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Manzano Sara S Group of Structural Mechanics and Materials Modelling (GEMM), Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Spain Mechanical Engineering Department, School of Engineering and Architecture (EINA), University of Zaragoza, Spain Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), - - 2015
In healthy cartilage, mechano-electrochemical phenomena act together to maintain tissue homeostasis. Osteoarthritis (OA) and degenerative diseases disrupt this biological equilibrium by causing structural deterioration and subsequent dysfunction of the tissue. Swelling and ion flux alteration as well as abnormal ion distribution are proposed as primary indicators of tissue degradation. In ...
Smadbeck Patrick P Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, 253 Amundson Hall, 421 Washington Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455-0531A, - - 2015
With inexpensive DNA synthesis technologies, we can now construct biological systems by quickly piecing together DNA sequences. Synthetic biology is the promising discipline that focuses on the construction of these new biological systems. Synthetic biology is an engineering discipline, and as such, it can benefit from mathematical modeling. This chapter ...
Storelvmo T T Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, 210 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511, USA - - 2014
Climate engineering, the intentional alteration of Earth's climate, is a multifaceted and controversial topic. Numerous climate engineering mechanisms (CEMs) have been proposed, and the efficacies and potential undesired consequences of some of them have been studied in the safe environments of numerical models. Here, we present a global modelling study ...
Jabbar Abdul A Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, VIC, - - 2014
Members of the genus Crassicauda (Nematoda: Spirurida) are parasites of the body tissues of whales and dolphins. Owing to the large size of worms and difficulties in the recovery of entire nematodes from the tissues of hosts, limited information is available on morphological descriptions of both male and female worms. ...
Skardal Aleksander A Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157, USA, - - 2014
Bioprinting has emerged in recent years as an attractive method for creating 3-D tissues and organs in the laboratory, and therefore is a promising technology in a number of regenerative medicine applications. It has the potential to (i) create fully functional replacements for damaged tissues in patients, and (ii) rapidly ...
Spade Daniel J DJ Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode - - 2014
Many diseases that manifest throughout the lifetime are influenced by factors affecting fetal development. Fetal exposure to xenobiotics, in particular, may influence the development of adult diseases. Established animal models provide systems for characterizing both developmental biology and developmental toxicology. However, animal model systems do not allow researchers to assess ...
Frauziols Fanny - - 2014
Goal: In the present study, the biomechanical response of soft tissues from the fascia cruris to the skin is studied in the human leg under elastic compression. Methods: The distribution of elastic moduli in these tissues is measured for a volunteer at inactive and active muscle states using transient ultrasound ...
Spratley E M EM Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Orthopaedic Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, P.O. Box 843067, Richmond, VA, 23284-3067, - - 2014
A cohort of adult acquired flatfoot deformity rigid-body models was developed to investigate the effects of isolated tendon transfer with successive levels of medializing calcaneal osteotomy (MCO). Following IRB approval, six diagnosed flatfoot sufferers were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their scans used to derive patient-specific models. Single-leg ...
Zhang Bing B Complex and Intelligent Systems Centre, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University Science and Technology , Shanghai , China - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the target tissue necrosis volume and the target tissue size during the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedure. The target tissues with four different sizes (dxy = 20, 25, 30 and 35 mm) were modelled using a two-compartment radiofrequency ablation model. Different ...
Lee Yun-Sik YS Postgraduate student, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, - - 2014
The use of bimaxillary surgeries to treat Class III malocclusions makes the results of the surgeries more complicated to estimate accurately. Therefore, our objective was to develop an accurate soft-tissue prediction model that can be universally applied to Class III surgical-orthodontic patients regardless of the type of surgical correction: maxillary ...
Fedchenko Nickolay - - 2014
BackgroundImmunohistochemistry (IHC) is a well-established, widely accepted method in both clinical and experimental parts of medical science. It allows receiving valuable information about any process in any tissue, and especially in bone. Each year the amount of data, received by IHC, grows in geometric progression. But the lack of standardization, ...
Polzer S S Institute of Solid Mechanics, Mechatronics and Biomechanics, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic. Electronic address: - - 2014
Structure-based constitutive models might help exploring mechanisms by which arterial wall histology is linked to wall mechanics. This study aims at validating a recently proposed structure-based constitutive model. Specifically, the models ability to predict mechanical biaxial response of porcine aortic tissue with predefined collagen structure was tested. Histological slices from ...
Murdock Duncan - - 2014
BackgroundFossil lobopodians, including animals proposed to have close affinity to modern onychophorans, are crucial to understanding the evolution of the panarthropod body plan and the phylum-level relationships between the ecdysozoan groups. Unfortunately, the key features of their anatomy are un-mineralized and subject to biases introduced during death, decay and preservation, ...
Salinas Cristian A CA 1] Imanova, Centre for Imaging Sciences, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK [2] Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania, - - 2014
Reference tissue models have gained significant traction over the last two decades as the methods of choice for the quantification of brain positron emission tomography data because they balance quantitative accuracy with less invasive procedures. The principal advantage is the elimination of the need to perform arterial cannulation of the ...
Oberortner Ernst - - 2014
miniEugene provides computational support for solving combinatorial design problems, enabling users to specify and enumerate designs for novel biological systems based on sets of biological constraints. This technical note presents a brief tutorial for biologists and software engineers in the field of synthetic biology on how to use miniEugene. After ...
Meffin Hamish H NeuroEngineering Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia. NICTA Victoria Research Laboratory, Parkville, VIC 3010, - - 2014
Objective. A common approach in modelling extracellular electrical stimulation is to represent neural tissue by a volume conductor when calculating the activating function as the driving term in a cable equation for the membrane potential. This approach ignores the cellular composition of tissue, including the neurites and their combined effect ...
Tahayori Bahman B NeuroEngineering Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, - - 2014
Objective. The objective of this paper is to present a concrete application of the cellular composite model for calculating the membrane potential, described in an accompanying paper. Approach. A composite model that is used to determine the membrane potential for both longitudinal and transverse modes of stimulation is demonstrated. Main ...
Liu Yifei Y Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, - - 2014
Changes in the viscoelastic parameters of soft biological tissues often correlate with progression of disease, trauma or injury, and response to treatment. Identifying the most appropriate viscoelastic model, then estimating and monitoring the corresponding parameters of that model can improve insight into the underlying tissue structural changes. MR Elastography (MRE) ...
Buganza Tepole A A a Department of Mechanical Engineering , Stanford University , Stanford , CA 94305 , - - 2014
Wound healing is a synchronized cascade of chemical, biological, and mechanical phenomena, which act in concert to restore the damaged tissue. An imbalance between these events can induce painful scarring. Despite intense efforts to decipher the mechanisms of wound healing, the role of mechanics remains poorly understood. Here, we establish ...
Hopkins Amy M AM Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University Science & Technology Center, 4 Colby Street, Medford, MA 02155, - - 2014
There are currently more than 600 diseases characterized as affecting the central nervous system (CNS) which inflict neural damage. Unfortunately, few of these conditions have effective treatments available. Although significant efforts have been put into developing new therapeutics, drugs which were promising in the developmental phase have high attrition rates ...
De Napoli M M INFN-Sezione di Catania, 64, Via S. Sofia, I-95123 Catania, - - 2014
When a carbon beam interacts with human tissues, many secondary fragments are produced into the tumor region and the surrounding healthy tissues. Therefore, in hadrontherapy precise dose calculations require Monte Carlo tools equipped with complex nuclear reaction models. To get realistic predictions, however, simulation codes must be validated against experimental ...
Makedonska Jana J Department of Anthropology, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY, - - 2014
In complex organisms, suites of non-random, highly intercorrelated phenotypic traits, organized according to their developmental history and forming semi-autonomous units (i.e. modules), have the potential to impose constraints on morphological diversification or to improve evolvability. Because of its structural, developmental and functional complexity, the cranium is arguably one of the ...
Hui Edward S ES Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. Electronic address: - - 2014
A computational framework is presented for relating the kurtosis tensor for water diffusion in brain to tissue models of brain microstructure. The tissue models are assumed to be comprised of non-exchanging compartments that may be associated with various microstructural spaces separated by cell membranes. Within each compartment the water diffusion ...
Jutila Aaron A AA Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Montana State University, 220 Roberts Hall, Bozeman, MT, 59718, - - 2014
In articular cartilage, chondrocytes reside within a gel-like pericellular matrix (PCM). This matrix provides a mechanical link through which joint loads are transmitted to chondrocytes. The stiffness of the PCM decreases in the most common degenerative joint disease, osteoarthritis. To develop a system for modeling the stiffness of both the ...
Stephan Carl N CN School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4072, Australia, - - 2014
Facial soft tissue thickness means have long been used as a proxy to estimate the soft tissue envelope, over the skull, in craniofacial identification. However, estimation errors of these statistics are not well understood, making casework selection of the best performing estimation models impossible and overarching method accuracies controversial. To ...
Peng Bo B Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, - - 2014
Computer simulations have been widely used to validate and evaluate the power of statistical methods for genetic epidemiological studies. Although a large number of simulation methods and software packages have been developed for genome-wide association studies, methodological and bioinformatics challenges have limited their applications in simulating datasets for whole-genome and ...
Meseguer Andrea S AS 1- Department of Biodiversity and Conservation, Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Plaza de Murillo 2, 28014, Madrid, Spain; 2- The Center for Biology and Management of Populations (CBGP), Avenue du Campus Agropolis, 34980 Montferrier-sur-Lez, France; asanchezmeseguer@gmail.com - - 2014
In disciplines such as macroevolution that are not amenable to experimentation, scientists usually rely on current observations to test hypotheses about historical events, assuming that "the present is the key to the past". Biogeographers, for example, used this assumption to reconstruct ancestral ranges from the present distribution of extant species. ...
Pescina Silvia S Interdepartmental Center Biopharmanet-TEC, University of Parma, Parma, 43124, - - 2014
In this paper, an ex vivo model for the study of the transcorneal permeation of drugs, based on porcine tissues, was evaluated. The setup is characterized by ease of realization, absence of O2 and CO2 bubbling and low cost; additionally, the large availability of porcine tissue permits a high throughput. ...
Erdmann Włodzimierz S WS J. Sniadecki University School of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland, EU. Electronic address: - - 2014
There are several methods for obtaining location of the centre of mass of the whole body. They are based on cadaver data, using volume and density of body parts, using radiation and image techniques. Some researchers treated the trunk as a one part only, while others divided the trunk into ...
May Jason T JT United States Geological Survey, California Water Science Center, Sacramento, CA, USA, - - 2015
We used boosted regression trees (BRT) to model stream biological condition as measured by benthic macroinvertebrate taxonomic completeness, the ratio of observed to expected (O/E) taxa. Models were developed with and without exclusion of rare taxa at a site. BRT models are robust, requiring few assumptions compared with traditional modeling ...
Kucukgul Can C Industrial and Manufacturing System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Istanbul, 34956, - - 2014
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of deaths throughout the world. Vascular diseases are mostly treated with autografts and blood vessel transplantations. However, traditional grafting methods have several problems including lack of suitable harvest sites, additional surgical costs for harvesting procedure, pain, infection, lack of donors and even no substitutes ...
Wang Martha O MO Fischell Department of Bioengineering, 3238 Jeong H. Kim Engineering Building, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, - - 2014
There is an unmet need for a consistent set of tools for the evaluation of 3D-printed constructs. A toolbox developed to design, characterize, and evaluate 3D-printed poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds is proposed for vascularized engineered tissues. This toolbox combines modular design and non-destructive fabricated design evaluation, evaluates biocompatibility and mechanical properties, ...
Perrin Christophe C Laboratoire Central d'Anatomie Pathologique, Hôpital L.Pasteur, University of Nice, - - 2014
The nail mesenchyme, as ligamentous connective tissue, is classically described as a single compartment. Some authors have even suggested the concept of the nail as a musculoskeletal appendage. Recent studies conducted on supernumerary digits surgically removed for polydactily or developing nail organ have introduced into the literature a new concept: ...
Fatone Stefania S Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA - - 2014
Misaligning the mechanical axes of Ankle-Foot Orthoses with the ankle axis may lead to tissue damage, reduced gait efficiency, and mechanical wear on the orthosis. Previous models developed to describe the consequences of joint misalignments have only been applied to the sagittal plane. In this study, a previously developed three-dimensional ...
Beck Caroline W CW Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New - - 2014
The anatomical tailbud is a defining feature of all embryonic chordates, including vertebrates that do not end up with a morphological tail. Due to its seamless continuity with trunk tissues, the tailbud is often overlooked as a mere extension of the body axis; however, the formation of the tail from ...
Launay G G UMR 5086 CNRS - Université Lyon 1, 69367 Lyon Cedex 07, - - 2014
MatrixDB (http://matrixdb.ibcp.fr) is a freely available database focused on interactions established by extracellular proteins and polysaccharides. It is an active member of the International Molecular Exchange (IMEx) consortium and has adopted the PSI-MI standards for annotating and exchanging interaction data, either at the MIMIx or IMEx level. MatrixDB content has ...
Kleftogiannis Dimitrios D Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering Division (CEMSE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi - - 2014
Transcription regulation in multicellular eukaryotes is orchestrated by a number of DNA functional elements located at gene regulatory regions. Some regulatory regions (e.g. enhancers) are located far away from the gene they affect. Identification of distal regulatory elements is a challenge for the bioinformatics research. Although existing methodologies increased the ...
Yang X X Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, - - 2014
A multi-compartment physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to describe the disposition of cyadox (CYX) and its metabolite quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA) after a single oral administration was developed in rats (200 mg/kg b.w. of CYX). Considering interspecies differences in physiology and physiochemistry, the model efficiency was validated by pharmacokinetic data set in ...
Balaban Jordan P JP Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode - - 2014
Sharks have cartilaginous elements that support the jaws and are subjected to variable loads. The aim of this study was to understand how these elements, the hyomandibulae, respond to compressive loads, and to describe the structural level mechanical properties of mineralized cartilage. Mechanical stiffness and effective Poisson's ratio of the ...
Cheng Ching-Min CM Department of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, - - 2015
This paper outlines the human error identification (HEI) techniques that currently exist to assess latent human errors. Many formal error identification techniques have existed for years, but few have been validated to cover latent human error analysis in different domains. This study considers many possible error modes and influential factors, ...
Walmsley John J Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
Variability in the action potential of isolated myocytes and tissue samples is observed in experimental studies. Variability is manifested as both differences in the action potential (AP) morphology between cells (extrinsic variability), and also 'intrinsic' or beat-to-beat variability of repolarization (BVR) in the AP duration of each cell. We studied ...
Smit Kirsten F KF Department of Anaesthesiology, Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anaesthesiology (L.E.I.C.A.), Academic Medical Centre (AMC), Meibergdreef 9, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Several noble gases, although classified as inert substances, exert in different experimental models tissue protection when applied before organ ischaemia as an early or late preconditioning stimulus, after ischaemia as a postconditioning stimulus, or when given in combination before, during and/or after ischaemia. A wide range of organs can be ...
Bourke Jason M JM Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, - - 2014
The nasal region plays a key role in sensory, thermal, and respiratory physiology, but exploring its evolution is hampered by a lack of preservation of soft-tissue structures in extinct vertebrates. As a test case, we investigated members of the "bony-headed" ornithischian dinosaur clade Pachycephalosauridae (particularly Stegoceras validum) because of their ...
de Bever Joshua J School of Computing - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: Minimising treatment time and protecting healthy tissues are conflicting goals that play major roles in making magnetic resonance image-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) therapies clinically practical. We have developed and tested in vivo an adaptive model-predictive controller (AMPC) that reduces treatment time, ensures safety and efficacy, and provides flexibility ...
Labarthe Simon S IMB, University of Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Liberation, Talence 33405, France Carmen, Inria Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, 200 Avenue de la Vieille Tour, Talence 33405, France Electrophysiology and Heart Modeling Institute LIRYC, PTIB-Campus Xavier Arnozan, Avenue du Haut Lévêque, Pessac 33600, France - - 2014
Atrial numerical modelling has generally represented the organ as either a surface or tissue with thickness. While surface models have significant computational advantages over tissue models, they cannot fully capture propagation patterns seen in vivo, such as dissociation of activity between endo- and epicardium. We introduce an intermediate representation, a ...
Mortazavi S Negin - - 2014
This work studies a model for milk transport through lactating human breast ducts, and describes mathematically the mass transfer from alveolar sacs through the mammary ducts to the nipple. In this model both the phenomena of diffusion in the sacs and conventional flow in ducts have been considered. The ensuing ...
Suwelack Stefan S Institute for Anthropomatics and Robotics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Adenauerring 2, Karlsruhe 76131, - - 2014
Soft-tissue deformations can severely degrade the validity of preoperative planning data during computer assisted interventions. Intraoperative imaging such as stereo endoscopic, time-of-flight or, laser range scanner data can be used to compensate these movements. In this context, the intraoperative surface has to be matched to the preoperative model. The shape ...
Morin Kristen - - 2014
Knowledge is limited about fluid flow in tissues containing engineered microvessels, which can be substantially different in topology than native capillary networks. A need exists for a computational model that allows for flow through tissues dense in non-percolating and possibly non-perfusable microvessels to be efficiently evaluated. A finite difference model ...
Marra Marco A - - 2014
Musculoskeletal (MS) models should be able to integrate the patient-specific MS architecture and undergo thorough validation prior to their introduction into the clinical practice. We present a streamlined methodology to develop subject-specific models able to simultaneously predict body-level dynamics, muscle forces, ligament forces, knee joint contact forces and secondary knee ...
Ishimoto Yukitaka Y Laboratory for Developmental Morphogeometry, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe 650-0047, - - 2014
In order to describe two-dimensionally packed cells in epithelial tissues both mathematically and physically, there have been developed several sorts of geometrical models, such as the vertex model, the finite element model, the cell-centered model, and the cellular Potts model. So far, in any case, pressures have not neatly been ...
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