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Manzano Sara S Group of Structural Mechanics and Materials Modelling (GEMM), Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Spain Mechanical Engineering Department, School of Engineering and Architecture (EINA), University of Zaragoza, Spain Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), - - 2015
In healthy cartilage, mechano-electrochemical phenomena act together to maintain tissue homeostasis. Osteoarthritis (OA) and degenerative diseases disrupt this biological equilibrium by causing structural deterioration and subsequent dysfunction of the tissue. Swelling and ion flux alteration as well as abnormal ion distribution are proposed as primary indicators of tissue degradation. In ...
Storelvmo T T Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, 210 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511, USA - - 2014
Climate engineering, the intentional alteration of Earth's climate, is a multifaceted and controversial topic. Numerous climate engineering mechanisms (CEMs) have been proposed, and the efficacies and potential undesired consequences of some of them have been studied in the safe environments of numerical models. Here, we present a global modelling study ...
Salinas Cristian A CA 1] Imanova, Centre for Imaging Sciences, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK [2] Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania, - - 2014
Reference tissue models have gained significant traction over the last two decades as the methods of choice for the quantification of brain positron emission tomography data because they balance quantitative accuracy with less invasive procedures. The principal advantage is the elimination of the need to perform arterial cannulation of the ...
Oberortner Ernst - - 2014
miniEugene provides computational support for solving combinatorial design problems, enabling users to specify and enumerate designs for novel biological systems based on sets of biological constraints. This technical note presents a brief tutorial for biologists and software engineers in the field of synthetic biology on how to use miniEugene. After ...
Meffin Hamish H NeuroEngineering Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia. NICTA Victoria Research Laboratory, Parkville, VIC 3010, - - 2014
Objective. A common approach in modelling extracellular electrical stimulation is to represent neural tissue by a volume conductor when calculating the activating function as the driving term in a cable equation for the membrane potential. This approach ignores the cellular composition of tissue, including the neurites and their combined effect ...
Tahayori Bahman B NeuroEngineering Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, - - 2014
Objective. The objective of this paper is to present a concrete application of the cellular composite model for calculating the membrane potential, described in an accompanying paper. Approach. A composite model that is used to determine the membrane potential for both longitudinal and transverse modes of stimulation is demonstrated. Main ...
Liu Yifei Y Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, - - 2014
Changes in the viscoelastic parameters of soft biological tissues often correlate with progression of disease, trauma or injury, and response to treatment. Identifying the most appropriate viscoelastic model, then estimating and monitoring the corresponding parameters of that model can improve insight into the underlying tissue structural changes. MR Elastography (MRE) ...
Buganza Tepole A A a Department of Mechanical Engineering , Stanford University , Stanford , CA 94305 , - - 2014
Wound healing is a synchronized cascade of chemical, biological, and mechanical phenomena, which act in concert to restore the damaged tissue. An imbalance between these events can induce painful scarring. Despite intense efforts to decipher the mechanisms of wound healing, the role of mechanics remains poorly understood. Here, we establish ...
De Napoli M M INFN-Sezione di Catania, 64, Via S. Sofia, I-95123 Catania, - - 2014
When a carbon beam interacts with human tissues, many secondary fragments are produced into the tumor region and the surrounding healthy tissues. Therefore, in hadrontherapy precise dose calculations require Monte Carlo tools equipped with complex nuclear reaction models. To get realistic predictions, however, simulation codes must be validated against experimental ...
Makedonska Jana J Department of Anthropology, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY, - - 2014
In complex organisms, suites of non-random, highly intercorrelated phenotypic traits, organized according to their developmental history and forming semi-autonomous units (i.e. modules), have the potential to impose constraints on morphological diversification or to improve evolvability. Because of its structural, developmental and functional complexity, the cranium is arguably one of the ...
Jutila Aaron A AA Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Montana State University, 220 Roberts Hall, Bozeman, MT, 59718, - - 2014
In articular cartilage, chondrocytes reside within a gel-like pericellular matrix (PCM). This matrix provides a mechanical link through which joint loads are transmitted to chondrocytes. The stiffness of the PCM decreases in the most common degenerative joint disease, osteoarthritis. To develop a system for modeling the stiffness of both the ...
Stephan Carl N CN School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4072, Australia, - - 2014
Facial soft tissue thickness means have long been used as a proxy to estimate the soft tissue envelope, over the skull, in craniofacial identification. However, estimation errors of these statistics are not well understood, making casework selection of the best performing estimation models impossible and overarching method accuracies controversial. To ...
Peng Bo B Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, - - 2014
Computer simulations have been widely used to validate and evaluate the power of statistical methods for genetic epidemiological studies. Although a large number of simulation methods and software packages have been developed for genome-wide association studies, methodological and bioinformatics challenges have limited their applications in simulating datasets for whole-genome and ...
Meseguer Andrea S AS 1- Department of Biodiversity and Conservation, Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Plaza de Murillo 2, 28014, Madrid, Spain; 2- The Center for Biology and Management of Populations (CBGP), Avenue du Campus Agropolis, 34980 Montferrier-sur-Lez, France; asanchezmeseguer@gmail.com - - 2014
In disciplines such as macroevolution that are not amenable to experimentation, scientists usually rely on current observations to test hypotheses about historical events, assuming that "the present is the key to the past". Biogeographers, for example, used this assumption to reconstruct ancestral ranges from the present distribution of extant species. ...
Pescina Silvia S Interdepartmental Center Biopharmanet-TEC, University of Parma, Parma, 43124, - - 2014
In this paper, an ex vivo model for the study of the transcorneal permeation of drugs, based on porcine tissues, was evaluated. The setup is characterized by ease of realization, absence of O2 and CO2 bubbling and low cost; additionally, the large availability of porcine tissue permits a high throughput. ...
May Jason T JT United States Geological Survey, California Water Science Center, Sacramento, CA, USA, - - 2015
We used boosted regression trees (BRT) to model stream biological condition as measured by benthic macroinvertebrate taxonomic completeness, the ratio of observed to expected (O/E) taxa. Models were developed with and without exclusion of rare taxa at a site. BRT models are robust, requiring few assumptions compared with traditional modeling ...
Kucukgul Can C Industrial and Manufacturing System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Istanbul, 34956, - - 2014
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of deaths throughout the world. Vascular diseases are mostly treated with autografts and blood vessel transplantations. However, traditional grafting methods have several problems including lack of suitable harvest sites, additional surgical costs for harvesting procedure, pain, infection, lack of donors and even no substitutes ...
Wang Martha O MO Fischell Department of Bioengineering, 3238 Jeong H. Kim Engineering Building, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, - - 2014
There is an unmet need for a consistent set of tools for the evaluation of 3D-printed constructs. A toolbox developed to design, characterize, and evaluate 3D-printed poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds is proposed for vascularized engineered tissues. This toolbox combines modular design and non-destructive fabricated design evaluation, evaluates biocompatibility and mechanical properties, ...
Perrin Christophe C Laboratoire Central d'Anatomie Pathologique, Hôpital L.Pasteur, University of Nice, - - 2014
The nail mesenchyme, as ligamentous connective tissue, is classically described as a single compartment. Some authors have even suggested the concept of the nail as a musculoskeletal appendage. Recent studies conducted on supernumerary digits surgically removed for polydactily or developing nail organ have introduced into the literature a new concept: ...
Fatone Stefania S Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA - - 2014
Misaligning the mechanical axes of Ankle-Foot Orthoses with the ankle axis may lead to tissue damage, reduced gait efficiency, and mechanical wear on the orthosis. Previous models developed to describe the consequences of joint misalignments have only been applied to the sagittal plane. In this study, a previously developed three-dimensional ...
Beck Caroline W CW Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New - - 2014
The anatomical tailbud is a defining feature of all embryonic chordates, including vertebrates that do not end up with a morphological tail. Due to its seamless continuity with trunk tissues, the tailbud is often overlooked as a mere extension of the body axis; however, the formation of the tail from ...
Launay G G UMR 5086 CNRS - Université Lyon 1, 69367 Lyon Cedex 07, - - 2014
MatrixDB (http://matrixdb.ibcp.fr) is a freely available database focused on interactions established by extracellular proteins and polysaccharides. It is an active member of the International Molecular Exchange (IMEx) consortium and has adopted the PSI-MI standards for annotating and exchanging interaction data, either at the MIMIx or IMEx level. MatrixDB content has ...
Kleftogiannis Dimitrios D Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering Division (CEMSE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi - - 2014
Transcription regulation in multicellular eukaryotes is orchestrated by a number of DNA functional elements located at gene regulatory regions. Some regulatory regions (e.g. enhancers) are located far away from the gene they affect. Identification of distal regulatory elements is a challenge for the bioinformatics research. Although existing methodologies increased the ...
Yang X X Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, - - 2014
A multi-compartment physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to describe the disposition of cyadox (CYX) and its metabolite quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA) after a single oral administration was developed in rats (200 mg/kg b.w. of CYX). Considering interspecies differences in physiology and physiochemistry, the model efficiency was validated by pharmacokinetic data set in ...
Balaban Jordan P JP Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode - - 2014
Sharks have cartilaginous elements that support the jaws and are subjected to variable loads. The aim of this study was to understand how these elements, the hyomandibulae, respond to compressive loads, and to describe the structural level mechanical properties of mineralized cartilage. Mechanical stiffness and effective Poisson's ratio of the ...
Smit Kirsten F KF Department of Anaesthesiology, Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anaesthesiology (L.E.I.C.A.), Academic Medical Centre (AMC), Meibergdreef 9, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Several noble gases, although classified as inert substances, exert in different experimental models tissue protection when applied before organ ischaemia as an early or late preconditioning stimulus, after ischaemia as a postconditioning stimulus, or when given in combination before, during and/or after ischaemia. A wide range of organs can be ...
Bourke Jason M JM Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, - - 2014
The nasal region plays a key role in sensory, thermal, and respiratory physiology, but exploring its evolution is hampered by a lack of preservation of soft-tissue structures in extinct vertebrates. As a test case, we investigated members of the "bony-headed" ornithischian dinosaur clade Pachycephalosauridae (particularly Stegoceras validum) because of their ...
de Bever Joshua J School of Computing - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: Minimising treatment time and protecting healthy tissues are conflicting goals that play major roles in making magnetic resonance image-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) therapies clinically practical. We have developed and tested in vivo an adaptive model-predictive controller (AMPC) that reduces treatment time, ensures safety and efficacy, and provides flexibility ...
Labarthe Simon S IMB, University of Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Liberation, Talence 33405, France Carmen, Inria Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, 200 Avenue de la Vieille Tour, Talence 33405, France Electrophysiology and Heart Modeling Institute LIRYC, PTIB-Campus Xavier Arnozan, Avenue du Haut Lévêque, Pessac 33600, France - - 2014
Atrial numerical modelling has generally represented the organ as either a surface or tissue with thickness. While surface models have significant computational advantages over tissue models, they cannot fully capture propagation patterns seen in vivo, such as dissociation of activity between endo- and epicardium. We introduce an intermediate representation, a ...
Mortazavi S Negin - - 2014
This work studies a model for milk transport through lactating human breast ducts, and describes mathematically the mass transfer from alveolar sacs through the mammary ducts to the nipple. In this model both the phenomena of diffusion in the sacs and conventional flow in ducts have been considered. The ensuing ...
Suwelack Stefan S Institute for Anthropomatics and Robotics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Adenauerring 2, Karlsruhe 76131, - - 2014
Soft-tissue deformations can severely degrade the validity of preoperative planning data during computer assisted interventions. Intraoperative imaging such as stereo endoscopic, time-of-flight or, laser range scanner data can be used to compensate these movements. In this context, the intraoperative surface has to be matched to the preoperative model. The shape ...
Morin Kristen - - 2014
Knowledge is limited about fluid flow in tissues containing engineered microvessels, which can be substantially different in topology than native capillary networks. A need exists for a computational model that allows for flow through tissues dense in non-percolating and possibly non-perfusable microvessels to be efficiently evaluated. A finite difference model ...
Paganetti Harald H Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 30 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, - - 2014
Proton therapy treatments are based on a proton RBE (relative biological effectiveness) relative to high-energy photons of 1.1. The use of this generic, spatially invariant RBE within tumors and normal tissues disregards the evidence that proton RBE varies with linear energy transfer (LET), physiological and biological factors, and clinical endpoint.Based ...
Yin Danni D Center for Computational Biology, College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, - - 2014
Many higher plants of economic and biological importance undergo apomixis in which the maternal tissue of the ovule forms a seed, without experiencing meiosis and fertilization. This feature of apomixis has made it difficult to perform linkage mapping which relies on meiotic recombination. Here, we describe a computational model for ...
Rouhani Mohammad - - 2014
This paper presents a fast and flexible curve and surface reconstruction technique based on implicit B-spline. This representation does not require any parameterization and it is locally supported. This fact has been exploited in this paper to propose a reconstruction technique through solving a sparse system of equations. This method ...
Jiang Yugang Y School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai, 200030, - - 2014
Human spine ligaments show a highly non-linear, strain rate dependent biomechanical behavior under tensile tests. A visco-hyperelastic fiber-reinforced constitutive model was accordingly developed for human ligaments, in which the energy density function is decomposed into two parts. The first part represents the elastic strain energy stored in the soft tissue, ...
Casti Paola - - 2014
We hypothesize that quantification of structural similarity or dissimilarity between paired mammographic regions can be effective in detecting asymmetric signs of breast cancer. Bilateral masking procedures are applied for this purpose by using automatically detected anatomical landmarks. Changes in structural information of the extracted regions are investigated using spherical semivariogram ...
Yousefi Azizeh-Mitra AM Department of Chemical, Paper and Biomedical Engineering, Miami University, Oxford, OH, 45056, - - 2014
The repair of osteochondral defects requires a tissue engineering approach that aims at mimicking the physiological properties and structure of two different tissues (cartilage and bone) using specifically-designed scaffold-cell constructs. Biphasic and triphasic approaches utilize two or three different architectures, materials, or composites to produce a multilayered construct. This paper ...
Zhang Lihai L Department of Infrastructure Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 3010, Australia, - - 2014
Recent imaging has revealed that in vivo contact deformations of human knee cartilage under physiological loadings are surprisingly large-typically on the order of 10%, but up to 20 or 30% of tibiofemora cartilage thickness depending on loading conditions. In this paper we develop a biphasic, large deformation, non-linear poroelastic model ...
DuRaine Grayson D GD Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, - - 2014
This review explores scaffold-free methods as an additional paradigm for tissue engineering. Musculoskeletal cartilages-for example articular cartilage, meniscus, temporomandibular joint disc, and intervertebral disc-are characterized by low vascularity and cellularity, and are amenable to scaffold-free tissue engineering approaches. Scaffold-free approaches, particularly the self-assembling process, mimic elements of developmental processes underlying ...
Li Congsheng C China Academy of Telecommunication Research of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Beijing, China; College of Computer and Communication Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, - - 2014
Realistic anatomical modeling is essential in analyzing human exposure to electromagnetic fields. Infants have significant physical and anatomical differences compared with other age groups. However, few realistic infant models are available. In this work, we developed one 12-month-old male whole body model and one 17-month-old male head model from magnetic ...
Argento G G Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, - - 2014
The anisotropic collagen architecture of an engineered cardiovascular tissue has a major impact on its in vivo mechanical performance. This evolving collagen architecture is determined by initial scaffold microstructure and mechanical loading. Here, we developed and validated a theoretical and computational microscale model to quantitatively understand the interplay between scaffold ...
Barsness Katherine A KA 1 Division of Pediatric Surgery, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago , Chicago, - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: Thoracoscopic esophageal atresia (EA)/tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) repair is technically challenging. We have previously reported our experiences with a high-fidelity hybrid model for simulation-based educational instruction in thoracoscopic EA/TEF, including the high cost of the tissue for these models. The purposes of this study were (1) to create a ...
Yazdanpanah Goharrizi Amin A Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto , Toronto , Canada - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: One important challenge in image-guided ablative therapies is the effect of heat diffusion which can cause damage to surrounding organs and limit the ability to achieve a conformal pattern of thermal damage. Furthermore, tissue properties such as perfusion and energy absorption can be dynamic and difficult to measure. ...
de Boer Bouke A BA Department of Anatomy, Embryology and Physiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Insights into the mechanisms of development of the mammalian four-chambered heart are based on biological observations at organ, tissue, cell, and molecular levels, but the full integration of these experimental data awaits a systems biology approach. Such an approach can be employed to formulate and test conceptual models in a ...
Miller Kristin S KS Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, - - 2014
Continued advances in the tissue engineering of vascular grafts have enabled a paradigm shift from the desire to design for adequate suture retention, burst pressure, and thrombo-resistance to the goal of achieving grafts having near native properties, including growth potential. Achieving this far more ambitious outcome will require the identification ...
Lee Albert - - 2014
Non-human primates (NHPs) and humans share major biological mechanisms, functions, and responses due to their close evolutionary relationship and, as such, provide ideal animal models to study human diseases. RNA expression in NHPs provides specific signatures that are informative of disease mechanisms and therapeutic modes of action. Unlike the human ...
Yoon Kyoung-Sik KS a Graduate student, Department of Orthodontics, Seoul National University School of Dentistry, Seoul, - - 2014
Objective: (1) To perform a prospective study using a new set of data to test the validity of a new soft tissue prediction method developed for Class II surgery patients and (2) to propose a better validation method that can be applied to a validation study. Materials and Methods: Subjects ...
Haggard Patrick P Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London. Electronic address: - - 2014
Oral somatosensory awareness refers to the somatiC doi: sensations arising within the mouth, and to the information these sensations provide about the state and structure of the mouth itself, and objects in the mouth. Because the oral tissues have a strong somatosensory innervation, they are the locus of some of ...
Männicke N N Julius Wolff Institute and Berlin-Brandenburg School for Regenerative Therapies, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, - - 2014
To date only single ultrasound parameters were regarded in statistical analyses to characterize osteoarthritic changes in articular cartilage and the potential benefit of using parameter combinations for characterization remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this work was to utilize feature selection and classification of a Mankin subset score (i.e., cartilage ...
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