later writings on "homecoming". We approach the question of what it is about the essence of well-being that makes all kinds of well-being possible. Consistent with a phenomenological approach, well-being is both a way of ...
Obrist Dominik - - 2010
We present an experimental model for a semicircular canal with canalithiasis. Canalithiasis is a pathological condition where free-floating particles disturb the flow field in the semicircular canals. It may lead to a specific form of vertigo known as BPPV or top-shelf vertigo. A careful scaling of the physical and geometrical ...
Dickhaut John - - 2009
We develop a neuronal theory of the choice process (NTCP), which takes a subject from the moment in which two options are presented to the selection of one of the two. The theory is based on an optimal signal detection, which generalizes the signal detection theory by adding the choice ...
Farmer Mark A - - 2010
In recent years the teaching of the religiously based philosophy of intelligent design (ID) has been proposed as an alternative to modern evolutionary theory. Advocates of ID are largely motivated by their opposition to naturalistic explanations of biological diversity, in accordance with their goal of challenging the philosophy of scientific ...
Poggiale J-C - - 2009
This paper provides a mathematical analysis of a virus-marine bacteria interaction model. The model is a simplified case of the model published and used by Middelboe (Middelboe, M. 2000 Microb. Ecol. 40, 114-124). It takes account of the virus, the susceptible bacteria, the infected bacteria and the substrate in a ...
Dean Paul - - 2010
Initial investigations of the cerebellar microcircuit inspired the Marr-Albus theoretical framework of cerebellar function. We review recent developments in the experimental understanding of cerebellar microcircuit characteristics and in the computational analysis of Marr-Albus models. We conclude that many Marr-Albus models are in effect adaptive filters, and that evidence for symmetrical ...
Donkin Chris - - 2009
Theories of choice response time (RT) provide insight into the psychological underpinnings of simple decisions. Evidence accumulation (or sequential sampling) models are the most successful theories of choice RT. These models all have the same "scaling" property--that a subset of their parameters can be multiplied by the same amount without ...
Adler Rolf H - - 2009
In 1977, Engel published the seminal paper, "The Need for a New Medical Model: A Challenge for Biomedicine" [Science 196 (1977) 129-136]. He featured a biopsychosocial (BPS) model based on systems theory and on the hierarchical organization of organisms. In this essay, the model is extended by the introduction of ...
Branco Angela Uchoa - - 2009
Humans' tendency to classify and categorize is definitely overspread, but it can be misleading at all fields, including epistemology, ontology, theory, and analysis of scientific knowledge construction itself. Sanchez and Loredo (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 43:4, 2009-DOI 10.1007/s12124-009-9091-1) in their article on classification of contemporary constructivists fall exactly ...
Morgan R M - - 2009
In order for trace evidence to have a high evidential value, experimental studies which mimic the forensic reality are of fundamental importance. Such primary level experimentation is crucial to establish a coherent body of theory concerning the generation, transfer and persistence of different forms of trace physical evidence. We contend ...
Pesek Joseph J - - 2009
"Chance favors the prepared mind." Louis Pasteur. "Reality is merely an illusion, albeit a very persistent one". Albert Einstein. As so succinctly stated by these two famous scientists, it is sometimes necessary to step outside the bounds of traditional thinking and look at ideas that many claim to be impossible ...
Wagner Günter P - - 2010
In this article, an approach to measure fitness is proposed that considers fitness as a measure of competitive ability among phenotypes or genotypes. This approach is based on pairwise competition tests and is related to measures of "utility" in mathematical economics. Extending the results from utility theory it is possible ...
Morillon Benjamin - - 2009
Gibbon's scalar expectancy theory assumes three processing stages in time estimation: a collating level in which event durations are automatically tracked, a counting level that reads out the time-tracking system, and a comparing level in which event durations are matched to abstract temporal references. P??ppel's theory, however, postulates a dual ...
Seveno D - - 2009
We present new spreading-drop data obtained over four orders of time and apply our new analysis tool G-Dyna to demonstrate the specific range over which the various models of dynamic wetting would seem to apply for our experimental system. We follow the contact angle and radius dynamics of four liquids ...
Aven Terje - - 2010
It is common perspective in risk analysis that there are two kinds of uncertainties: i) variability as resulting from heterogeneity and stochasticity (aleatory uncertainty) and ii) partial ignorance or epistemic uncertainties resulting from systematic measurement error and lack of knowledge. Probability theory is recognized as the proper tool for treating ...
Buda Francesco - - 2009
Theory and molecular modeling play an increasingly important role in complementing the experimental findings and supporting the interpretation of the data. Owing to the increase in computational power combined with the development of more efficient methods, computer simulations and modeling have emerged as primary ingredients of modern scientific inquiry. Here, ...
L'Abate Luciano - - 2009
The author searched for empirically based theories and models with an interpersonal and relational focus. This search was conducted in spite of academic and professional psychology's general avoidance of theory building coupled with an exaggerated reliance on empirical evidence, producing a chaotic proliferation of models unrelated to each other. Requirements ...
Machado Gustavo M - - 2009
Color vision deficiency (CVD) affects approximately 200 million people worldwide, compromising the ability of these individuals to effectively perform color and visualization-related tasks. This has a significant impact on their private and professional lives. We present a physiologically-based model for simulating color vision. Our model is based on the stage ...
Pawłowski Marcin - - 2009
Quantum physics has remarkable distinguishing characteristics. For example, it gives only probabilistic predictions (non-determinism) and does not allow copying of unknown states (no-cloning). Quantum correlations may be stronger than any classical ones, but information cannot be transmitted faster than light (no-signalling). However, these features do not uniquely define quantum physics. ...
Rundle Andrew G - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Hemodilution theory states that higher blood volume in obese men effectively dilutes circulating PSA levels resulting in lower PSA test results. Here we apply hemodilution theory to model the effect of weight gain on PSA velocity. METHODS: Hemodilution formulas were used to model PSA velocity for a series of ...
Bruza Peter - - 2009
Following an early claim by Nelson & McEvoy (35) suggesting that word associations can display 'spooky action at a distance behaviour', a serious investigation of the potentially quantum nature of such associations is currently underway. In this paper quantum theory is proposed as a framework suitable for modelling the human ...
Przybylski Andrew K - - 2009
The present research examined the background and consequences of different styles of engagement in video game play. Based on self-determination theory(1) and the dualistic model of passion,(2) the authors hypothesized that high levels of basic psychological need satisfaction would foster harmonious passion for video play, supporting the subjective sense that ...
Jakimowicz Aleksander - - 2009
The 7-fold interdisciplinary matrix is introduced. This integrated methodological point of view is original, although it is based on ideas of others in various ways. The name for this new approach draws on the Kuhnian notion of a disciplinary matrix. There are four components of the Kuhnian matrix on which ...
Baaquie Belal E - - 2009
Interest rate instruments form a major component of the capital markets. The Libor market model (LMM) is the finance industry standard interest rate model for both Libor and Euribor, which are the most important interest rates. The quantum finance formulation of the Libor market model is given in this paper ...
Juslin Peter - - 2009
Probability theory has long been taken as the self-evident norm against which to evaluate inductive reasoning, and classical demonstrations of violations of this norm include the conjunction error and base-rate neglect. Many of these phenomena require multiplicative probability integration, whereas people seem more inclined to linear additive integration, in part, ...
George Dileep - - 2009
The theoretical setting of hierarchical Bayesian inference is gaining acceptance as a framework for understanding cortical computation. In this paper, we describe how Bayesian belief propagation in a spatio-temporal hierarchical model, called Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM), can lead to a mathematical model for cortical circuits. An HTM node is abstracted ...
Bonetti Debbie - - 2009
This study used multiple theoretical approaches simultaneously to predict an objectively measured clinical behaviour. The six theoretical approaches were: The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Action Planning (AP) and the Precaution Adoption Process (PAP), with knowledge as ...
Yu Kang Yang Trevor - - 2009
Person-environment (P-E) fit theory is a general framework that has been used extensively to understand thinking and behavior in organizations. However, recent research has highlighted several important issues that compromise understanding of the P-E fit construct. First, it is widely assumed that affect is only an outcome of P-E fit. ...
Chia Nicholas N Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, Illinois 61801, - - 2009
We analyze a system-level model for lytic repression of lambda phage in E. coli using reliability theory, showing that the repressor circuit comprises four redundant components whose failure mode is prophage induction. Our model reflects the specific biochemical mechanisms involved in regulation, including long-range cooperative binding, and its detailed predictions ...
Rahme Ralph - - 2010
The natural history of external hydrocephalus (EH) in adults is often marked by conversion into internal hydrocephalus. We describe a complication of this conversion, the ICE (intracerebral CSF entrapment) phenomenon, and demonstrate that both EH and ICE represent a challenge to current theories on the pathophysiology of communicating hydrocephalus (CHC). ...
Barnard Amanda S - - 2009
For the move from nanoscience to nanotechnology to be sustainable, it is important that the issues surrounding possible 'nano-hazards' be addressed before commercialization. The global push for more environmentally friendly, biodegradable products, means the introduction of the nanoparticles contained within these products into the ecosystem is an inevitability. When this ...
Kamerlin Shina C L SC Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, 3620 McClintock Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. - - 2009
In recent years, the EVB has become a widely used tool in the QM/MM modeling of reactions in condensed phases and in biological systems, with ever increasing popularity. However, despite the fact that its power and validity have been repeatedly established since 1980, a recent work (Valero, R.; et al. ...
Setzer William N - - 2009
A conformational analysis of nine macrocyclic thioether musks has been carried out using molecular mechanics (MMFF), density functional theory (DFT) using both B3LYP and M06 functionals, as well as Hartree-Fock and post-Hartree-Fock (MP2) ab initio methods. 6-Thia-, 10-thia- and 4-methyl-5-thia-14-tetradecananolide, 4-thia-, 7-thia-, 11-thia- and 12-thia-15-pentadecanolide and 6-thia- and 12-thia-16-hexadecanolide were ...
Diehl Joshua J - - 2009
In this article, we comment on specific aspects of Peppé (Peppé, 2009). In particular, we address the assessment and treatment of prosody in clinical settings and discuss current theory on neurological models of prosody. We argue that in order for prosodic assessment instruments and treatment programs to be clinical effective, ...
Neuman Yair - - 2009
In this short theoretical paper, I discuss Bion's three relations of love, hate, and knowledge, using Peirce's semiotic theory of relations and Bakhtin's semiotic/philosophical writings. Reading Bion through the prism of these resources allows us to better understand the meaning and ontogenesis of the basic relations and to examine their ...
Wiefel Andreas - - 2009
We discuss methodological problems and present our own empirical data on calculation tasks in toddlers. We propose to develop enriching theoretical models concerning quantity representations, based on empirical findings from developmental psychology. A revitalization of the debate is worthy, because it is reminiscent of the philosophical dispute on universal entities ...
Kearney Michael - - 2009
The process of speciation remains a fundamental topic in evolutionary biology. Numerous models of speciation have been proposed and they are as diverse and colourful as the scientists who conceived them (Coyne & Orr 2004). One of the more controversial theories has been the 'stasipatric speciation' model, proposed by the ...
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