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Bourke Jason M JM Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, - - 2014
The nasal region plays a key role in sensory, thermal, and respiratory physiology, but exploring its evolution is hampered by a lack of preservation of soft-tissue structures in extinct vertebrates. As a test case, we investigated members of the "bony-headed" ornithischian dinosaur clade Pachycephalosauridae (particularly Stegoceras validum) because of their ...
Argento G G Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, - - 2014
The anisotropic collagen architecture of an engineered cardiovascular tissue has a major impact on its in vivo mechanical performance. This evolving collagen architecture is determined by initial scaffold microstructure and mechanical loading. Here, we developed and validated a theoretical and computational microscale model to quantitatively understand the interplay between scaffold ...
Barsness Katherine A KA 1 Division of Pediatric Surgery, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago , Chicago, - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: Thoracoscopic esophageal atresia (EA)/tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) repair is technically challenging. We have previously reported our experiences with a high-fidelity hybrid model for simulation-based educational instruction in thoracoscopic EA/TEF, including the high cost of the tissue for these models. The purposes of this study were (1) to create a ...
Yazdanpanah Goharrizi Amin A Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto , Toronto , Canada - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: One important challenge in image-guided ablative therapies is the effect of heat diffusion which can cause damage to surrounding organs and limit the ability to achieve a conformal pattern of thermal damage. Furthermore, tissue properties such as perfusion and energy absorption can be dynamic and difficult to measure. ...
de Boer Bouke A BA Department of Anatomy, Embryology and Physiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Insights into the mechanisms of development of the mammalian four-chambered heart are based on biological observations at organ, tissue, cell, and molecular levels, but the full integration of these experimental data awaits a systems biology approach. Such an approach can be employed to formulate and test conceptual models in a ...
Miller Kristin S KS Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, - - 2014
Continued advances in the tissue engineering of vascular grafts have enabled a paradigm shift from the desire to design for adequate suture retention, burst pressure, and thrombo-resistance to the goal of achieving grafts having near native properties, including growth potential. Achieving this far more ambitious outcome will require the identification ...
Lee Albert - - 2014
Non-human primates (NHPs) and humans share major biological mechanisms, functions, and responses due to their close evolutionary relationship and, as such, provide ideal animal models to study human diseases. RNA expression in NHPs provides specific signatures that are informative of disease mechanisms and therapeutic modes of action. Unlike the human ...
Yoon Kyoung-Sik KS a Graduate student, Department of Orthodontics, Seoul National University School of Dentistry, Seoul, - - 2014
Objective: (1) To perform a prospective study using a new set of data to test the validity of a new soft tissue prediction method developed for Class II surgery patients and (2) to propose a better validation method that can be applied to a validation study. Materials and Methods: Subjects ...
Haggard Patrick P Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London. Electronic address: - - 2014
Oral somatosensory awareness refers to the somatiC doi: sensations arising within the mouth, and to the information these sensations provide about the state and structure of the mouth itself, and objects in the mouth. Because the oral tissues have a strong somatosensory innervation, they are the locus of some of ...
- - 2014
On the cover: Arthropods are the most biologically successful animals due to their unsurpassed diversity and adaptability to different Earth environments. For the same reasons, it's hard to obtain and transport fresh or flash frozen samples of arthropod tissues for accurate genome size estimation, leaving a large chunk of this ...
Männicke N N Julius Wolff Institute and Berlin-Brandenburg School for Regenerative Therapies, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, - - 2014
To date only single ultrasound parameters were regarded in statistical analyses to characterize osteoarthritic changes in articular cartilage and the potential benefit of using parameter combinations for characterization remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this work was to utilize feature selection and classification of a Mankin subset score (i.e., cartilage ...
Alibegović Armin A Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Korytkova 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address: - - 2014
The determination of the time of death or the postmortem interval (PMI) is one of the most important and frequently asked questions in forensic medicine. The methods used for PMI determination are based largely on early and late postmortem changes. The determination of the PMI during the late postmortem changes ...
Kossovich Elena L EL Saratov State University, 83, Astrakhanskaya street, Saratov, 410012, Russian Federation, - - 2014
We present a new hybrid molecular dynamics model of chitosan oligomers which is constructed specifically for studying chitosan + carbon nanostructures composites, their structure and mechanical properties. The model is derived for application within the modified molecular mechanics force field AMBER. Method of virtual sites mapping allowed to retain hexagonal ...
Celmar Costa França Tanos T a Laboratory of Molecular Modeling Applied to Chemical and Biological Defense (LMACBD) Military Institute of Engineering , Praça General Tibúrcio 80, 22290-270 - Rio de Janeiro , - - 2014
Abstract In the last decades homology modeling has become a popular tool to access theoretical three-dimensional (3D) structures of molecular targets. So far several 3D models of proteins have been built by this technique and used in a great diversity of structural biology studies. But are those models consistent enough ...
Richardson Wade W Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los - - 2014
The development of new methods for the early diagnosis of cartilage disease could offer significant improvement in patient care. Raman spectroscopy is an emerging biomedical technology with unique potential to recognize disease tissues, though difficulty in obtaining the samples needed to train a diagnostic and excessive signal noise could slow ...
Liu Huaping - - 2014
Robust exemplar extraction from the noisy sample set is one of the most important problems in pattern recognition. In this brief, we propose a novel approach for exemplar extraction through structured sparse learning. The new model accounts for not only the reconstruction capability and the sparsity, but also the diversity ...
Moulton D E DE Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Ammonites are a group of extinct cephalopods that garner tremendous interest over a range of scientific fields and have been a paradigm for biochronology, palaeobiology, and evolutionary theories. Their defining feature is the spiral geometry and ribbing pattern through which palaeontologists infer phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary trends. Here, we develop ...
García-Alcover Irma I Valentia BioPharma, Valencia, - - 2014
Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNAs is an important mechanism to achieve correct cellular function in higher eukaryotes. It is known that a growing number of human genetic diseases involve important splicing defects directly connected to pathologic signs. In myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) it is proposed that several clinical manifestations ...
Chen Jianyu J Institute of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, Private Bag, 11-222, Palmerston North, New Zealand; The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Private Bag, 11-600, Palmerston North, New - - 2014
The mature pigmented spathe of Zantedeschia is characterized by a developmental process, wherein the spathe regreens after anthesis and prior to senescence of the inflorescence. Previous research has shown that spathe regreening involves redifferentiation of chloroplasts and reaccumulation of chlorophyll, but the detailed physiological changes associated with regreening are still ...
Battaglia Santina S Medical Technology Laboratory, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, - - 2014
In its normal lifespan, a knee prosthesis must bear highly demanding loading conditions, going beyond the sole activity of level walking required by ISO standard 14243. We have developed a protocol for in vitro wear simulation of stair climbing on a displacement controlled knee simulator. The flexion/extension angle, intra/extra rotation ...
Drumheller Stephanie K SK Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, The University of Tennessee, 306 EPS Building, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA, - - 2014
Hypotheses of feeding behaviors and community structure are testable with rare direct evidence of trophic interactions in the fossil record (e.g., bite marks). We present evidence of four predation, scavenging, and/or interspecific fighting events involving two large paracrocodylomorphs (='rauisuchians') from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation (∼220-210 Ma). The larger femur preserves ...
Lepage J J Gynaecology Department, Jeanne de Flandre Hospital, CHRU Lille-Lille Nord University, 59000, Lille, France, - - 2014
We created a pregnant woman pelvic model to perform a simulation of delivery to understand the pathophysiology of urogenital prolapse by studying the constraints on the pelvic components (muscles, ligaments, pelvic organs) during childbirth. These simulations will also provide valuable tools to understand and teach obstetrical mechanics. We built a ...
Conconi Michele M Health Sciences and Technologies - Interdepartmental Centre for Industrial Research (HST-ICIR), Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy - - 2014
In the medical world, the term "congruence" is used to describe by visual inspection how the articular surfaces mate each other, evaluating the joint capability to distribute an applied load from a purely geometrical perspective. Congruence is commonly employed for assessing articular physiology and for the comparison between normal and ...
Broeckx Valérie V Functional Genomics and Proteomics, KU Leuven, Naamsestraat 59, BE-3000, Leuven, - - 2014
Tissue is the most relevant biological material to gather insights in disease mechanisms by means of omics technologies. However, fresh frozen tissue, that is generally regarded as the best imaginable source for such studies, is often not available. In case it is available, the different ways of storage (e.g. -20°C, ...
Zhang Qinghui Q Department of Radiation Oncology University of Nebraska Medical center, Omaha, Nebraska - - 2014
Objectives: A new dosimetric variable, dose dropping speed (DDS), was proposed and used to evaluate normal tissue sparing among stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) plans with different prescription isodose lines. Methods: Forty plans were generated for 8 intracranial SRS cases, prescribing to isodose levels (IDLs) ranging from 50% to 90% in 10% ...
Poynton Clare - - 2014
There is increasing evidence that iron deposition occurs in specific regions of the brain in normal aging and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Alzheimer's disease. Iron deposition changes the magnetic susceptibility of tissue, which alters the MR signal phase, and allows estimation of susceptibility differences using quantitative susceptibility ...
Chen Wen-Ming WM Department of Mechanical Engineering, Melbourne School of Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Material properties of the plantar soft tissue have not been well quantified in vivo (i.e., from life subjects) nor for areas other than the heel pad. This study explored an in vivo investigation of the plantar soft tissue material behavior under the metatarsal head (MTH). We used a novel device ...
Szczesny Spencer E SE Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, 240 Skirkanich Hall, 210 South 33rd St, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Despite current knowledge of tendon structure, the fundamental deformation mechanisms underlying tendon mechanics and failure are unknown. We recently showed that a shear lag model, which explicitly assumed plastic interfibrillar load transfer between discontinuous fibrils, could explain the multiscale fascicle mechanics, suggesting that fascicle yielding is due to plastic deformation ...
Simon Carl G CG Jr Biosystems and Biomaterials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, - - 2014
The "Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds" was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN, and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and ...
Pavan Piero G PG Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Centre of Mechanics of Biological Materials, University of Padova, Padova, Italy - - 2014
This work aims to present a constitutive model suitable to interpret the biomechanical response of human pericardial tissues. The model is consistent with the need of describing large strains, anisotropy, almost incompressibility, and time-dependent effects. Attention is given to human pericardial tissue because of the increased interest in its application ...
Shen Jie - - 2014
In this paper, we utilize structured learning to simultaneously address two intertwined problems: human pose estimation (HPE) and garment attribute classification (GAC), which are valuable for a variety of computer vision and multimedia applications. Unlike previous works that usually handle the two problems separately, our approach aims to produce a ...
Conway C C Biomechanics Research Centre (BMEC), Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering and Informatics, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland, - - 2014
A thorough understanding of the diseased tissue state is necessary for the successful treatment of a blocked arterial vessel using stent angioplasty. The constitutive representation of atherosclerotic tissue is of great interest to researchers and engineers using computational models to analyse stents, as it is this in silico environment that ...
Bosch Thomas C G TC Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, - - 2014
Ecological developmental biology (eco-devo) explores the mechanistic relationships between the processes of individual development and environmental factors. Recent studies imply that some of these relationships have deep evolutionary origins, and may even pre-date the divergences of the simplest extant animals, including cnidarians and sponges. Development of these early diverging metazoans ...
Turiak Lilla - - 2014
Extracellular matrices comprise glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, and proteoglycans that order the environment through which cells receive signals and communicate. Proteomic and glycomic molecular signatures from tissue surfaces can add diagnostic power to the immunohistochemistry workflows. Acquired in a spatially resolved manner, such proteomic and glycomic information can help characterize disease processes ...
Joshi Aniket D AD Merck, West Point, PA, United - - 2014
Decreased glutamatergic neurotransmission is hypothesized to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Inhibition of glycine transporter type-1 (GlyT1) reuptake is expected to increase the glutamatergic neurotransmission and may serve as treatment for cognitive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In this paper, we present human data from a novel GlyT1 ...
Luboz V V UJF-Grenoble1/CNRS/TIMC-IMAG UMR 5525, Grenoble, 38041, France, - - 2014
Biomechanical modeling of the facial soft tissue behavior is needed in aesthetic or maxillo-facial surgeries where the simulation of the bone displacements cannot accurately predict the visible outcome on the patient's face. Because these tissues have different nature and elastic properties across the face, depending on their thickness, and their ...
Filipe H A L - - 2014
One of the great challenges in pharmacokinetics is to find a means to optimize the transport across cell barriers. In this work, permeation across a cell monolayer, such as the tight endothelia in the Blood Brain Barrier, was modeled using a homologous series of amphipatic molecules, NBD-labeled alkyl chain amphiphiles, ...
Herrera Claudia - - 2014
A novel direct D-bar reconstruction algorithm is presented for reconstructing a complex conductivity distribution from 2-D EIT data. The method is applied to simulated data and archival human chest data. Permittivity reconstructions with the aforementioned method and conductivity reconstructions with the D-bar method based on [22] depicting ventilation and perfusion ...
Reingruber Jürgen J Group of Computational Biology and Applied Mathematics, Institute of Biology (IBENS), CNRS INSERM 1024, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 46 rue d'Ulm, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
Morphogenesis and axonal targeting are key processes during development that depend on complex interactions at molecular, cellular and tissue level. Mathematical modeling is essential to bridge this multi-scale gap in order to understand how the emergence of large structures is controlled at molecular level by interactions between various signaling pathways. ...
Cruz G D GD Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, - - 2014
Understanding the mechanisms by which nutritional and pharmaceutical factors can manipulate adipose tissue growth and development in production animals has direct and indirect effects in the profitability of an enterprise. Adipocyte cellularity (number and size) is a key biological response that is commonly measured in animal science research. The variability ...
Pence Jacquelyn C JC Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, - - 2014
Strategies to integrate instructive biomolecular signals into a biomaterial are becoming increasingly complex and bioinspired. While a large majority of reports still use repeated treatments with soluble factors, this approach can be prohibitively costly and difficult to translate in vivo for applications where spatial control over signal presentation is necessary. ...
Simon D D DD Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, - - 2014
Tissue equivalents represent excellent model systems for elucidating principles of mechanobiology as well as for exploring methods to improve the functionality of tissue engineered constructs. The simplest tissue equivalent is the free-floating fibroblast-populated collagen lattice. Although introduced over 30 years ago, the associated mechanics of the cell-mediated compaction of this lattice ...
Tsartsalis Stergios - - 2014
AbstractDefluorination of [18F]fallypride and accumulation of 18F in skull and glands leads to the contamination of brain structures with spillover activity due to partial volume effects, leading to considerable errors in binding potential estimations. Here we propose a modification of the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) to take into account ...
Fontanella Chiara Giulia CG Centre for Mechanics of Biological Materials, University of Padova, Padova, Italy - - 2014
The aim of this work is to provide a numerical approach for the investigation of the mechanical behaviour of the forefoot soft tissues. The development of reliable numerical models of biological structures requires the definition of constitutive formulations that actually interpret the mechanical response of the constituent biological tissues and ...
Escobedo Fernando A FA School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14953, USA. - - 2014
The role of entropic interactions, often subtle and sometimes crucial, on the structure and properties of soft matter has a well-recognized place in the classic and modern scientific literature. However, the lessons learned from many of those studies do not always form part of the standard arsenal of strategies that ...
Rabilloud Thierry T CNRS UMR 5249, Laboratory of Chemistry and Biology of Metals, Grenoble, France; Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Laboratory of Chemistry and Biology of Metals, Grenoble, France; CEA Grenoble, iRTSV/CBM, Laboratory of Chemistry and Biology of Metals, Grenoble, - - 2014
Toxicoproteomics can be defined as the application of proteomic approaches to the understanding of toxicology problems, and this review deals with the various types of applications that have been described in the literature. Toxicoproteomics has been applied to very different classes of toxicants, from drugs and natural products to metals, ...
Oshio Koichi K Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of - - 2014
Purpose: Although many models have been proposed to interpret non-Gaussian diffusion MRI data in biological tissues, it is often difficult to see the correlation between the MRI data and the histological changes in the tissue. Among these models, so called statistical models, which assume the diffusion coefficient D is distributed ...
Rockson Stanley G SG Allan and Tina Neill Professor of Lymphatic Research and Medicine; Stanford Center for Lymphatic and Venous Disorders, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305. Electronic address: - - 2014
Lymphangiomatosis is an uncommon proliferative disorder of lymphatic vasculature whose etiology remains poorly understood. The lymphangiomatosis spectrum encompasses a remarkable heterogeneity in its potential presentation, including micro-and macrocystic isolated lymphatic malformations, thoracic and intraabdominal diffuse lymphangiomatosis, and osseous and soft-tissue presentations known as Gorham-Stout disease. Recent therapeutic advances are empirical ...
Heaps Sarah E - - 2014
Abstract In molecular phylogenetics, standard models of sequence evolution generally assume that sequence composition remains constant over evolutionary time. However, this assumption is violated in many datasets which show substantial heterogeneity in sequence composition across taxa. We propose a model which allows compositional heterogeneity across branches, and formulate the model ...
Arregui Lucia L L Arregui, Department of Biology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain - - 2014
Spermatogenesis is a dynamic and complex process that involves endocrine and testicular factors. During xenotransplantation of testicular tissue fragments into immunodecifient mouse mice a functional communication between host brain and donor testis is established. This interaction allows for the progression of a normal spermatogenesis and recovery of fertilization-competent spermatozoa from ...
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