Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1522
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >
Reeves Mark - - 2010
Linehan's biosocial theory of borderline personality disorder (BPD) was tested in a sample of 1,044 female college students. Relationships between self-reported BPD symptoms, two personality traits (negative emotionality and constraint), and three key variables from the biosocial theory (emotional vulnerability, invalidation, and emotional dysregulation) were examined using structural equation modeling. ...
West Bruce J - - 2010
In this paper, the concept of knowledge is argued to be the top of a three-tiered system of science. The first tier is that of measurement and data, followed by information consisting of the patterns within the data, and ending with theory that interprets the patterns and yields knowledge. Thus, ...
Besson Patricia - - 2010
Thanks to their different senses, human observers acquire multiple information coming from their environment. Complex cross-modal interactions occur during this perceptual process. This article proposes a framework to analyze and model these interactions through a rigorous and systematic data-driven process. This requires considering the general relationships between the physical events ...
Max-Neef Manfred - - 2010
The first part of the paper is an attempt to demonstrate that what we are going through at the present time is not just an economic-financial crisis, but a crisis of humanity. It seems that for the first time in human history several crises converge to simultaneously reach their maximum ...
Balas Benjamin - - 2010
Newborn infants appear to possess an innate bias that guides preferential orienting to and tracking of human faces. There is, however, no clear agreement as to the underlying mechanism supporting such a preference. In particular, two competing theories (known as the 'structural' and 'sensory' hypotheses) conjecture fundamentally different biasing mechanisms ...
van Dijke Marius - - 2010
Building on fairness heuristic theory, fairness theory, and trust development models, we argue that unfairly enacted procedures decrease followers' trust in the authority particularly when authorities have high power over their followers. Moreover, we expected trust to mediate procedural fairness effects on followers' attitudes (authorities' legitimacy and charisma attributed to ...
Sterba Sonya K - - 2010
The person-oriented approach seeks to match theories and methods that portray development as a holistic, highly interactional, and individualized process. Over the past decade, this approach has gained popularity in developmental psychopathology research, particularly as model-based varieties of person-oriented methods have emerged. Although these methods allow some principles of person-oriented ...
Kalmijn Matthijs - - 2010
Little is known about the validity of group-level theories of ethnic intermarriage despite the fact that such theories are often invoked in explaining why certain ethnic groups are "closed," whereas others are relatively "open." We develop a comparative perspective by analyzing the marriage choices of 94 national-origin groups in the ...
Heit Evan - - 2010
One of the most important open questions in reasoning research is how inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning are related. In an effort to address this question, we applied methods and concepts from memory research. We used 2 experiments to examine the effects of logical validity and premise-conclusion similarity on evaluation ...
Péron Guillaume - - 2010
Life-history theory predicts that traits involved in maturity, reproduction and survival correlate along a fast-slow continuum of life histories. Evolutionary theories and empirical results indicate that senescence-related traits vary along this continuum, with slow species senescing later and at a slower pace than fast species. Because senescence patterns are typically ...
Jaloustre S - - 2011
Models on Clostridium perfringens growth which have been published to date have all been deterministic. A probabilistic model describing growth under non-isothermal conditions was thus proposed for predicting C. perfringens growth in beef-in-sauce products cooked and distributed in a French hospital. Model parameters were estimated from different types of data ...
Baraldi Piero - - 2010
Model uncertainty is a primary source of uncertainty in the assessment of the performance of repositories for the disposal of nuclear wastes, due to the complexity of the system and the large spatial and temporal scales involved. This work considers multiple assumptions on the system behavior and corresponding alternative plausible ...
Spencer Charles S - - 2010
A major research problem in anthropology is the origin of the state and its bureaucratic form of governance. Of particular importance for evaluating theories of state origins are cases of primary state formation, whereby a first-generation state evolves without contact with any preexisting states. A general model of this process, ...
Stangalini Marco - - 2010
Karhunen-Loève functions represent the best choice for modal wavefront reconstruction. They are usually built up as a linear combination of Zernike polynomials by using principal component analysis methods; thus they are ordered by covariance. Using Shannon information theory, we provide a best reordering procedure based on the concept of mutual ...
Buckingham Hugh W - - 2010
Charles Darwin's evolutionary theories of animal communication were deeply embedded in a centuries-old model of association psychology, whose prodromes have most often been traced to the writings of Aristotle. His notions of frequency of occurrence of pairings have been passed down through the centuries and were a major ontological feature ...
Soto Fabian A - - 2010
The authors present a quantitative framework for interpreting the results of multidimensional stimulus generalization experiments in animals using concepts derived from the geometrical approach to human cognition. The authors apply the model to the analysis of stimulus generalization data obtained from pigeons trained with different sets of stimuli varying along ...
Kligman David H - - 2010
The importance and difficulty of validating psychoanalytic interpretations at the time they are made led the author to propose an existential hypothesis method, which involves formulating fundamental psychoanalytic theories as existential hypotheses (i.e., hypotheses that claim the theories are true at least for one case but not necessarily for all) ...
Osiurak François - - 2010
One of the most exciting issues in psychology is, What are the psychological mechanisms underlying human tool use? The computational approach assumes that the use of a tool (e.g., a hammer) requires the extraction of sensory information about object properties (heavy, rigid), which can then be translated into appropriate motor ...
Ayman Roya - - 2010
For decades, understanding of leadership has been largely based on the results of studies carried out on White men in the United States. We review major theories and models of leadership as they pertain to either gender or culture. We focus on 3 approaches to leadership: trait (including leadership categorization ...
Ossikovski Razvigor - - 2010
It is shown that the currently used depolarization criteria of Gil and Bernabeu [Opt. Acta 33, 185 (1986)] and Cloude [Optik (Stuttgart) 75, 26 (1986)] may produce erroneous results when applied to a special class of Mueller matrices. Alternative criteria, based on the Lorentz singular values of the Mueller matrix, ...
Higgins Julia S - - 2010
Polymeric mixtures are important materials, but the control and understanding of mixing behaviour poses problems. The original Flory-Huggins theoretical approach, using a lattice model to compute the statistical thermodynamics, provides the basic understanding of the thermodynamic processes involved but is deficient in describing most real systems, and has little or ...
Reyes Reinabelle - - 2010
Although general relativity underlies modern cosmology, its applicability on cosmological length scales has yet to be stringently tested. Such a test has recently been proposed, using a quantity, E(G), that combines measures of large-scale gravitational lensing, galaxy clustering and structure growth rate. The combination is insensitive to 'galaxy bias' (the ...
Spratling Michael W - - 2010
A simple model is shown to account for a large range of V1 classical, and nonclassical, receptive field properties including orientation tuning, spatial and temporal frequency tuning, cross-orientation suppression, surround suppression, and facilitation and inhibition by flankers and textured surrounds. The model is an implementation of the predictive coding theory ...
Quelhas Ana Cristina - - 2010
The theory of mental models postulates that conditionals of the sort, if A then C, have a "core" meaning referring to three possibilities: A and C, not-A and C, and not-A and not-C. The meaning of a conditional's clauses and general knowledge can modulate this meaning, blocking certain possibilities or ...
Dupere Iain D J - - 2010
A model is presented for propagation along a flexible pipe whose thickness is not small in comparison with its diameter across a partial blockage with varying sizes and material properties. Comparison is made with Flugge's well-known thin-shell theory for a propagation along a pipe where it is found that the ...
Matveev Konstantin I - - 2010
A miniature standing-wave thermoacoustic engine was constructed and tested with four quarter-wavelength resonators having lengths in the range of 57-124 mm. 80-ppi reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foam was applied as a stack, and an atmospheric air served as a working fluid. The critical temperature difference between the stack ends, corresponding ...
Ivanova Milena - - 2010
This paper examines Duhem's concept of good sense as an attempt to support a non rule-governed account of rationality in theory choice. Faced with the underdetermination of theory by evidence thesis and the continuity thesis, Duhem tried to account for the ability of scientists to choose theories that continuously grow ...
Brody Baruch A - - 2010
The issue of biopiracy has attracted considerable attention in recent years. The Convention on Biological Diversity adopted a principle of state sovereignty over biological resources and the genetic information contained within those resources to address this issue. It is argued that this principle has not been adequately justified and that ...
Ryu Seunghwa - - 2010
While the classical nucleation theory (CNT) is widely used to predict the rate of first-order phase transitions, its validity has been questioned due to discrepancies with experiments. We systematically test the individual components of CNT by computer simulations of the Ising models and confirm its fundamental assumptions under a wide ...
Muna? G - - 2010
We report molecular dynamics and reference interaction site model (RISM) theory of methanol and carbon tetrachloride mixtures. Our study encompasses the whole concentration range, by including the pure component limits. We majorly focus on an analysis of partial, total, and concentration-concentration structure factors, and examine in detail the k-->0 limits ...
Gardner Benjamin B Centre for Outcomes Research and Effectiveness, University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London WC1E 7HB, UK. - - 2010
Evidence syntheses are used to inform health care policy and practice. Behaviour change theories offer frameworks for categorising and evaluating interventions and identifying likely mechanisms through which effects are achieved. Yet systematic reviews rarely explicitly classify intervention components using theory, which may result in evidence syntheses and health care practice ...
Rosas Alejandro - - 2010
Evolutionary game theory has shown that human cooperation thrives in different types of social interactions with a PD structure. Models treat the cooperative strategies within the different frameworks as discrete entities and sometimes even as contenders. Whereas strong reciprocity was acclaimed as superior to classic reciprocity for its ability to ...
Szulkin Marta - - 2010
Owing to the remarkable progress of molecular techniques, heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) have become a popular tool to study the impact of inbreeding in natural populations. However, their underlying mechanisms are often hotly debated. Here we argue that these "debates" rely on verbal arguments with no basis in existing theory and ...
Hoquet Thierry - - 2010
Focusing on "The Orchids," this article aims at disentangling the concepts of teleology, design and natural theology. It refers to several contemporary critics of Darwin (Kölliker, Argyll, Royer, Candolle, Delpino) to challenge Huxley's interpretation that Darwin's system was "a deathblow" to teleology. "The Orchids" seems rather to be a "flank-movement" ...
Cimpian Andrei - - 2010
Under what circumstances do people agree that a kind-referring generic sentence (e.g., "Swans are beautiful") is true? We hypothesized that theory-based considerations are sufficient, independently of prevalence/frequency information, to lead to acceptance of a generic statement. To provide evidence for this general point, we focused on demonstrating the impact of ...
Tluczek Audrey A University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53792, USA. - - 2010
In this grounded, dimensional analysis we describe the experiences of five couples whose infants had equivocal diagnostic test results following positive genetic newborn screens for cystic fibrosis. We analyzed interview data collected at two points during each infant's first year. Uncertainty emerged as the central thematic dimension. Results showed that ...
Maia Tiago V - - 2010
Two-factor theory (Mowrer, 1947, 1951, 1956) remains one of the most influential theories of avoidance, but it is at odds with empirical findings that demonstrate sustained avoidance responding in situations in which the theory predicts that the response should extinguish. This article shows that the well-known actor-critic model seamlessly addresses ...
Allen Diane D - - 2010
Testing theories of human performance requires measurement of latent constructs like performer perception and motivation, intrinsic parts of performance, but nebulous to assess. Item response modeling (IRM) methods model latent constructs directly and thus can assist in the development and testing of theory. This article presents an application of IRM ...
Shear M Katherine MK Columbia University School of Social Work, New York, NY 10027, USA. - - 2010
Avoidance can be adaptive and facilitate the healing process of acute grief or it can be maladaptive and hinder this same process. Maladaptive cognitive or behavioral avoidance comprises the central feature of the condition of complicated grief. This article explores the concept of experiential avoidance as it applies to bereavement, ...
Cooney Adeline - - 2010
Choosing between Glaserian and Straussian grounded theory when selecting a methodological approach can be challenging, but few papers consider this decision-making process. This paper explores the Glaser-Strauss debate using an example of a study which explored whether older people experience a sense of home in residential settings.
Barrett Nathaniel F - - 2010
Cognitive science of the last half-century has been dominated by the computational theory of mind and its picture of thought as information processing. Taking this picture for granted, the most prominent evolutionary theories of religion of the last fifteen years have sought to understand human religiosity as the product or ...
Brady David - - 2010
Despite its centrality to contemporary inequality, working poverty is often popularly discussed but rarely studied by sociologists. Using the Luxembourg Income Study (2009), we analyze whether an individual is working poor across 18 affluent democracies circa 2000. We demonstrate that working poverty does not simply mirror overall poverty and that ...
Lesthaeghe Ron - - 2010
This article presents a narrative of the unfolding of the Second Demographic Transition (SDT) since the theory was first formulated in 1986. The first part recapitulates the foundations of the theory, and documents the spread of the SDT to the point that it now covers most European populations. Also for ...
Petersik J Timothy - - 2010
Using a bistable apparent-motion display, Odic and Pratt (2008, Perception 37 1790-1804) have recently presented data that they interpret as being inconsistent with what they call "the two-process theory". Instead, they argue, their data can be explained by the differential-activation theory along with a process they identify as "temporal summation ...
Pearl Judea - - 2010
This paper summarizes recent advances in causal inference and underscores the paradigmatic shifts that must be undertaken in moving from traditional statistical analysis to causal analysis of multivariate data. Special emphasis is placed on the assumptions that underlie all causal inferences, the languages used in formulating those assumptions, the conditional ...
De Champlain Andr? F - - 2010
CONTEXT: A test score is a number which purportedly reflects a candidate's proficiency in some clearly defined knowledge or skill domain. A test theory model is necessary to help us better understand the relationship that exists between the observed (or actual) score on an examination and the underlying proficiency in ...
White I - - 2010
Household adoption of rainwater harvesting (RH) systems recently boomed in Australian urban centres. As a sustainable supplement to the mains supply, water authorities regarded RH as a demand management device. Yet what actually motivated household RH adoption was not well understood. Burawoy's 'extended case method' was used to link grounded ...
Colonius Hans - - 2010
THE SPATIOTEMPORAL WINDOW OF INTEGRATION HAS BECOME A WIDELY ACCEPTED CONCEPT IN MULTISENSORY RESEARCH: crossmodal information falling within this window is highly likely to be integrated, whereas information falling outside is not. Here we further probe this concept in a reaction time context with redundant crossmodal targets. An infinitely large ...
Sameroff Arnold - - 2010
The understanding of nature and nurture within developmental science has evolved with alternating ascendance of one or the other as primary explanations for individual differences in life course trajectories of success or failure. A dialectical perspective emphasizing the interconnectedness of individual and context is suggested to interpret the evolution of ...
Rescigno Aldo - - 2010
There are two main branches of Mathematics: Calculus and Geometry; in Physics there are Constructive Theories and Principle Theories. Similarly in Pharmacokinetics we can build models with two opposite approaches, the bottom-up and the top-down point of view. In this short opinion article I will try to show, with the ...
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >